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Antony Orth, Martin Ploschner, Ivan S Maksymov, Brant C Gibson
Compact microendoscopes use multicore optical fibers (MOFs) to visualize hard-to-reach regions of the body. These devices typically have a large numerical aperture (NA) and are fixed-focus, leading to blurry images from a shallow depth of field with little focus control. In this work, we demonstrate a method to digitally adjust the collection aperture and therefore extend the depth of field of lensless MOF imaging probes. We show that the depth of field can be more than doubled for certain spatial frequencies, and observe a resolution enhancement of up to 78% at a distance of 50μm from the MOF facet...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Jonathan S Lefcheck, Robert J Orth, William C Dennison, David J Wilcox, Rebecca R Murphy, Jennifer Keisman, Cassie Gurbisz, Michael Hannam, J Brooke Landry, Kenneth A Moore, Christopher J Patrick, Jeremy Testa, Donald E Weller, Richard A Batiuk
Humans strongly impact the dynamics of coastal systems, yet surprisingly few studies mechanistically link management of anthropogenic stressors and successful restoration of nearshore habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Such examples are sorely needed to ensure the success of ecosystem restoration efforts worldwide. Here, we unite 30 consecutive years of watershed modeling, biogeochemical data, and comprehensive aerial surveys of Chesapeake Bay, United States to quantify the cascading effects of anthropogenic impacts on submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV), an ecologically and economically valuable habitat...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mercedes Rubio, Mariona Bustamante, Carles Hernandez-Ferrer, Dietmar Fernandez-Orth, Lorena Pantano, Yaris Sarria, Maria Piqué-Borras, Kilian Vellve, Silvia Agramunt, Ramon Carreras, Xavier Estivill, Juan R Gonzalez, Alfredo Mayor
Circulating small RNAs, including miRNAs but also isomiRs and other RNA species, have the potential to be used as non-invasive biomarkers for communicable and non-communicable diseases. This study aims to characterize and compare small RNA profiles in human biofluids. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from plasma and breast milk samples from 15 healthy postpartum mothers. Small RNA libraries were prepared with the NEBNext® small RNA library preparation kit and sequenced in an Illumina HiSeq2000 platform...
2018: PloS One
L C Shi, J J Dai, H R Wang, J L Wang, L Q Miao, L R Yang
Objective: To investigate the current status of job burnout in in-service sailors, and to provide a basis for the development of intervention measures for job burnout in sailors. Methods: From September 2015 to May 2016, stratified cluster random sampling was used to select 6 172 in-service sailors from 13 provinces and cities as research subjects. General demographic data including age, education background, and household registration and occupational characteristics such as job position, navigating zone, and nature of employment were collected...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Lucas E Orth, Keliana L O'Mara
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
A Orth, E R Wilson, J G Thompson, B C Gibson
Mobile phone microscopes are a natural platform for point-of-care imaging, but current solutions require an externally powered illumination source, thereby adding bulk and cost. We present a mobile phone microscope that uses the internal flash or sunlight as the illumination source, thereby reducing complexity whilst maintaining functionality and performance. The microscope is capable of both brightfield and darkfield imaging modes, enabling microscopic visualisation of samples ranging from plant to mammalian cells...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcia P Hoeltgebaum, Tiago Montagna, Ana Paula Lando, Catarina Puttkammer, Afonso Inácio Orth, Miguel P Guerra, Maurício S Dos Reis
Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Michaela C Baldauf, Martin F Orth, Marlene Dallmayer, Aruna Marchetto, Julia S Gerke, Rebeca Alba Rubio, Merve M Kiran, Julian Musa, Maximilian M L Knott, Shunya Ohmura, Jing Li, Nusret Akpolat, Ayse N Akatli, Özlem Özen, Uta Dirksen, Wolfgang Hartmann, Enrique de Alava, Daniel Baumhoer, Giuseppina Sannino, Thomas Kirchner, Thomas G P Grünewald
Ewing sarcoma is an undifferentiated small-round-cell sarcoma. Although molecular detection of pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusions such as EWSR1-FLI1 enables definitive diagnosis, substantial confusion can arise if molecular diagnostics are unavailable. Diagnosis based on the conventional immunohistochemical marker CD99 is unreliable due to its abundant expression in morphological mimics. To identify novel diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for Ewing sarcoma, we performed comparative expression analyses in 768 tumors representing 21 entities including Ewing-like sarcomas, which confirmed that CIC-DUX4- , BCOR-CCNB3- , EWSR1-NFATc2- , and EWSR1-ETS -translocated sarcomas are distinct entities, and revealed that ATP1A1 , BCL11B , and GLG1 constitute specific markers for Ewing sarcoma...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Amanda K Casey, Andrew T Moehlman, Junmei Zhang, Kelly A Servage, Helmut Krämer, Kim Orth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R Brown, P Akimau, J Hsuan, T Williams
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current standards of Fellowship training in Foot and Ankle Surgery Fellowship in the UK. METHODS: Thirteen UK post-FRCS (Tr&Orth) or equivalent Fellows completed a questionnaire detailing their outpatient, surgical, teaching and research experience, along with documenting their supervision and terms of employment. RESULTS: A Fellow attended a mean of 2.5 (0.5-4) clinics and 3.84 (2-7) theatre sessions per week...
June 10, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Petra Decristoforo, Josef Kaltseis, Andreas Fritz, Michael Edlinger, Wilfried Posch, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Dorothea Orth-Höller
OBJECTIVES: Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. METHODS: In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
J Herman Kan, Robert C Orth, Terry A Yen, Erica K Schallert, Wei Zhang, Lane F Donnelly
PURPOSE: The proliferation of pediatric urgent care centers has increased the need for diagnostic imaging support, but the impact of employing radiology technologists at these centers is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic impact and quality at urgent care centers with and without radiology technologists. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted comparing 235 radiographic examinations (study) performed without and 83 examinations (control) performed with a radiology technologist at the authors' pediatric urgent care centers...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Jessie Fernandez, Kim Orth
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice in the world. Infections caused by this recalcitrant pathogen lead to the annual destruction of approximately 10-30% of the rice harvested globally. The fungus undergoes extensive developmental changes to be able to break into plant cells, build elaborate infection structures, and proliferate inside host cells without causing visible disease symptoms. From a molecular standpoint, we are still in the infancy of understanding how M...
January 23, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Elias P Casula, Isabella M S Mayer, Mahalekshmi Desikan, Sarah J Tabrizi, John C Rothwell, Michael Orth
BACKGROUND: In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
A Delafontaine, P Fourcade, J L Honeine, S Ditcharles, E Yiou
Balance control and whole-body progression during gait initiation (GI) involve knee-joint mobility. Single knee-joint hypomobility often occurs with aging, orthopedics or neurological conditions. The goal of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the CNS to adapt GI organization to single knee-joint hypomobility induced by the wear of an orthosis. Twenty-seven healthy adults performed a GI series on a force-plate in the following conditions: without orthosis ("control"), with knee orthosis over the swing leg ("orth-swing") and with the orthosis over the contralateral stance leg ("orth-stance")...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicole J De Nisco, Giomar Rivera-Cancel, Kim Orth
Enteric pathogens employ sophisticated strategies to colonize and infect mammalian hosts. Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter jejuni, are among the leading causes of gastrointestinal tract infections worldwide. The virulence strategies of many of these Gram-negative pathogens rely on type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which are macromolecular syringes that translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. However, synthesis of T3SS proteins comes at a cost to the bacterium in terms of growth rate and fitness, both in the environment and within the host...
January 16, 2018: MBio
Kristina Orth-Gomér, Hans-Christian Deter, Anna-Sophia Grün, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen, Christian Albus, Alexandra Bosbach, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Joram Ronel, Wolfgang Söllner, Martina de Zwaan, Katja Petrowski, Cora Weber
Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with an increased coronary risk in Western countries. All stress experiences are more pronounced in low SES patients with stress emanating from problems with family, job, or money. The SPIRR-CAD study offered an excellent opportunity to examine these risk factors in German speaking mildly and medium depressed patients. In the SPIRR CAD study, a German multi centre randomized clinical trial of 450 male and 120 female coronary patients, we examined the standard and psychosocial risk factor profiles in relation to SES, as assessed by educational level...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Sarah J Brockmann, Axel Freischmidt, Patrick Oeckl, Kathrin Müller, Srinivas K Ponna, Anika M Helferich, Christoph Paone, Jörg Reinders, Kerstin Kojer, Michael Orth, Manu Jokela, Mari Auranen, Bjarne Udd, Andreas Hermann, Karin M Danzer, Peter Lichtner, Paul Walther, Albert C Ludolph, Peter M Andersen, Markus Otto, Petri Kursula, Steffen Just, Jochen H Weishaupt
Mutations in the mitochondrially located protein CHCHD10 cause motoneuron disease by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigate the mutations p.R15L and p.G66V in comparison to wild-type CHCHD10 and the non-pathogenic variant p.P34S in vitro, in patient cells as well as in the vertebrate in vivo model zebrafish. We demonstrate a reduction of CHCHD10 protein levels in p.R15L and p.G66V mutant patient cells to approximately 50%. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that expression of CHCHD10 p.R15L, but not of CHCHD10 p...
January 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Matthias Orth, Maria Averina, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou, Gilbert Faure, Alexander Haushofer, Vesna Kusec, Augusto Machado, Siraj A Misbah, Wytze Oosterhuis, Kari Pulkki, Patrick J Twomey, Eberhard Wieland
The role of clinical pathologists or laboratory-based physicians is being challenged on several fronts-exponential advances in technology, increasing patient autonomy exercised in the right to directly request tests and the use of non-medical specialists as substitutes. In response, clinical pathologists have focused their energies on the pre-analytical and postanalytical phases of Laboratory Medicine thus emphasising their essential role in individualised medical interpretation of complex laboratory results...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Shane R Horman, Jeremy To, John Lamb, Jocelyn H Zoll, Nicole Leonetti, Buu Tu, Rita Moran, Robbin Newlin, John R Walker, Anthony P Orth
Recent advances in chemotherapeutics highlight the importance of molecularly-targeted perturbagens. Although these therapies typically address dysregulated cancer cell proteins, there are increasing therapeutic modalities that take into consideration cancer cell-extrinsic factors. Targeting components of tumor stroma such as vascular or immune cells has been shown to represent an efficacious approach in cancer treatment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exemplify an important stromal component that can be exploited in targeted therapeutics, though their employment in drug discovery campaigns has been relatively minimal due to technical logistics in assaying for CAF-tumor interactions...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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