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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040304/characterization-of-the-zika-virus-induced-small-rna-response-in-aedes-aegypti-cells
#1
Margus Varjak, Claire L Donald, Timothy J Mottram, Vattipally B Sreenu, Andres Merits, Kevin Maringer, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl
RNA interference (RNAi) controls arbovirus infections in mosquitoes. Two different RNAi pathways are involved in antiviral responses: the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) and exogenous short interfering RNA (exo-siRNA) pathways, which are characterized by the production of virus-derived small RNAs of 25-29 and 21 nucleotides, respectively. The exo-siRNA pathway is considered to be the key mosquito antiviral response mechanism. In Aedes aegypti-derived cells, Zika virus (ZIKV)-specific siRNAs were produced and loaded into the exo-siRNA pathway effector protein Argonaute 2 (Ago2); although the knockdown of Ago2 did not enhance virus replication...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040286/human-babesiosis-indication-of-a-molecular-mimicry-between-thrombospondin-domains-from-a-novel-babesia-microti-bmp53-protein-and-host-platelets-molecules
#2
Ahmed Abdelmoniem Mousa, Daniel Barry Roche, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Kyohko Kameyama, Ketsarin Kamyingkird, Patrick Vudriko, Akram Salama, Shinuo Cao, Sahar Orabi, Hanem Khalifa, Mohamed Ahmed, Mabrouk Attia, Ahmed Elkirdasy, Yoshifumi Nishikawa, Xuenan Xuan, Emmanuel Cornillot
Human babesiosis is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Babesia microti, which is of major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere, resulting in malaise and fatigue, followed by a fever and hemolytic anemia. In this paper we focus on the characterization of a novel B. microti thrombospondin domain (TSP1)-containing protein (BmP53) from the new annotation of the B. microti genome (locus 'BmR1_04g09041'). This novel protein (BmP53) had a single TSP1 and a transmembrane domain, with a short cytoplasmic tail containing a sub-terminal glutamine residue, but no signal peptide and Von Willebrand factor type A domains (VWA), which are found in classical thrombospondin-related adhesive proteins (TRAP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040262/serological-and-spatial-analysis-of-alphavirus-and-flavivirus-prevalence-and-risk-factors-in-a-rural-community-in-western-kenya
#3
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Lian F Thomas, Amy R Krystosik, Justin Lee, C Njeri Wamae, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre, A Desiree LaBeaud
Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5-14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression...
October 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036952/-a-clinical-analysis-of-20-patients-with-neurobrucellosis
#4
Y Ge, H Z Guan, S Y Fan, R Zhu, X J Ma, T S Li
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of 20 patients with neurobrucellosis (NB) . Methods: The epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and treatment data of patients diagnosed with NB from 2010 to 2016 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Twelve (60%) patients reported the history of contact with infected animals and intake of raw milk product. The common manifestations included headache (85%, 17/20), fatigue (85%, 17/20), fever (80%, 16/20), weight loss (70%, 15/20), the signs included pathological reflection (70%, 15/20), decreased muscle strength(45%, 9/20)...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036951/-the-clinical-and-pathological-features-of-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-diagnosed-at-autopsy
#5
Y Jia, F Fang, H Wang
Objective: To study the characteristics and misdiagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Clinical and pathological data of 15 IE patients diagnosed by autopsy were collected, compared with the cohort of 29 regular IE cases. Results: In the autopsy patients, IE in the left heart was predominat (14/15, 93.3%). Arterial embolism was the most common comorbidity (10/15, 66.7%), followed by pneumonia, malignancies, pyelonephritis (9/15, 60.0%; 7/15, 46.7%; 6/15, 40.0% respectively). The age was elder [(64...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036682/perinatal-risk-factors-for-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-after-initiation-of-risk-based-maternal-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-case-control-study
#6
Sridhar Santhanam, Sumita Arun, Grace Rebekah, Nithya J Ponmudi, Jolly Chandran, Ruby Jose, Atanu Kumar Jana
Objectives: To identify the perinatal risk factors for early-onset Group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) sepsis in neonates after inception of a risk-based maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategy in 2004. Design: Case control study. Methods: All newborn with early onset GBS sepsis (born between 2004 and 2013) were deemed to be "cases" and controls were selected in a 1:4 ratio. Results: More than three per vaginal (PV) examinations [odds ratio (OR) 8...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035391/a-gammaherpesvirus-provides-protection-against-allergic-asthma-by-inducing-the-replacement-of-resident-alveolar-macrophages-with-regulatory-monocytes
#7
Bénédicte Machiels, Mickael Dourcy, Xue Xiao, Justine Javaux, Claire Mesnil, Catherine Sabatel, Daniel Desmecht, François Lallemand, Philippe Martinive, Hamida Hammad, Martin Guilliams, Benjamin Dewals, Alain Vanderplasschen, Bart N Lambrecht, Fabrice Bureau, Laurent Gillet
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the recent increase in allergic diseases such as asthma and hay fever observed in Western countries is linked to reduced exposure to childhood infections. Here we investigated how infection with a gammaherpesvirus affected the subsequent development of allergic asthma. We found that murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) inhibited the development of house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental asthma by modulating lung innate immune cells. Specifically, infection with MuHV-4 caused the replacement of resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) by monocytes with regulatory functions...
October 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035302/oligoarticular-hemarthroses-and-osteomyelitis-complicating-pasteurella-meningitis-in-an-infant
#8
Charles Nathan Nessle, Allison K Black, Justin Farge, Victoria A Statler
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates...
October 16, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035292/secreted-expression-of-the-cap-gene-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-classical-swine-fever-virus-c-strain-potential-of-c-strain-used-as-a-vaccine-vector
#9
Lingkai Zhang, Yongfeng Li, Libao Xie, Xiao Wang, Xulei Gao, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Bivalent vaccines based on live attenuated viruses expressing a heterologous protein are an attractive strategy to address co-infections with various pathogens in the field. Considering the excellent efficacy and safety of the lapinized live attenuated vaccine C-strain (HCLV strain) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), we proposed that C-strain has the potential as a viral vector for developing bivalent vaccines. To this end, we generated three recombinant viruses based on C-strain, one expressing the capsid (Cap) gene of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) with the nuclear localization signal (NLS) (rHCLV-2ACap), and the other two expressing the PCV2 Cap gene without the NLS yet containing the signal peptide of the prolactin gene (rHCLV-pspCap) or that of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase gene (rHCLV-uspCap)...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035249/chronic-hepatitis-b-and-leishmania-coinfection
#10
Tuna Demirdal, Ümmü Sena Sarı, Salih Atakan Nemli, Serap Ural, Sibel El
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of world, and if untreated, it is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease. It is similar to chronic liver disease because of signs and symptoms such as fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. In this study, we present a case of visceral leishmaniasis, which is known to be a chronic hepatitis B infection, that was coincidentally diagnosed with liver biopsy. Visceral leishmaniasis should be considered as an infectious disease in the differential diagnosis of chronic liver diseases...
September 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035192/bacillus-cereus-bacteremia-with-central-nervous-system-involvement-a-neuropathological-study
#11
Jean Philippe Brouland, Nathalie Sala, Selin Tusgul, Caterina Rebecchini, Enikö Kovari
Bacillus cereus is a widely-distributed, gram-positive or variable, rod-shaped bacterium frequently considered a contaminant in clinical specimens. It is recognized as a potential pathogen inducing self-limiting emetic or diarrheal food poisoning or localized infection in immunocompetent patients. True B. cereus bacteremia is uncommon and mainly observed in fragile patients, notably in immunocompromised individuals. We report clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of a 64-year-old patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia who initially presented a fever while neutropenic after the induction of a second cycle of chemotherapy...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034876/quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#12
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
Suspected malaria cases in Africa increasingly receive a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before antimalarials are prescribed. While this ensures efficient use of resources to clear parasites, the underlying cause of the individual's fever remains unknown due to potential coinfection with a non-malarial febrile illness. Widespread use of RDTs does not necessarily prevent over-estimation of clinical malaria cases or sub-optimal case management of febrile patients. We present a new approach that allows inference of the spatiotemporal prevalence of both Plasmodium falciparum malaria-attributable and non-malarial fever in sub-Saharan African children from 2006-2014...
October 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034041/successful-endovascular-repair-of-mycotic-aortic-pseudoaneurysm-followed-by-aortoesophageal-fistula
#13
Seiichi Yamaguchi, Hideki Ueda, Hisanori Fujita, Shigeyasu Takeuchi
Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is a rare, but life-threatening pathology. In recent years, endovascular stent graft placement has been introduced as an effective alternative for treating infected aortic aneurysms. A 64-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia due to spinal cord injury was referred to our institute with fever and blood-tinged sputum. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an 11-cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the proximal descending aorta, which was normal 1 month ago at the previous CT scan...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034040/infected-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-caused-by-helicobacter-cinaedi
#14
Kazuo Kushimoto, Ryusuke Yonekura, Masayoshi Umesue, Yumi Oshiro, Hitoshi Yamasaki, Kenji Yoshida, Kensuke Oryoji, Eisuke Yokota
The causative organism is not identified in some cases of infected aneurysms, a life-threatening condition. A 68-year-old man presented with chest/back pain and a 1-year history of intermittent fever and fatigue. Computed tomography revealed a thoracic aortic aneurysm. After several negative blood cultures, he was eventually diagnosed with an infected aneurysm caused by Helicobacter cinaedi via gene analysis of an aortic tissue specimen. As H. cinaedi is a low-virulence bacterium, infection with this pathogen should be suspected in cases of aortic aneurysms with unidentified causative organism and a long history of subjective symptoms...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034025/replacement-of-the-thoracoabdominal-aorta-after-endovascular-abdominal-aneurysm-repair-for-ruptured-infected-aneurysm-a-case-report
#15
Nobuo Kondo, Kentaro Tamura, Taichi Sakaguchi, Genta Chikazawa, Hidenori Yoshitaka
A 73-year-old man underwent emergency endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) for a ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two years after EVAR, he was admitted with a spiking fever and left lower back pain. Computed tomography scan revealed not only recurrent graft infection with psoas abscess but also infection around the orifice of the superior mesenteric artery. Because conservative medical therapy with antibiotics could not control the infection, we performed complete removal of the infected stent graft, debridement of psoas abscess, and in situ replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta using rifampicin-soaked prosthetic grafts, followed by the omental flap...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033819/an-unusual-presentation-of-pyoderma-gangrenosum-leading-to-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome
#16
Ali Didan, Alan Donnelly, Hock Chua
This is a report of an atypical presentation of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) in a 26-year-old male who had a negative septic screen. The patient had a life-threatening presentation requiring an intensive care unit (ICU) admission for vasopressor support. It was thought that the likely cause of circulatory collapse was an overwhelming cytokine reaction or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) secondary to extensive PG lesions rather than septic shock. The patient presented with multiple large ulcers, the largest being 4 cm in diameter on the central chest...
September 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033762/typhoid-fever-and-acute-appendicitis-a-rare-association-not-yet-fully-formed
#17
Daniel J Sartori, Katherine Sun, Mary Ann Hopkins, Mark F Sloane
Infections caused by foodborne enteric pathogens including typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella species can mimic symptoms of acute appendicitis. The association between such bacterial pathogens and pathology-proven acute appendicitis has been described, but this link is poorly understood. Here we describe a case of a young man with typhoid fever presenting with histology-proven acute appendicitis requiring urgent appendectomy, and provide a brief review of relevant literature to prompt more widespread recognition of this rare cause of a common surgical emergency...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033518/a-rare-experience-of-infective-residual-sheath-in-the-wall-of-the-innominate-vein-after-extraction-of-implantable-defibrillators
#18
Yuan-Hao Liu, Wei-Shiang Lin, Yi-Chang Lin, Chih-Yuan Lin, Chien-Sung Tsai, Yi-Ting Tsai
BACKGROUND: Cardiac device-related infective endocarditis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication. Therefore, cardiac devices should be removed as soon as a device-related infection is suspected. CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old male with a history of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) 7 years earlier and re-implantation of ICDs due to dysfunction 18 months ago presented with erosion of the ICD pocket with Pseudomonas bacteremia...
July 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033415/liver-cyst-infection-after-colon-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-in-a-patient-with-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#19
Shota Shimano, Miki Tsuda, Seiya Fuyuno, Yoshihide Arimura, Fumio Nanishi
A 60-year-old Japanese man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) on maintenance hemodialysis underwent colonoscopy and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). He was hospitalized after 4 days of fever that began the day following colonoscopy. We detected Klebsiella pneumoniae in a blood culture and a ring-shaped integration in the liver cyst by gallium scintigraphy. He recovered with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage. The patient was believed to have contracted the liver cyst infection via an injured colonic mucosa and portal vein...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032899/th1-epitope-peptides-induce-protective-immunity-against-rickettsia-rickettsii-infection-in-c3h-hen-mice
#20
Wenping Gong, Xiaolu Xiong, Pengcheng Wang, Jun Jiao, Xiaomei Yang, Bohai Wen
Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative pathogen of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Adr2, YbgF and OmpB are protective antigens of R. rickettsii. In this study, 90 candidate peptides were selected from these antigens based on their high-affinity binding capacity for the MHC class II molecule H2 I-A or H2 I-E using bioinformatic methods. Six peptides were determined using ELISPOT assay to be immunodominant based on the IFN-γ recall responses of CD4(+) T cells from mice immunized with R. rickettsii. Six nucleotide sequences encoding the immunodominant peptides were linked in series and inserted into a plasmid for expression in Escherichia coli cells, resulting in a new, recombinant polypeptide termed GWP...
October 9, 2017: Vaccine
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