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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244872/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-required-for-african-swine-fever-replication
#1
Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Sergio Viedma, Covadonga Alonso
Several viruses manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to initiate a productive infection. Determined viral proteins are able to change the host's ubiquitin machinery and some viruses even encode their own ubiquitinating or deubiquitinating enzymes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a gene homologous to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating (UBC) enzyme. The viral ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) is expressed throughout ASFV infection and accumulates at late times post infection. UBCv is also present in the viral particle suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could play an important role at early ASFV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244214/mixed-viral-infections-of-the-respiratory-tract-an-epidemiological-study-during-consecutive-winter-seasons
#2
Emmanouil Antalis, Zacharoula Oikonomopoulou, Christine Kottaridi, Athanasios Kossyvakis, Aris Spathis, Maria Magkana, Aikaterini Katsouli, Vassileios Tsagris, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Andreas Mentis, Sotirios Tsiodras
Introduction The current study aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of mixed respiratory viral infections during consecutive winter seasons in a tertiary care hospital. Methods Patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were evaluated during the 2009-2011 and 2013-15 winter seasons. A clinical microarray technique was used for viral detection. Clinical and epidemiological data were correlated with mixed viral detection and the need for hospitalization. Results In 332 out of 604 (54.4%) evaluated patients (17...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244212/detection-of-enteric-and-non-enteric-adenoviruses-in-gastroenteritis-patients-bangladesh-2012-2015
#3
Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Tasnuva Avzun, Jahurul Haque, Warda Haque, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Afm Rajibur Rahman, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Limited data exist on HAdVs molecular epidemiology associated with acute gastroenteritis in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: We describe the genetic diversity and epidemiology of HAdVs among hospitalized diarrhea patients, including HAdV genotypes, clinical symptoms and co-infecting enteric pathogens. STUDY DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from ongoing diarrhea surveillance during 2012-2015...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243878/predictive-value-of-c-reactive-protein-for-tuberculosis-bloodstream-infection-or-death-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-chronic-non-specific-symptoms-and-negative-sputum-smear-microscopy
#4
Richard A Bedell, Monique van Lettow, Christopher Meaney, Elizabeth L Corbett, Adrienne K Chan, Robert S Heyderman, Suzanne T Anderson, Ann Åkesson, Moses Kumwenda, Rony Zachariah, Anthony D Harries, Andrew R Ramsay
BACKGROUND: To determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that may identify patients at risk of infections or death. Mortality among HIV-infected persons commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often attributed to tuberculosis (TB) or bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: In two district hospitals in southern Malawi we recruited HIV-infected adults with one or more unexplained symptoms present for at least one month (weight loss, fever, or diarrhea), and negative expectorated sputum microscopy for TB...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242302/a-distinct-subtype-of-epstein-barr-virus-positive-t-nk-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-adult-patients-with-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection-like-features
#5
Keisuke Kawamoto, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Takaharu Suzuki, Yasuji Kozai, Koji Kato, Masaharu Miyahara, Toshiaki Yujiri, Naoki Oishi, Ilseung Choi, Katsumichi Fujimaki, Tsuyoshi Muta, Masaaki Kume, Sayaka Moriguchi, Shinobu Tamura, Takeharu Kato, Hiroyuki Tagawa, Junya Makiyama, Yuji Kanisawa, Yuya Sasaki, Daisuke Kurita, Kyohei Yamada, Joji Shimono, Hirohito Sone, Jun Takizawa, Masao Seto, Hiroshi Kimura, Koichi Ohshima
The characteristics of adult patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (adult-onset CAEBV) are poorly recognized, hindering early diagnosis and an improved prognosis. Adult-onset CAEBV (n = 54) diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were conducted. Adult-onset was defined as an estimated age of onset ≥15 years. To characterize the clinical features of adult-onset CAEBV, we compared them to those of pediatric-onset (estimated age of onset <15 years) patients (n = 75). We compared the prognosis of adult-onset CAEBV with that for patients with nasal-type (n = 37) and non-nasal-type (n = 45) extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL)...
December 14, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242012/outcomes-of-immunocompetent-children-presenting-with-fever-and-neutropenia
#6
Osnat Wittmann, Ayelet Rimon, Dennis Scolnik, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Neutropenia may alarm clinicians and prompt extensive evaluation in children with fever, even in immunocompetent patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine outcomes in previously healthy febrile children presenting to the emergency department with severe neutropenia. METHODS: We reviewed data from infants and children aged 3-36 months with fever and severe neutropenia, defined as a peripheral neutrophil count <500 × 103/μL, at our institution between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241647/safety-of-currently-licensed-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-vaccines-in-the-united-states-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-vaers-2005-2015
#7
Penina Haber, Pedro L Moro, Carmen Ng, Paige W Lewis, Beth Hibbs, Sarah F Schillie, Noele P Nelson, Rongxia Li, Brock Stewart, Maria V Cano
INTRODUCTION: Currently four recombinant hepatitis B (HepB) vaccines are in use in the United States. HepB vaccines are recommended for infants, children and adults. We assessed adverse events (AEs) following HepB vaccines reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system. METHODS: We searched VAERS for reports of AEs following single antigen HepB vaccine and HepB-containing vaccines (either given alone or with other vaccines), from January 2005 - December 2015...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241533/a-small-molecule-oligosaccharyltransferase-inhibitor-with-pan-flaviviral-activity
#8
Andreas S Puschnik, Caleb D Marceau, Yaw Shin Ooi, Karim Majzoub, Natalie Rinis, Joseph N Contessa, Jan E Carette
The mosquito-borne flaviviruses include important human pathogens such as dengue, Zika, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses, which pose a serious threat for global health. Recent genetic screens identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane multiprotein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex, as critical flavivirus host factors. Here, we show that a chemical modulator of the OST complex termed NGI-1 has promising antiviral activity against flavivirus infections. We demonstrate that NGI-1 blocks viral RNA replication and that antiviral activity does not depend on inhibition of the N-glycosylation function of the OST...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240916/study-on-the-anti-endotoxin-effect-of-sinomenine-using-an-agilent-genome-array
#9
Yiyi Hu, Bin Li, Libin Wen, Kongwang He
Background: Endotoxin is a significant contributing factor underlying the occurrence of fever, diarrhea, inflammation, edema, coagulation, shock, and other syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. To date, there is no effective treatment for endotoxemia. Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize differentially expressed genes in sinomenine-treated and LPS-induced endothelial cells by microarray analysis, and to determine the potential pharmacological activity of sinomenine...
December 12, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240644/monocyte-function-and-clinical-outcomes-in-febrile-and-afebrile-patients-with-severe-sepsis
#10
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Catherine M Dalton, Brian M Fuller, Marin H Kollef, Richard S Hotchkiss
INTRODUCTION: Absence of fever is associated with higher mortality in septic patients, but the reason for this is unknown. Immune dysfunction may be a potential link between failure to mount a fever and poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate monocyte function and clinical surrogates of immunity (i.e. mortality and acquisition of secondary infections) in febrile and afebrile septic patients. METHODS: Single-center, prospective cohort study of 92 critically ill septic patients...
December 13, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240045/pier-diego-siccardi-1880-1917-and-the-clinica-del-lavoro-in-the-trench-warfare
#11
Michele Augusto Riva, Michela Caramella, Massimo Turato, Giancarlo Cesana
BACKGROUND: The year 2017 marks the centenary of the death of the Italian scientist Pier Diego Siccardi (1880-1917), one of Luigi Devoto's assistants at the "Clinica del Lavoro" in Milan. OBJECTIVES: To commemorate Siccardi and to describe the activities of the physicians of the "Clinica del Lavoro" during World War I. METHODS: A comprehensive analysis was conducted on scientific papers written by Pier Diego Siccardi and by other physicians belonging to the Clinica del Lavoro, in the period 1915-1918...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239241/tuberculous-spondylitis-after-vertebral-augmentation-a-case-report-with-a-literature-review
#12
Sun Jia-Jia, Sun Zhi-Yong, Qian Zhong-Lai, Yang Hui-Lin, Zhu Xiao-Yu
Tuberculous spondylitis of vertebral augmentation following percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty is rare. We report an unusual case of tuberculous spondylitis diagnosed after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). A 54-year-old woman presented to hospital complaining of back pain following a fall 20 days prior. Radiology showed an acute osteoporotic compression (L3 fracture). The patient denied a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and there were no signs of infection. The patient was discharged from hospital 2 days after undergoing L3 PKP with a dramatic improvement in her back pain...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238621/burkholderia-aortic-aneurysm-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Sreelakshmi Panginikkod, Aishwarya Ramachandran, Pratyusha Bollimunta, Roshanak Habibi, Roshan Kumar Arjal, Venu Gopalakrishnan
Melioidosis is a frequently fatal infection caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. It is a rare imported pathogen in the United States and is a potential bioterror agent. We report the case of an 82-year-old previously healthy man who presented with 2 weeks of fever and epigastric pain after he returned from the Philippines. A diagnosis of nondissecting mycotic aneurysm in the descending thoracic aorta was made with the help of CT angiogram and positive blood cultures...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238576/a-case-of-legionella-pneumonia-caused-by-home-use-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#14
Ruby Schnirman, Nasifa Nur, Alice Bonitati, Gerardo Carino
A 67-year-old woman with morbid obesity and severe obstructive sleep apnea presented to the emergency department with 2 days of productive cough, fever, shortness of breath and loose stools. A chest x-ray showed extensive bilateral infiltrates, and she was quickly intubated for acute hypoxic respiratory failure. A urine legionella antigen test was positive, and she was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe legionella pneumonia. She improved over the next week with a course of levofloxacin...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238456/seroepidemiological-study-of-q-fever-in-lorestan-province-western-iran-2014
#15
Mohammad Hassan Kayedi, Hamid Mokhayeri, Mehdi Birjandi, Ali Chegeni-Sharafi, Saber Esmaeili, Ehsan Mostafavi
Background and Objectives: Q fever is a zoonotic disease and farm animals serve as the main reservoir of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep, in Lorestan province in western Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 330 blood samples were collected from sheep, from each county in Lorestan province. The samples were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin (IgG) against Coxiella burnetii...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237466/rapid-detection-of-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-virus-using-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assays
#16
Peili Hou, Hongmei Wang, Guimin Zhao, Chengqiang He, Hongbin He
BACKGROUND: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) is a major pathogen in cattle and has led to significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and therefore a more optimal method for the rapid diagnosis of IBRV infection is highly needed. In this study, we described the development of a lateral flow dipstrip (LFD) of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method for rapid detection of IBRV. METHODS: Distinct regions were selected as a candidate target for designing the LFD-RPA primers and probes...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#17
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236685/origin-and-differentiation-of-human-memory-cd8-t-cells-after-vaccination
#18
Rama S Akondy, Mark Fitch, Srilatha Edupuganti, Shu Yang, Haydn T Kissick, Kelvin W Li, Ben A Youngblood, Hossam A Abdelsamed, Donald J McGuire, Kristen W Cohen, Gabriela Alexe, Shashi Nagar, Megan M McCausland, Satish Gupta, Pramila Tata, W Nicholas Haining, M Juliana McElrath, David Zhang, Bin Hu, William J Greenleaf, Jorg J Goronzy, Mark J Mulligan, Marc Hellerstein, Rafi Ahmed
The differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells is not well understood. Here we address this issue using the live yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine, which induces long-term immunity in humans. We used in vivo deuterium labelling to mark CD8 T cells that proliferated in response to the virus and then assessed cellular turnover and longevity by quantifying deuterium dilution kinetics in YFV-specific CD8 T cells using mass spectrometry. This longitudinal analysis showed that the memory pool originates from CD8 T cells that divided extensively during the first two weeks after infection and is maintained by quiescent cells that divide less than once every year (doubling time of over 450 days)...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235980/restoration-of-glycoprotein-erns-dimerization-via-pseudoreversion-partially-restores-virulence-of-classical-swine-fever-virus
#19
Anna Katharina Tucakov, Sabine Yavuz, Eva-Maria Schürmann, Manjula Mischler, Anne Klingebeil, Gregor Meyers
The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein Erns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked Erns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235978/rigid-amphipathic-fusion-inhibitors-demonstrate-antiviral-activity-against-african-swine-fever-virus
#20
Astghik Hakobyan, Inmaculada Galindo, Almudena Nañez, Erik Arabyan, Zaven Karalyan, Alexey A Chistov, Philipp P Streshnev, Vladimir A Korshun, Covadonga Alonso, Hovakim Zakaryan
Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors (RAFIs) are a family of nucleoside derivatives that inhibit the infectivity of several enveloped viruses by interacting with virion envelope lipids and inhibiting fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Here we tested the antiviral activity of two RAFIs, 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)-arabino-uridine (aUY11) and 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)uracil-1-acetic acid (cm1UY11) against African swine fever virus (ASFV), for which no effective vaccine is available. Both compounds displayed a potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ASFV infection in Vero cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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