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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911328/the-clinical-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-the-italian-selfie
#1
Giulia M Sancesario, Sofia Toniolo, Davide Chiasserini, Simona G Di Santo, Josh Zegeer, Gaetano Bernardi, Massimo Musicco, Carlo Caltagirone, Lucilla Parnetti, Sergio Bernardini
Although the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid β1-42 (Aβ42), tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) gives added diagnostic and prognostic values, the diffusion is still limited in clinical practice and only a restricted number of patients receive an integrated clinico-biological diagnosis. By a survey, we aimed to do a "selfie" of the use and diffusion of CSF biomarkers of dementia in Italy, the standardization of pre-analytical procedures, the harmonization of ranges, and the participation to Quality Control programs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#2
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911315/decreased-expression-of-hsa-mir-4274-in%C3%A2-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-mimics-with-parkinsonian-syndromes
#3
Ivana Jurjević, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Chihiro Akiba, Madoka Nakajima, Akihide Kondo, Mika Kikkawa, Mitsuyasu Kanai, Nobutaka Hattori, Hajime Arai
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the classical idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) triad often show additional parkinsonian spectrum signs. Accurate differential diagnosis strongly influences the long-term outcome of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to find potential CSF microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for NPH mimics with parkinsonian syndromes that can reliably distinguish them from iNPH patients. METHODS: Two cohorts of 81 patients (cohort 1, n = 55; cohort 2, n = 26) with possible iNPH who were treated in two centers between January 2011 and May 2014 were studied...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911313/challenges-in-screening-and-recruitment-for-a-neuroimaging-study-in-cognitively-impaired-geriatric-inpatients
#4
Ivayla Apostolova, Catharina Lange, Anna Roberts, Hans Joachim Igel, Anja Mäurer, Stephanie Liese, Melanie Estrella, Vikas Prasad, Elisabeth Stechl, Gernot Lämmler, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Ralph Buchert
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging-based biomarkers have the potential to improve etiological diagnosis of cognitive impairment in elderly inpatients. However, there is a relative lack of studies on neuroimaging-based biomarkers in hospitalized geriatric patients, as the vast majority of neuroimaging studies in dementia have focused on memory clinic outpatients. An important aspect of study planning is a priori estimation of the rate of screen failures. OBJECTIVE: To report on the rate and causes of screen failures in a prospective study on the utility of neuroimaging (PET, MRI) for the etiological diagnosis of newly manifested cognitive impairment in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911271/immunoglobulin-superfamily-genes-are-novel-prognostic-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer
#5
Yue Li, Maoni Guo, Zhenkun Fu, Peng Wang, Yan Zhang, Yue Gao, Ming Yue, Shangwei Ning, Dianjun Li
Breast cancer progression is associated with dysregulated expression of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) genes that are involved in cell-cell recognition, binding and adhesion. Despite widespread evidence that many IgSF genes could serve as effective biomarkers, this potential has not been realized because the studies have focused mostly on individual genes and not the entire network. To gain a global perspective of the IgSF-related biomarkers, we constructed an IgSF-directed neighbor network (IDNN) and an IgSF-directed driver network (IDDN) by integrating multiple levels of data, including IgSF genes, breast cancer driver genes, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and gene expression profiling data...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911122/an-update-on-the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta
Intrathecal B-lymphocyte activation is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), a multi-factorial inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Such activation has a counterpart in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB), whose diagnostic role in MS has been downgraded within the current McDonald's criteria. With a theoretico-practical approach, the authors review the physiopathological basis of the CSF dynamics, and the state-of-the-art of routine CSF analysis and CSF biomarkers in MS...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910861/paper-based-crp-monitoring-devices
#7
Shang-Chi Lin, Chung-Yuh Tseng, Po-Liang Lai, Min-Yen Hsu, Shueh-Yao Chu, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chao-Min Cheng
Here, we discuss the development of a paper-based diagnostic device that is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-use, robust, and capable of running simultaneous tests to monitor a relevant inflammatory protein for clinical diagnoses i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we first attempted to make a paper-based diagnostic device via the wax printing method, a process that was used in previous studies. This device has two distinct advantages: 1) reduced manufacturing and assay costs and operation duration via using wax printing method to define hydrophobic boundaries (for fluidic devices or general POC devices); and, 2) the hydrophilicity of filter paper, which is used to purify and chromatographically correct interference caused by whole blood components with a tiny amount of blood sample (only 5 μL)...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910296/the-year-since-the-guidelines-a-concise-update-on-recent-advances-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Abhishek Mishra, Maninder Singh, Edo Kaluski
Since the updated pulmonary hypertension (PH) guidelines published in 2015, two major landmark trials have provided additional insight regarding therapeutic algorithms of PH. In this review, we concisely summarized the key findings of peer‑reviewed studies published in the last one year in the field of PH. These studies have enhanced our therapeutic abilities by introducing a new potent agent, selexipag, and by demonstrating the advantage of upfront combination therapy (endothelin receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase‑5 inhibitor) versus single agent therapy in group 1 PH...
February 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910113/diagnostic-accuracy-of-faecal-biomarkers-in-detecting-colorectal-cancer-and-adenoma-in-symptomatic-patients
#9
M M Widlak, C L Thomas, M G Thomas, C Tomkins, S Smith, N O'Connell, S Wurie, L Burns, C Harmston, C Evans, C U Nwokolo, B Singh, R P Arasaradnam
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be difficult as symptoms are variable with poor specificity. Thus, there is a quest for simple, non-invasive testing that can help streamline those with significant colonic pathology. AIM: To assess using faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin (FIT) or faecal calprotectin (FCP) to detect CRC and adenoma in symptomatic patients referred from primary care. METHODS: A total of 799 referred for urgent lower gastrointestinal investigations were prospectively recruited...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910062/plasma-and-saliva-mir-21-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#10
A A Sazanov, E V Kiselyova, A A Zakharenko, M N Romanov, M I Zaraysky
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression was quantified by real-time qRT-PCR in peripheral blood and saliva samples obtained from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) of varying degrees of malignancy and healthy volunteers. All patients had adenocarcinoma located in the distal colon at different stages. Significant differences were detected between the control group and the total experimental group of CRC patients (plasma, P = 0.0001; saliva, P = 5e-12). MiR-21 expression was also significantly different in certain subgroups of patients with CRC disease stages II-IV as compared to the control group...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#11
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909306/rpl5-on-1p22-1-is-recurrently-deleted-in-multiple-myeloma-and-its-expression-is-linked-to-bortezomib-response
#12
I J F Hofman, M Van Duin, E De Bruyne, L Fancello, G Mulligan, E Geerdens, E Garelli, C Mancini, H Lemmens, M Delforge, P Vandenberghe, I Wlodarska, A Aspesi, L Michaux, K Vanderkerken, P Sonneveld, K De Keersmaecker
Chromosomal region 1p22 is deleted in ⩾20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, suggesting the presence of an unidentified tumor suppressor. Using high-resolution genomic profiling, we delimit a 58 kb minimal deleted region (MDR) on 1p22.1 encompassing two genes: ectopic viral integration site 5 (EVI5) and ribosomal protein L5 (RPL5). Low mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5 was associated with worse survival in diagnostic cases. Patients with 1p22 deletion had lower mRNA expression of EVI5 and RPL5, however, 1p22 deletion status is a bad predictor of RPL5 expression in some cases, suggesting that other mechanisms downregulate RPL5 expression...
December 2, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908272/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-in-colon-cancer
#13
Mina Hosseini, Sara Khatamianfar, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Reza Nedaeinia, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mina Maftouh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Soudabeh Shahid Sales, Amir Avan
Exosome-encapsulated microRNAs are being suggested as a new class novel biomarker and diagnostic and predictive markers in colorectal cancer. These particles are released from many cell types into the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVB) with the plasma membrane. They contain a wide variety of information, including proteins, lipids, RNAs, non-transcribed RNAs, microRNAs, which can be circulated in various body fluids (e.g., blood, salvia, ascites, urine). Exosomes can be taken up by neighboring or distant cells and thereby modulate the functional of recipient cells and play a key role in disease progression or facilitate metastasis in cancers...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907080/development-of-an-automated-mri-based-diagnostic-protocol-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-disease-specific-pathognomonic-features-a-quantitative-disease-state-classification-study
#14
Christina Schuster, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in quantitative neuroimaging, the diagnosis of ALS remains clinical and MRI-based biomarkers are not currently used to aid the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to develop a robust, disease-specific, multimodal classification protocol and validate its diagnostic accuracy in independent, early-stage and follow-up data sets. METHODS: 147 participants (81 ALS patients and 66 healthy controls) were divided into a training sample and a validation sample...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906860/liquid-biopsy-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#15
Paul Hofman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906682/nonhsat076754-aids-ultrasonography-in-predicting-lymph-node-metastasis-and-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-cells
#16
Shujun Xia, Chuandong Wang, Xiaofeng Ni, Zhongxin Ni, Yijie Dong, Weiwei Zhan
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is the primary challenge in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Recurrent cancerous lymph nodes require repeated surgeries, which increases the risk for surgical complications. Thus, the evaluation of LNM before surgery is important. Ultrasonography is the most convenient way to examine cervical LNM, but the sensitivity of ultrasonography in the identification of LNM in cases of PTC is extremely low. A series of lncRNAs (long noncoding RNAs) have been reported as candidate biomarkers in a variety of tumors...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905123/selective-precipitation-reaction-a-novel-diagnostic-test-for-tissue-pathology-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-infected-with-salmonid-alphavirus-sav3
#17
M Braceland, J Tinsley, D Cockerill, R Bickerdike, M F McLoughlin, P D Eckersall
While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905097/novel-biomarkers-in-primary-breast-core-biopsies-to-predict-poor-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-appearance-of-metastases
#18
Anna Novell, Serafin Morales, Joan Valls, Maria José Panadés, Antonieta Salud, Edelmiro Iglesias, Felip Vilardell, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Antonio Llombart-Cussac
Drug resistance has been one of the major obstacles limiting the success of cancer chemotherapy. In two thirds of breast cancer patients, large (>1cm) residual tumors are present after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). The residual tumor and involved nodes have been indicators of relapse and survival very important in breast cancer. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the predictive significance of a panel of molecular biomarkers, related with the response to treatment or drug resistance to NCT, as determined on the diagnostic tumor...
December 1, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904945/-sarcoidosis-and-uveitis-an-update
#19
REVIEW
J G Garweg
Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to one third of patients and is frequently manifested before the underlying systemic disease has been diagnosed. With a view to the therapeutic consequences an early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous. In cases of visual loss early diagnostic measures include invasive procedures, such as ultrasound-guided bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy, if nodular conjunctival or cutaneous manifestations which would confirm the diagnosis are not present...
November 30, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#20
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
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