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diagnostic biomarkers

Marco Pio La Manna, Valentina Orlando, Paolo Li Donni, Guido Sireci, Paola Di Carlo, Antonio Cascio, Francesco Dieli, Nadia Caccamo
We used the Luminex Bead Array Multiplex Immunoassay to measure cytokines, chemokines and growth factors responses to the same antigens used for RD1-based Interferon γ Release Assay (IGRA) test. Seventy-nine individuals, 27 active TB, 32 latent infection subsets, 20 individuals derivative purified protein (PPD) negative (subjects that do not have any indurative cutaneous reaction after 72 hrs of intradermal injection of PPD) and with other pulmonary disease were retrospectively studied. Forty-eight analytes were evaluated by Luminex Assay in plasma obtained from whole blood stimulated cells...
2018: PloS One
Akshay S Thomas, Angel L Hatef, Sandra S Stinnett, Robert T Keenan, Glenn J Jaffe
PURPOSE: In this study, we hypothesized that thickening along the major arcade vessels is a noninvasive marker of inflammation in eyes with birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, patients with BRC were identified. Perivascular thickening was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe, based on a set of standard reference retinal thickness maps derived from representative spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume scans...
March 14, 2018: Retina
Renata C Gallagher, Laura Pollard, Anna I Scott, Suzette Huguenin, Stephen Goodman, Qin Sun
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests, or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Dov Lichtenberg, Ilya Pinchuk, Daniela Weber
The commonly used term "oxidative stress" (OS) is intuitively defined as an excess of pro-oxidative compounds, over antioxidants. The redox status is homeostatically controlled because on one hand, pro-oxidants are essential for normal body function, whereas, on the other hand, pro-oxidants (and OS) are associated with many diseases due to the risk of oxidative damage. One reason "to monitor the OS" is to identify people under OS and treat people under high OS by antioxidants, because it is believed that people under OS benefit from antioxidant supplementation more than others...
March 15, 2018: BioFactors
Dafina Ilijazi, Mohammad Abufaraj, Melanie R Hassler, Iris E Ertl, David D'Andrea, Shahrokh F Shariat
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide and is, in fact, the most expensive cancer on a per-patient to treat basis. There is a critical need to implement new tests into clinical practice to improve the quality of clinical care, decrease unnecessary invasive therapies and ultimately save costs. Currently, no molecular or genetic biomarker has been widely integrated into daily clinical practice. However, major milestones have been achieved in our understanding of the molecular alterations in BCa that will provide the basis for integrating molecular and genetic biomarkers into clinical decision making to guide management...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Karl Payne, Rachel Spruce, Andrew Beggs, Neil Sharma, Anthony Kong, Timothy Martin, Satyesh Parmar, Prav Praveen, Paul Nankivell, Hisham Mehanna
The use of circulating biochemical molecular markers in head and neck cancer holds the promise of improved diagnostics, treatment planning, and posttreatment surveillance. In this review, we provide an introduction for the head and neck surgeon of the basic science, current evidence, and future applications of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a biomarker and liquid biopsy to detect tumor genetic heterogeneity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Ozgur Mete, Sylvia L Asa, Thomas J Giordano, Mauro Papotti, Hironobu Sasano, Marco Volante
Careful morphological evaluation forms the basis of the workup of an adrenal cortical neoplasm. However, the adoption of immunohistochemical biomarkers has added tremendous value to enhance diagnostic accuracy. The authors provide a brief review of immunohistochemical biomarkers that have been used in the confirmation of adrenal cortical origin and in the detection of the source of functional adrenal cortical proliferations, as well as diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers of adrenal cortical carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Yanlu Xiong, Tao Wang, Mingxing Wang, Jinbo Zhao, Xiaofei Li, Zhipei Zhang, Yongsheng Zhou, Jiabao Liu, Lintao Jia, Yong Han
Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, leading the understanding the pathogenesis paramount. Recent studies suggest that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in NSCLC. We conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between lncRNAs and NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate overall survival (OS), and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to assess clinicopathological parameters...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Sawsan Jaghsi, Taghrid Hammoud, Shaden Haddad
Background: In the past two decades, Vitamin K has been receiving more attention due to its role in bone health and metabolism. The bone mineral density does not remain steady with age, particularly declining after menopause. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density and serum vitamin K1 levels in post-menopausal women, and to evaluate serum vitamin K1 levels as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
Jingkun Qu, Xixi Zhao, Jizhao Wang, Chao Liu, Yuchen Sun, Hui Cai, Jianlin Liu
Previous studies have indicated that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) may be associated with tumorigenesis in human tissues. The present study aimed to investigate the association between plasma PLA2 activity and the breast cancer (BC) status of patients. Increased plasma PLA2 activity was detected in patients with breast cancer when compared with healthy controls. Plasma samples were obtained from patients with BC (n=169), patients with benign disease (BD; n=80) and healthy controls (n=81). PLA2 activity was assessed using a quantitative fluorescent assay with selective inhibitors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jun Li, Junfei Jin, Minjun Liao, Wei Dang, Xinhuang Chen, Yongfeng Wu, Weijia Liao
Previous cDNA microarray experiments revealed that the ATP-dependent DNA helicase Q4 (RECQL4) gene is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. However, the exact role of RECQL4 in HCC remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate RECQL4 expression in HCC and to analyze the potential clinical implications of RECQL4 expression in HCC patients. The expression of RECQL4 mRNA was assessed in 205 samples of HCC tissues by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression of RECQL4 mRNA in HCC tissues was significantly higher compared with adjacent normal liver tissues (P<0...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Gabriel DeVela, J Michael Taylor, Bin Zhang, Luke L Linscott, Alan M Chen, Kunal B Karani, Andrew Furthmiller, James L Leach, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Todd Abruzzo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative arterial tortuosity (QAT) is a ratio of vessel length between 2 points to the shortest linear distance between same points. QAT has been reported as an imaging biomarker of arteriopathy in pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) because of dissection and transient cerebral arteriopathy. We sought to determine whether QAT abnormalities are present in other subtypes of pediatric AIS. METHODS: Children with AIS-absent conventional biomarkers of arteriopathy and case-controls who underwent magnetic resonance angiography were classified by stroke mechanism...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kristina M Jordahl, Timothy W Randolph, Xiaoling Song, Cassandra L Sather, Lesley F Tinker, Amanda I Phipps, Karl T Kelsey, Emily White, Parveen Bhatti
BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation as measured in blood is a promising marker of bladder cancer susceptibility. However, previous studies have exclusively used post-diagnostic blood samples, meaning that observed associations may be markers of disease rather than susceptibility. METHODS: Genome-wide methylation was measured in pre-diagnostic blood samples, using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Array, among 440 bladder cancer cases with the transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) subtype and 440 matched cancer-free controls from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohort...
March 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Qiu-Ling Ma, Jing-Han Wang, Min Yang, Huan-Ping Wang, Jie Jin
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are of special interest in cancer research and hold significant promise as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for malignant disease. MiR-362-5p have been found to exert both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects depending highly on the cellular context. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of miR-362-5p can be served as a prognostic factor for patients with cytogentically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). METHODS: We enrolled 224 patients with CN-AML and measured the expression of miR-362-5p by quantitative real time PCR analysis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Sureyya Mert Selimoglu, Murat Kasap, Gurler Akpinar, Aynur Karadenizli, Abdul Mounem Wis, Uzay Gormus
Human creatine kinase MB (hCKMB) is one of the most preferred biomarkers used for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome due to its high sensitivity and specificity. The increasing need for highly purified and biologically active hCKMB in the field of diagnostics makes its production valuable. Currently, the production of hCKMB is mainly achieved in methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, because the production in Escherichia coli is challenging and generally yields an inactive enzyme with a low quantity. With the aim of finding the best way for the high-yield production of active hCKMB in E...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yun-Xia Zhang, Ji-Feng Li, Yuan-Hua Yang, Ke Huang, Ran Miao, Zhen-Guo Zhai, Chen Wang
: Acute pulmonary embolism is a common disease, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. There is significant relationship between haptoglobin and pulmonary embolism, however, the usefulness of haptoglobin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the change and clinical diagnostic value of haptoglobin in pulmonary embolism. A comparative proteomic analysis was used for clinical screening of serum proteins in 18 patients (9 patients with pulmonary embolism and 9 controls)...
March 13, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
M Y Tan, D Wright, A Syngelaki, R Akolekar, S Cicero, D Janga, M Singh, E Greco, A Wright, K Maclagan, L C Poon, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the performance of first-trimester screening for pre-eclampsia (PE) by a method that uses Bayes' theorem to combine maternal factors with biomarkers is superior to that defined by current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study (screening program for pre-eclampsia (SPREE)) in seven National Health Service maternity hospitals in England, of women recruited between April and December 2016...
March 14, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
L M Crowther, M Poms, Barbara Plecko
Conventional workup of rare neurological disease is frequently hampered by diagnostic delay or lack of diagnosis. While biomarkers have been established for many neurometabolic disorders, improved methods are required for diagnosis of previously unidentified or underreported causes of rare neurological disease. This would result in a higher diagnostic yield and increased patient numbers required for interventional studies. Recent studies using next-generation sequencing and metabolomics have led to identification of novel disease-causing genes and biomarkers...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
H R Prasanna Kumar, H Basavana Gowdappa, Tejashwi Hosmani, Tejashri Urs
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Brunella Costanza, Andrei Turtoi, Akeila Bellahcène, Touko Hirano, Olivier Peulen, Arnaud Blomme, Vincent Hennequière, Eugene Mutijima, Jacques Boniver, Marie-Alice Meuwis, Claire Josse, Benjamin Koopmansch, Karin Segers, Takehiko Yokobori, Karim Fahmy, Marc Thiry, Carla Coimbra, Nancy Garbacki, Alain Colige, Dominique Baiwir, Vincent Bours, Edouard Louis, Olivier Detry, Philippe Delvenne, Masahiko Nishiyama, Vincent Castronovo
The identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers from early lesions, measurable in liquid biopsies remains a major challenge, particularly in oncology. Fresh human material of high quality is required for biomarker discovery but is often not available when it is totally required for clinical pathology investigation. Hence, all OMICs studies are done on residual and less clinically relevant biological samples. Here after, we present an innovative, simple, and non-destructive, procedure named EXPEL that uses rapid, pressure-assisted, interstitial fluid extrusion, preserving the specimen for full routine clinical pathology investigation...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
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