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bulge stem cell

Yiming Zhang, Yizhan Xing, Haiying Guo, Xiaogen Ma, Yuhong Li
The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Jianqiao Zhong, Li Li
Bcl-2 and Nrf2 are critical factors in protecting cells against UVB-induced apoptosis. Hair-follicle-bulge stem cells could resist ionization through Bcl-2 upregulation. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) dwelling on the bulge may be against UVB irradiation. Initially, SKPs were isolated and identified. Then, SKPs were exposed to UVB and grew in medium for 24 hours. CCK-8 assay, TUNEL, and Ki67 staining evaluated cells apoptosis/proliferation, while SA-βgal staining evaluated cells senescence and pH2AX immunostaining evaluated DNA damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
Kyoumi Shirai, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Aiko Yamazaki, Natsuko Tohgi, Ryoichi Aki, Sumiyuki Mii, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells located in the bulge area which are termed hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells from mouse and human could form spheres in culture, termed hair spheres, which are keratin 15-negative and CD34-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that nestin-expressing stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Clare L Garcin, David M Ansell
For many decades the capacity of the hair follicle (HF) to directly contribute to skin repair has been appreciated (s1-s4), although recent advances in transgenic mouse technology have heralded an explosion of research in this area (1-9, s5-s9). The HF bulge (see figure 1) is an epithelial stem cell (SC) compartment (1, 9, s10-s13) that has been of particular interest with regard to wound repair (2, 8, 9, s14), which is intriguing for a number of reasons (full discussion in supplemental text T1). This article is protected by copyright...
August 30, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Patrizia Cammareri, Aidan M Rose, David F Vincent, Jun Wang, Ai Nagano, Silvana Libertini, Rachel A Ridgway, Dimitris Athineos, Philip J Coates, Angela McHugh, Celine Pourreyron, Jasbani H S Dayal, Jonas Larsson, Simone Weidlich, Lindsay C Spender, Gopal P Sapkota, Karin J Purdie, Charlotte M Proby, Catherine A Harwood, Irene M Leigh, Hans Clevers, Nick Barker, Stefan Karlsson, Catrin Pritchard, Richard Marais, Claude Chelala, Andrew P South, Owen J Sansom, Gareth J Inman
Melanoma patients treated with oncogenic BRAF inhibitors can develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) within weeks of treatment, driven by paradoxical RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway activation. Here we identify frequent TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in human vemurafenib-induced skin lesions and in sporadic cSCC. Functional analysis reveals these mutations ablate canonical TGFβ Smad signalling, which is localized to bulge stem cells in both normal human and murine skin. MAPK pathway hyperactivation (through Braf(V600E) or Kras(G12D) knockin) and TGFβ signalling ablation (through Tgfbr1 deletion) in LGR5(+ve) stem cells enables rapid cSCC development in the mouse...
2016: Nature Communications
Stefano Bruni, Christine Lavery, Alexander Broomfield
UNLABELLED: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease. Affected individuals have disease ranging from attenuated to severe with significant disease burden, disability, and premature death. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy and/or stem cell transplantation can reduce disease progression and improve outcomes. However, diagnosis is often delayed, particularly for patients with attenuated phenotypes. We conducted a survey of 168 patients and 582 physicians to explore health care seeking patterns and familiarity of physicians with MPS I symptoms...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Shunsuke Imai, Parimal Kumar, Christopher U T Hellen, Victoria M D'Souza, Gerhard Wagner
Many viruses bypass canonical cap-dependent translation in host cells by using internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) in their transcripts; IRESs hijack initiation factors for the assembly of initiation complexes. However, it is currently unknown how IRES RNAs recognize initiation factors that have no endogenous RNA binding partners; in a prominent example, the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) interacts with the HEAT-1 domain of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). Here we report the solution structure of the J-K region of this IRES and show that its stems are precisely organized to position protein-recognition bulges...
September 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Hyoseung Shin, Ji-Seon Yoon, Wooseok Koh, Jin Yong Kim, Chang-Hyun Kim, Kang Min Han, Eo Jin Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lasers have been successfully used for decades to remove dark hair. However, laser removal of nonpigmented hair is challenging due to the lack of chromophores. The aim of this study was to use photodynamic therapy (PDT) to remove nonpigmented hair. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared the efficacy of permanent hair reduction in white BALB/c and black C57BL/6 mice treated with PDT or an 800-nm diode laser. We collected skin biopsy specimens and investigated post-PDT histologic changes and molecular changes...
October 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Niloufar Torkamani, Nicholas Rufaut, Leslie Jones, Rodney Sinclair
Proximally, the arrector pili muscle (APM) attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the bulge, but its distal properties are comparatively unclear. In this work, a novel method employing an F-actin probe, phalloidin, was employed to visualize the APM anatomy. Phalloidin staining of the APM was validated by comparison with conventional antibodies/stains and by generating three-dimensional reconstructions. The proximal attachment of the APM to the bulge in 8 patients with androgenic alopecia was studied using Masson's trichrome stain...
July 29, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Weiming Qiu, Hui Tang, Haiying Guo, Mingxing Lei, Hongtao Yan, Xiaohua Lian, Jinjin Wu
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) undergo cyclical activation and quiescence together with hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). This process is strictly controlled by the autonomous and extrinsic signaling environment. However, the modulation of factors important for the activation of McSCs for hair pigmentation remains unclear. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics vital signaling pathways involved in melanocyte growth and melanogenesis in vitro. To investigate whether TPA regulates quiescent McSCs for hair pigmentation, we topically smeared TPA on 7-week-old mouse dorsal skin and found that TPA stimulated hair growth and hair matrix pigmentation...
July 27, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Noelle J A Ali, Martim Dias Gomes, Ronja Bauer, Susanne Brodesser, Catherin Niemann, Sandra Iden
Partitioning-defective (Par) proteins contribute to multiprotein complexes that drive cell polarity and fate in invertebrates. Of these, the ternary Par3-aPKC-Par6 polarity complex mediates asymmetry in various systems, whereas Par3 and aPKC/Par6 can also act independently. aPKCλ has recently been implicated in epidermal differentiation and stem cell fate; however, whether Par3 contributes to the homeostasis of adult stratified epithelia is currently unknown. Here we provide functional evidence that epidermal Par3 loss disturbed the inside-out skin barrier, coinciding with altered expression and localization of principle tight junction components, while epidermal differentiation and thickness were increased...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Satoshi Kajiura, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Katsumasa Kawahara, Lingna Li, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells, the origin of which is above the bulge area, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. Cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells are described in this chapter. Intact hair follicles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were cryopreserved by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium and storage in liquid nitrogen...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mohsen Sagha, Nowruz Najafzadeh
Neural differentiation of hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells residing in the bulge area is a promising autologous source for stem cell therapy. In the present chapter, we describe the identification and enrichment of CD34(+) HAP stem cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and induce them to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells using defined neural-induction media. The different neural cell populations arising during in vitro differentiation from HAP stem cells are characterized by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry assay...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ying Zheng, Jen-Chih Hsieh, Julia Escandon, George Cotsarelis
The hair follicle (HF) is a dynamic structure readily accessible within the skin, and contains various pools of stem cells that have a broad regenerative potential during normal homeostasis and in response to injury. Recent discoveries demonstrating the multipotent capabilities of hair follicle stem cells and the easy access to skin tissue make the HF an attractive source for isolating stem cells and their subsequent application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we describe the isolation and purification of hair follicle bulge stem cells from mouse skin, and hair reconstitution assays that allows the functional analysis of multipotent stem cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yasuyuki Amoh, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman
Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lingna Li, Robert M Hoffman
Cells expressing the stem cell marker, nestin, were selectively labeled in transgenic mice by placing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the nestin promoter in transgenic mice. In these transgenic mice, neural and other stem cells brightly expressed GFP. The mice were termed nestin-driven GFP (ND-GFP) mice. During early anagen or growth phase of the hair follicle, ND-GFP appeared in the permanent upper hair follicle immediately below the sebaceous glands in the follicle bulge. The relatively small, oval-shaped, nestin-expressing cells in the bulge area surrounded the hair shaft and were interconnected by short dendrites...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pablo Fonda-Pascual, Oscar M Moreno-Arrones, Adrian Alegre-Sanchez, David Saceda-Corralo, Diego Buendia-Castaño, Cristina Pindado-Ortega, Pablo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Kyra Velazquez-Kennedy, María I Calvo-Sánchez, Antonio Harto-Castaño, Bibiana Perez-Garcia, Lorea Bagazgoitia, Sergio Vaño-Galvan, Jesus Espada, Pedro Jaen-Olasolo
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality of photochemotherapy based on the accumulation of a photosensitizer in target cells and subsequent irradiation of the tissue with light of adequate wavelength promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death. PDT is used in several medical specialties as an organ-specific therapy for different entities. In this review we focus on the current dermatological procedure of PDT. In the most widely used PDT protocol in dermatology, ROS production occurs by accumulation of the endogenous photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX after treatment with the metabolic precursors 5-methylaminolevulinic acid (MAL) or 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)...
July 12, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Gerline C van de Glind, Jacoba J Out-Luiting, Heggert G Rebel, Cornelis P Tensen, Frank R de Gruijl
Actively proliferating Lgr5+ skin stem cells are found deep in the hair follicle (HF). These cells renew the HF and drive its expansion in anagen phase. Their long residence and continuous mitotic activity make them prime candidates to transform into skin tumor-initiating cells. This was investigated by subjecting Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2/R26R-LacZ mice (haired and hairless) to chemical and UV carcinogenic regimens. In the course of these regimens Lgr5+ cells (EGFP+) remained exclusively located in HFs, and in deep-seated cysts of hairless skin...
July 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Leilei Yang, Wenlong Li, Bing Liu, Shaoxia Wang, Lin Zeng, Cuiping Zhang, Yang Li
iRhom2 is necessary for maturation of TNFα-converting enzyme, which is required for the release of tumor necrosis factor. In the previous study, we found that the iRhom2 (Uncv) mutation in N-terminal cytoplasmic domain-encoding region (iRhom2 (Uncv) ) leads to aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation, thus results in a hairless phenotype in homozygous iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) BALB/c mice. In this study, we found iRhom2 mutation decreased hair matrix proliferation, however, iRhom2 (Uncv/Uncv) mice displayed hyperproliferation and hyperkeratosis in the interfollicular epidermis along with hypertrophy in the sebaceous glands...
September 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
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