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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904857/t-cadherin-expression-in-the-epidermis-and-adnexal-structures-of-normal-skin
#1
Stanislaw Buechner, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink
BACKGROUND: T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. The role of T-cadherin in biology of the skin is poorly understood. Expression of T-cadherin in basal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels of the healthy epidermis has been demonstrated, but studies on expression in skin appendages are rare. METHODS: We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures of normal skin...
September 2016: Dermatopathology (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898044/dna-damage-inducible-transcript-4-is-an-innate-surveillant-of-hair-follicular-stress-in-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-and-a-regulator-of-wound-re-epithelialization
#2
Hengguang Zhao, Sandra Rieger, Koichiro Abe, Martin Hewison, Thomas S Lisse
Mice and human patients with impaired vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling have normal developmental hair growth but display aberrant post-morphogenic hair cycle progression associated with alopecia. In addition, VDR(-/-) mice exhibit impaired cutaneous wound healing. We undertook experiments to determine whether the stress-inducible regulator of energy homeostasis, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (Ddit4), is involved in these processes. By analyzing hair cycle activation in vivo, we show that VDR(-/-) mice at day 14 exhibit increased Ddit4 expression within follicular stress compartments...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880068/human-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hhap-stem-cells-differentiate-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#3
Natsuko Tohgi, Koya Obara, Masateru Yashiro, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area. HAP stem cells have been previously shown to differentiate to neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth-muscle cells, melanocytes and cardiac-muscle cells in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models, differentiating to Schwann cells and neurons. In previous studies, we established an efficient protocol for the differentiation of cardiac-muscle cells from mouse HAP stem cells...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872325/the-molecular-circuit-regulating-tooth-development-in-crocodilians
#4
S Tsai, A Abdelhamid, M K Khan, A Elkarargy, R B Widelitz, C M Chuong, P Wu
Alligators have robust regenerative potential for tooth renewal. In contrast, extant mammals can either renew their teeth once (diphyodont dentition, as found in humans) or not at all (monophyodont dentition, present in mice). Previously, the authors used multiple mitotic labeling to map putative stem cells in alligator dental laminae, which contain quiescent odontogenic progenitors. The authors demonstrated that alligator tooth cycle initiation is related to β-catenin/Wnt pathway activity in the dental lamina bulge...
December 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862634/expression-analysis-of-the-stem-cell-marker-pw1-peg3-reveals-a-cd34-negative-progenitor-population-in-the-hair-follicle
#5
Vanessa Besson, Sergiy Kyryachenko, Peggy Janich, Salvador A Benitah, Giovanna Marazzi, David Sassoon
Pw1/Peg3 is a parentally imprinted gene expressed in adult stem cells in every tissue thus far examined including the stem cells of the hair follicle. Using a Pw1/Peg3 reporter mouse, we carried out a detailed dissection of the stem cells in the bulge, which is a major stem cell compartment of the hair follicle in mammalian skin. We observed that PW1/Peg3 expression initiates upon placode formation during fetal development, coincident with the establishment of the bulge stem cells. In the adult, we observed that PW1/Peg3 expression is found in both CD34+ and CD34- populations of bulge stem cells...
November 15, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837565/cryopreservation-of-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-maintains-differentiation-and-hair-growth-potential
#6
Robert M Hoffman, Satoshi Kajiura, Wenluo Cao, Fang Liu, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766026/immunohistochemical-study-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-in-regenerated-hair-follicles-induced-by-wnt10b
#7
Yiming Zhang, Yizhan Xing, Haiying Guo, Xiaogen Ma, Yuhong Li
The regulation of the periodic regeneration of hair follicles is complicated. Although Wnt10b has been reported to induce hair follicle regeneration, the characteristics of induced hair follicles, especially the target cells of Wnt10b, have not yet been clearly elucidated. Thus, we systematically evaluated the expression and proliferation patterns of Wnt10b-induced hair follicles. We found that Wnt10b promoted the proliferation of hair follicle stem cells from 24 hours after AdWnt10b injection. Seventy-two hours after AdWnt10b injection, cells outside of bulge area began to proliferate...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715423/regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-is-inhibited-by-low-dose-rate-gamma-irradiation
#8
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635399/skin-derived-precursors-against-uvb-induced-apoptosis-via-bcl-2-and-nrf2-upregulation
#9
Jianqiao Zhong, Li Li
Bcl-2 and Nrf2 are critical factors in protecting cells against UVB-induced apoptosis. Hair-follicle-bulge stem cells could resist ionization through Bcl-2 upregulation. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) dwelling on the bulge may be against UVB irradiation. Initially, SKPs were isolated and identified. Then, SKPs were exposed to UVB and grew in medium for 24 hours. CCK-8 assay, TUNEL, and Ki67 staining evaluated cells apoptosis/proliferation, while SA-βgal staining evaluated cells senescence and pH2AX immunostaining evaluated DNA damage...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627796/hypoxia-enhances-differentiation-of-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#10
Kyoumi Shirai, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Aiko Yamazaki, Natsuko Tohgi, Ryoichi Aki, Sumiyuki Mii, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the neural stem-cell marker nestin is expressed in hair follicle stem cells located in the bulge area which are termed hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. HAP stem cells from mouse and human could form spheres in culture, termed hair spheres, which are keratin 15-negative and CD34-positive and could differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that nestin-expressing stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574799/the-battle-of-the-bulge-re-evaluating-hair-follicle-stem-cells-in-wound-repair
#11
Clare L Garcin, David M Ansell
For many decades the capacity of the hair follicle (HF) to directly contribute to skin repair has been appreciated (s1-s4), although recent advances in transgenic mouse technology have heralded an explosion of research in this area (1-9, s5-s9). The HF bulge (see figure 1) is an epithelial stem cell (SC) compartment (1, 9, s10-s13) that has been of particular interest with regard to wound repair (2, 8, 9, s14), which is intriguing for a number of reasons (full discussion in supplemental text T1). This article is protected by copyright...
August 30, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558455/inactivation-of-tgf%C3%AE-receptors-in-stem-cells-drives-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Patrizia Cammareri, Aidan M Rose, David F Vincent, Jun Wang, Ai Nagano, Silvana Libertini, Rachel A Ridgway, Dimitris Athineos, Philip J Coates, Angela McHugh, Celine Pourreyron, Jasbani H S Dayal, Jonas Larsson, Simone Weidlich, Lindsay C Spender, Gopal P Sapkota, Karin J Purdie, Charlotte M Proby, Catherine A Harwood, Irene M Leigh, Hans Clevers, Nick Barker, Stefan Karlsson, Catrin Pritchard, Richard Marais, Claude Chelala, Andrew P South, Owen J Sansom, Gareth J Inman
Melanoma patients treated with oncogenic BRAF inhibitors can develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) within weeks of treatment, driven by paradoxical RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway activation. Here we identify frequent TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in human vemurafenib-induced skin lesions and in sporadic cSCC. Functional analysis reveals these mutations ablate canonical TGFβ Smad signalling, which is localized to bulge stem cells in both normal human and murine skin. MAPK pathway hyperactivation (through Braf(V600E) or Kras(G12D) knockin) and TGFβ signalling ablation (through Tgfbr1 deletion) in LGR5(+ve) stem cells enables rapid cSCC development in the mouse...
August 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536552/the-diagnostic-journey-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-i-a-real-world-survey-of-patient-and-physician-experiences
#13
Stefano Bruni, Christine Lavery, Alexander Broomfield
UNLABELLED: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease. Affected individuals have disease ranging from attenuated to severe with significant disease burden, disability, and premature death. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy and/or stem cell transplantation can reduce disease progression and improve outcomes. However, diagnosis is often delayed, particularly for patients with attenuated phenotypes. We conducted a survey of 168 patients and 582 physicians to explore health care seeking patterns and familiarity of physicians with MPS I symptoms...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525590/an-accurately-preorganized-ires-rna-structure-enables-eif4g-capture-for-initiation-of-viral-translation
#14
Shunsuke Imai, Parimal Kumar, Christopher U T Hellen, Victoria M D'Souza, Gerhard Wagner
Many viruses bypass canonical cap-dependent translation in host cells by using internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) in their transcripts; IRESs hijack initiation factors for the assembly of initiation complexes. However, it is currently unknown how IRES RNAs recognize initiation factors that have no endogenous RNA binding partners; in a prominent example, the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) interacts with the HEAT-1 domain of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). Here we report the solution structure of the J-K region of this IRES and show that its stems are precisely organized to position protein-recognition bulges...
September 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504592/nonpigmented-hair-removal-using-photodynamic-therapy-in-animal-model
#15
Hyoseung Shin, Ji-Seon Yoon, Wooseok Koh, Jin Yong Kim, Chang-Hyun Kim, Kang Min Han, Eo Jin Kim, Ohsang Kwon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lasers have been successfully used for decades to remove dark hair. However, laser removal of nonpigmented hair is challenging due to the lack of chromophores. The aim of this study was to use photodynamic therapy (PDT) to remove nonpigmented hair. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared the efficacy of permanent hair reduction in white BALB/c and black C57BL/6 mice treated with PDT or an 800-nm diode laser. We collected skin biopsy specimens and investigated post-PDT histologic changes and molecular changes...
October 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473595/the-arrector-pili-muscle-the-bridge-between-the-follicular-stem-cell-niche-and-the-interfollicular-epidermis
#16
Niloufar Torkamani, Nicholas Rufaut, Leslie Jones, Rodney Sinclair
Proximally, the arrector pili muscle (APM) attaches to the follicular stem cell niche in the bulge, but its distal properties are comparatively unclear. In this work, a novel method employing an F-actin probe, phalloidin, was employed to visualize the APM anatomy. Phalloidin staining of the APM was validated by comparison with conventional antibodies/stains and by generating three-dimensional reconstructions. The proximal attachment of the APM to the bulge in 8 patients with androgenic alopecia was studied using Masson's trichrome stain...
January 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464529/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-activates-hair-follicle-melanocytes-for-hair-pigmentation-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#17
Weiming Qiu, Hui Tang, Haiying Guo, Mingxing Lei, Hongtao Yan, Xiaohua Lian, Jinjin Wu
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) undergo cyclical activation and quiescence together with hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). This process is strictly controlled by the autonomous and extrinsic signaling environment. However, the modulation of factors important for the activation of McSCs for hair pigmentation remains unclear. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics vital signaling pathways involved in melanocyte growth and melanogenesis in vitro. To investigate whether TPA regulates quiescent McSCs for hair pigmentation, we topically smeared TPA on 7-week-old mouse dorsal skin and found that TPA stimulated hair growth and hair matrix pigmentation...
July 27, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452221/essential-role-of-polarity-protein-par3-for-epidermal-homeostasis-through-regulation-of-barrier-function-keratinocyte-differentiation-and-stem-cell-maintenance
#18
Noelle J A Ali, Martim Dias Gomes, Ronja Bauer, Susanne Brodesser, Catherin Niemann, Sandra Iden
Partitioning-defective (Par) proteins contribute to multiprotein complexes that drive cell polarity and fate in invertebrates. Of these, the ternary Par3-atypical protein kinase C-Par6 polarity complex mediates asymmetry in various systems, whereas Par3 and aPKC/Par6 can also act independently. aPKC-λ has recently been implicated in epidermal differentiation and stem cell fate; however, whether Par3 contributes to the homeostasis of adult stratified epithelia is currently unknown. Here, we provide functional evidence that epidermal Par3 loss disturbed the inside-out skin barrier, coinciding with altered expression and localization of principle tight junction components, and that epidermal differentiation and thickness were increased...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431257/protocols-for-cryopreservation-of-intact-hair-follicle-that-maintain-pluripotency-of-nestin-expressing-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells
#19
Satoshi Kajiura, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Katsumasa Kawahara, Lingna Li, Kensei Katsuoka, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells, the origin of which is above the bulge area, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. Cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells are described in this chapter. Intact hair follicles from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were cryopreserved by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium and storage in liquid nitrogen...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431256/highly-efficient-neural-differentiation-of-cd34-positive-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-stem-cells-induced-by-retinoic-acid-and-serum-free-medium
#20
Mohsen Sagha, Nowruz Najafzadeh
Neural differentiation of hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells residing in the bulge area is a promising autologous source for stem cell therapy. In the present chapter, we describe the identification and enrichment of CD34(+) HAP stem cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and induce them to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells using defined neural-induction media. The different neural cell populations arising during in vitro differentiation from HAP stem cells are characterized by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry assay...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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