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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630669/straight-round-the-twist-frustration-and-chirality-in-smectics-a
#1
Elisabetta A Matsumoto, Randall D Kamien, Gareth P Alexander
Frustration is a powerful mechanism in condensed matter systems, driving both order and complexity. In smectics, the frustration between macroscopic chirality and equally spaced layers generates textures characterized by a proliferation of defects. In this article, we study several different ground states of the chiral Landau-de Gennes free energy for a smectic liquid crystal. The standard theory finds the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase to be the ground state for chiral type II smectics. However, for very highly chiral systems, the hierarchical helical nanofilament phase can form and is stable over the TGB...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508174/preclinical-comparison-of-mechanistically-different-antiseizure-antinociceptive-and-or-antidepressant-drugs-in-a-battery-of-rodent-models-of-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain
#2
Misty D Smith, Jose H Woodhead, Laura J Handy, Timothy H Pruess, Fabiola Vanegas, Erin Grussendorf, Joel Grussendorf, Karen White, Karolina K Bulaj, Reisa K Krumin, Megan Hunt, Karen S Wilcox
The series of experiments herein evaluated prototype drugs representing different mechanisms of antiseizure, antinociceptive or antidepressant action in a battery of preclinical pain models in adult male CF#1 mice (formalin, writhing, and tail flick) and Sprague Dawley rats partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). In the formalin assay, phenytoin (PHT, 6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (VPA, 300 mg/kg), amitriptyline (AMI, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg), gabapentin (GBP, 30 and 70 mg/kg), tiagabine (TGB, 5 and 15 mg/kg), and acetominophen (APAP, 250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced both phases of the formalin response to ≤ 25% of vehicle-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444538/occurrence-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-apple-stem-pitting-virus-isolated-from-apples-in-china
#3
Guo-Jun Hu, Ya-Feng Dong, Zun-Ping Zhang, Xu-Dong Fan, Fang Ren, Zhengnan Li
Two primer pairs were used to detect apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR test. 82 out of the 141 randomly collected samples, from ten orchards in five provinces and regions of China, tested positive. In the positive samples forty-five (55%) were infected by ASPV and two other viruses. The full coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block (TGB) gene 1, 2 and 3 of partial ASPV isolates were subsequently cloned. The nucleotide and amino acid identities of 39 CP sequence variants from 31 Chinese apple samples were compared with that of previously reported ASPV isolates and were 67...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419296/urinary-podocyte-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-mrna-as-markers-for-disease-activity-and-progression-in-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-nephritis
#4
Akihiro Fukuda, Akihiro Minakawa, Yuji Sato, Takashi Iwakiri, Shuji Iwatsubo, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Masao Kikuchi, Kazuo Kitamura, Roger C Wiggins, Shouichi Fujimoto
Background.: Podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, with persistent podocyte loss being a major factor driving disease progression. Urinary podocyte mRNA is potentially useful for monitoring disease progression in both animal models and in humans. To determine whether the same principles apply to crescentic glomerular injury, a rat model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis was studied in parallel with a patient with anti-GBM nephritis. Methods...
April 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365210/resolution-of-cassava-infecting-alphaflexiviruses-molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-a-novel-group-of-potexviruses-lacking-the-tgb3-gene
#5
Ivan Lozano, Ana M Leiva, Jenyfer Jimenez, Elizabeth Fernandez, Monica Carvajal-Yepes, Maritza Cuervo, Wilmer J Cuellar
Several potexviruses (Family Alphaflexiviridae) have been reported infecting cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the Americas. They were isolated from severely diseased plants during the last 30-40 years and include: Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV), Cassava Caribbean mosaic virus (CsCaMV), Cassava Colombian symptomless virus (CsCSV) and Cassava virus X (CsVX). However, their definitive classification as distinct species remains unresolved for several reasons, including the lack of sequence data and unavailability of samples from original isolates...
March 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011102/variations-in-pain-and-function-before-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-comparison-between-swedish-and-australian-cohorts
#6
M M Dowsey, O Robertsson, M Sundberg, L S Lohmander, P F M Choong, A W-Dahl
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative pain and function is viewed as an important predictor of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes. We examined whether variations in pain and function outcomes existed at 12 months between two centres in Sweden and Australia, and whether this was explained by variations in patient presentation for TKA. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Patients from one centre in Australia (St. Vincent's Hospital (SVH), N = 516) and in Sweden (Trelleborg (TBG), N = 899) who underwent primary TKA between 2012 and 2013...
June 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863274/the-cysteine-residues-at-the-c-terminal-tail-of-bamboo-mosaic-virus-triple-gene-block-protein-2-are-critical-for-efficient-plasmodesmata-localization-of-protein-1-in-the-same-block
#7
Tsai-Ling Ho, Hsiang-Chi Lee, Yuan-Lin Chou, Yang-Hao Tseng, Wei-Cheng Huang, Chiung-Hua Wung, Na-Sheng Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ban-Yang Chang
The movement of some plant viruses are accomplished by three proteins encoded by a triple gene block (TGB). The second protein (TGBp2) in the block is a transmembrane protein. This study was aimed to unravel the mechanism underlying the relatively inefficient cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) caused by amino acid substitutions for the three Cys residues, Cys-109, Cys-112 and Cys-119, at the C-terminal tail of TGBp2. Results from confocal microscopy revealed that substitutions of the three Cys residues of TGBp2, especially Cys-109 and Cys-112, would reduce the efficiency of TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796545/biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-putative-new-potexvirus-infecting-senna-occidentalis
#8
Jorge A M Rezende, Viviana M Camelo-García, Sónia C S Andrade, José E Buriolla, Elliot W Kitajima, Ligia M L Duarte
In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of, production of polyclonal antibodies against, and development of biological assays for a putative new potexvirus, named senna mosaic virus (SenMV), found infecting Senna occidentalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The complete genome sequence of SenMV comprises 6775 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The genome organization is similar to those of other potexviruses, with five open reading frames coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the triple gene block (TGB 1, 2, and 3) proteins, and coat protein (CP)...
February 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596735/optically-biaxial-re-entrant-and-frustrated-mesophases-in-chiral-non-symmetric-liquid-crystal-dimers-and-binary-mixtures
#9
Vediappen Padmini, Palakurthy Nani Babu, Geetha G Nair, D S Shankar Rao, Channabasaveshwar V Yelamaggad
Sixteen optically active, non-symmetric dimers, in which cyanobiphenyl and salicylaldimine mesogens are interlinked by a flexible spacer, were synthesized and characterized. While the terminal chiral tail, in the form of either (R)-2-octyloxy or (S)-2-octyloxy chain attached to salicylaldimine core, was held constant, the number of methylene units in the spacer was varied from 3 to 10 affording eight pairs of (R & S) enantiomers. They were probed for their thermal properties with the aid of orthoscopy, conoscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction...
September 6, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555917/exergaming-xbox-kinect%C3%A2-versus-traditional-gym-based-exercise-for-postural-control-flow-and-technology-acceptance-in-healthy-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Gillian Barry, Paul van Schaik, Alasdair MacSween, John Dixon, Denis Martin
BACKGROUND: The use of exergaming is a potential alternative to traditional methods of balance training, which can be repetitive and somewhat monotonous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exergaming using XBOX Kinect™ versus traditional gym-based exercise with no virtual stimuli (TGB) on postural control, technology acceptance, flow experience and exercise intensity, in young healthy adults. METHODS: Fifty healthy active adults (age: 33.8 ± 12...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466022/acute-cognitive-impact-of-antiseizure-drugs-in-naive-rodents-and-corneal-kindled-mice
#11
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Fabiola Vanegas, Matthew J Mau, Tristan K Underwood, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are associated with cognitive liability in patients with epilepsy, thus ASDs without this risk would be preferred. Little comparative pharmacology exists with ASDs in preclinical models of cognition. Few pharmacologic studies exist on the acute effects in rodents with chronic seizures. Predicting risk for cognitive impact with preclinical models may supply valuable ASD differentiation data. METHODS: ASDs (phenytoin [PHT]; carbamazepine [CBZ]; valproic acid [VPA]; lamotrigine [LTG]; phenobarbital [PB]; tiagabine [TGB]; retigabine [RTG]; topiramate [TPM]; and levetiracetam [LEV]) were administered equivalent to maximal electroshock median effective dose ([ED50]; mice, rats), or median dose necessary to elicit minimal motor impairment (median toxic dose [TD50]; rats)...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431485/comparative-genomics-of-syntrophic-branched-chain-fatty-acid-degrading-bacteria
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Takashi Narihiro, Masaru K Nobu, Hideyuki Tamaki, Yoichi Kamagata, Yuji Sekiguchi, Wen-Tso Liu
The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading "Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp...
September 29, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331012/first-report-of-inherited-thyroxine-binding-globulin-deficiency-in-iran-caused-by-a-known-de-novo-mutation-in-serpina7
#13
Fahimeh Soheilipour, Hassan Fazilaty, Fatemeh Jesmi, William A Gahl, Babak Behnam
BACKGROUND: Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the main transporter of thyroid hormones in human serum, encoded by the gene TBG (SERPINA7), located in long arm of X-chromosome (Xq21-q22). Deficiency of SERPINA7 (serum protease inhibitor, clade A [alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin], member 7) leads to inherited TBG deficiency. Several mutations have been reported in the coding and noncoding regions of SERPINA7 in association with TGB deficiency. METHODS: Automated chemiluminescence immunoassays were used to determine TSH, free and total T4 and T3 (fT4, TT4, TT3) and TBG...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118327/a-novel-block-of-plant-virus-movement-genes
#14
Ekaterina A Lazareva, Alexander A Lezzhov, Tatiana V Komarova, Sergey Y Morozov, Manfred Heinlein, Andrey G Solovyev
Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV) is a recently discovered and so far poorly characterized bacilliform plant virus with a positive-stranded RNA genome consisting of three RNA species. Here, we demonstrate that the proteins encoded by the ORF2 and ORF3 in HGSV RNA2 are necessary and sufficient to mediate cell-to-cell movement of transport-deficient Potato virus X in Nicotiana benthamiana. These two genes represent a specialized transport module called a 'binary movement block' (BMB), and ORF2 and ORF3 are termed BMB1 and BMB2 genes...
June 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016773/attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-delivery-of-a-novel-dna-vaccine-induces-immune-responses-and-provides-protection-against-duck-enteritis-virus
#15
Xueyan Liu, Qing Liu, Kangpeng Xiao, Pei Li, Qiong Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qingke Kong
DNA vaccines are widely used to prevent and treat infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases; however, their relatively low immunogenicity is an obstacle to their use. In this study, we constructed a novel and universal DNA vaccine vector (pSS898) that can be used to build DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV) and other viruses that require DNA vaccines to provide protection. This vaccine vector has many advantages, including innate immunogenicity, efficient nuclear trafficking and resistance to attack from nucleases...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876433/molecular-detection-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-house-flies-musca-domestica-in-kitchens-farms-hospitals-and-slaughterhouses
#16
Reza Ranjbar, Morteza Izadi, Taghi T Hafshejani, Faham Khamesipour
Identifying disease vectors and pathogens is one of the key steps in controlling vector-borne diseases. This study investigated the possible role of house flies (Musca domestica) as vectors in the transmission of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Chaharmahal VA Bakhtiari and Isfahan provinces of Iran. House flies were captured from household kitchens, cattle farms, chicken farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals and slaughterhouses. Isolation of K. pneumoniae from external surfaces and guts of the flies was performed using MacConkey agar (MA) and thioglycollate broth (TGB)...
July 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539833/evaluation-of-a-bacillus-direct-fed-microbial-candidate-on-digesta-viscosity-bacterial-translocation-microbiota-composition-and-bone-mineralisation-in-broiler-chickens-fed-on-a-rye-based-diet
#17
J D Latorre, X Hernandez-Velasco, L R Bielke, J L Vicente, R Wolfenden, A Menconi, B M Hargis, G Tellez
1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB)...
2015: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26469099/effect-of-combined-treatment-with-at1-receptor-antagonists-and-tiagabine-on-seizures-memory-and-motor-coordination-in-mice
#18
Krzysztof Łukawski, Agnieszka Janowska, Stanisław J Czuczwar
BACKGROUND: Losartan and telmisartan, angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, are widely used antihypertensive drugs in patients. It is also known that arterial hypertension is often present in people with epilepsy, therefore, drug interactions between AT1 receptor antagonists and antiepileptic drugs can occur in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of tiagabine, a second-generation antiepileptic drug, in mice...
July 2015: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296665/translation-of-the-shallot-virus-x-tgb3-gene-depends-on-non-aug-initiation-and-leaky-scanning
#19
Alexander A Lezzhov, Vladimir A Gushchin, Ekaterina A Lazareva, Valery K Vishnichenko, Sergey Y Morozov, Andrey G Solovyev
Triple gene block (TGB), a conserved gene module found in the genomes of many filamentous and rod-shaped plant viruses, encodes three proteins, TGB1, TGB2 and TGB3, required for viral cell-to-cell movement through plasmodesmata and systemic transport via the phloem. The genome of Shallot virus X, the type species of the genus Allexivirus, includes TGB1 and TGB2 genes, but contains no canonical ORF for TGB3 protein. However, a TGB3-like protein-encoding sequence lacking an AUG initiator codon has been found in the shallot virus X (ShVX) genome in a position typical for TGB3 genes...
October 2015: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279398/chiral-dopants-and-the-twist-bend-nematic-phase-induction-of-novel-mesomorphic-behaviour-in-an-apolar-bimesogen
#20
Craig T Archbold, Edward J Davis, Richard J Mandle, Stephen J Cowling, John W Goodby
Herein we report studies on a bimesogen that exhibits a chiral twist bend nematic phase when doped with small weight percentages of a chiral material and a partial phase diagram constructed. At low concentrations a wide temperature range blue phase is observed, whereas at higher concentrations an additional 'nematic-like' mesophase was discovered at a lower temperature than the twist-bend nematic phase. In addition to an apparent isotropic-"isotropic" transition, the doped materials also exhibited a weakly birefringent phase upon annealing in the isotropic liquid phase, implying pretransitional behaviour in the same vein as that seen for TGB phases...
October 14, 2015: Soft Matter
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