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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121992/a-mouse-anti-myostatin-antibody-increases-muscle-mass-and-improves-muscle-strength-and-contractility-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-its-humanized-equivalent-domagrozumab-pf-06252616-increases-muscle-volume-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#1
Michael St Andre, Mark Johnson, Prashant N Bansal, Jeremy Wellen, Andrew Robertson, Alan Opsahl, Peter M Burch, Peter Bialek, Carl Morris, Jane Owens
BACKGROUND: The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice...
November 9, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107997/comparing-pseudo-absences-generation-techniques-in-boosted-regression-trees-models-for-conservation-purposes-a-case-study-on-amphibians-in-a-protected-area
#2
Francesco Cerasoli, Mattia Iannella, Paola D'Alessandro, Maurizio Biondi
Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) is one of the modelling techniques most recently applied to biodiversity conservation and it can be implemented with presence-only data through the generation of artificial absences (pseudo-absences). In this paper, three pseudo-absences generation techniques are compared, namely the generation of pseudo-absences within target-group background (TGB), testing both the weighted (WTGB) and unweighted (UTGB) scheme, and the generation at random (RDM), evaluating their performance and applicability in distribution modelling and species conservation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960907/malignant-pleural-effusion-from-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-diagnosed-by-pleural-effusion-cytology-a-case-report
#3
Konstantinos Kosmas, Anna Tsonou, Georgia Mitropoulou, Eufrosyni Salemi, Danai Kazi, Ageliki Theofanopoulou
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is by far the most common thyroid malignancy (over 85%) of all the thyroid cancers. It has excellent prognosis and 10-year survival rate in most of the cases (95%). Most of the tumors are indolent and do not recur or metastasize after removal. However, widespread metastases to lung, skeleton, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs may be observed. In rare instances, this disease may metastasize to the pleura and manifest as a malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and portend poor prognosis...
September 27, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888130/chiral-supramolecular-order-revealed-during-the-formation-of-calf-thymus-and-phage-dna-crystals
#4
Benedicto de Campos Vidal, Maria Luiza S Mello
The control of DNA packaging has been reported to be dependent on an ordered liquid-crystalline state. However, the textural characteristics that are typical of crystals and that resemble mesophases have not been reported for highly polymerized or even shorter types of DNA filaments under in vitro conditions that favor crystallization. Because DNA crystals are expected to exhibit particular textural optical anisotropies, pure and highly polymerized calf thymus DNA and simpler λ phage DNA were crystallized from solution drops and were analyzed using high-performance polarization microscopy with and without differential interference contrast (DIC) optics...
September 1, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869000/similarities-in-intracellular-transport-of-plant-viral-movement-proteins-bmb2-and-tgb3
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ekaterina A Lazareva, Alexander A Lezzhov, Sergey A Golyshev, Sergey Y Morozov, Manfred Heinlein, Andrey G Solovyev
The cell-to-cell transport of many plant viruses through plasmodesmata requires viral movement proteins (MPs) encoded by a 'triple gene block' (TGB) and termed TGB1, TGB2 and TGB3. TGB3 is a small integral membrane protein that contains subcellular targeting signals and directs both TGB2 and the helicase domain-containing TGB1 protein to plasmodesmata-associated structures. Recently, we described a 'binary movement block' (BMB) coding for two MPs, BMB1 and BMB2. The BMB2 protein associates with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, accumulates at plasmodesmata-associated membrane bodies and directs the BMB1 helicase to these structures...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630669/straight-round-the-twist-frustration-and-chirality-in-smectics-a
#6
Elisabetta A Matsumoto, Randall D Kamien, Gareth P Alexander
Frustration is a powerful mechanism in condensed matter systems, driving both order and complexity. In smectics, the frustration between macroscopic chirality and equally spaced layers generates textures characterized by a proliferation of defects. In this article, we study several different ground states of the chiral Landau-de Gennes free energy for a smectic liquid crystal. The standard theory finds the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase to be the ground state for chiral type II smectics. However, for very highly chiral systems, the hierarchical helical nanofilament phase can form and is stable over the TGB...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508174/preclinical-comparison-of-mechanistically-different-antiseizure-antinociceptive-and-or-antidepressant-drugs-in-a-battery-of-rodent-models-of-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain
#7
Misty D Smith, Jose H Woodhead, Laura J Handy, Timothy H Pruess, Fabiola Vanegas, Erin Grussendorf, Joel Grussendorf, Karen White, Karolina K Bulaj, Reisa K Krumin, Megan Hunt, Karen S Wilcox
The series of experiments herein evaluated prototype drugs representing different mechanisms of antiseizure, antinociceptive or antidepressant action in a battery of preclinical pain models in adult male CF#1 mice (formalin, writhing, and tail flick) and Sprague Dawley rats partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). In the formalin assay, phenytoin (PHT, 6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (VPA, 300 mg/kg), amitriptyline (AMI, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg), gabapentin (GBP, 30 and 70 mg/kg), tiagabine (TGB, 5 and 15 mg/kg), and acetominophen (APAP, 250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced both phases of the formalin response to ≤ 25% of vehicle-treated mice...
July 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444538/occurrence-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-of-apple-stem-pitting-virus-isolated-from-apples-in-china
#8
Guo-Jun Hu, Ya-Feng Dong, Zun-Ping Zhang, Xu-Dong Fan, Fang Ren, Zhengnan Li
Two primer pairs were used to detect apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR test. 82 out of the 141 randomly collected samples, from ten orchards in five provinces and regions of China, tested positive. In the positive samples forty-five (55%) were infected by ASPV and two other viruses. The full coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block (TGB) gene 1, 2 and 3 of partial ASPV isolates were subsequently cloned. The nucleotide and amino acid identities of 39 CP sequence variants from 31 Chinese apple samples were compared with that of previously reported ASPV isolates and were 67...
August 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419296/urinary-podocyte-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-mrna-as-markers-for-disease-activity-and-progression-in-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-nephritis
#9
Akihiro Fukuda, Akihiro Minakawa, Yuji Sato, Takashi Iwakiri, Shuji Iwatsubo, Hiroyuki Komatsu, Masao Kikuchi, Kazuo Kitamura, Roger C Wiggins, Shouichi Fujimoto
Background.: Podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, with persistent podocyte loss being a major factor driving disease progression. Urinary podocyte mRNA is potentially useful for monitoring disease progression in both animal models and in humans. To determine whether the same principles apply to crescentic glomerular injury, a rat model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis was studied in parallel with a patient with anti-GBM nephritis. Methods...
April 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365210/resolution-of-cassava-infecting-alphaflexiviruses-molecular-and-biological-characterization-of-a-novel-group-of-potexviruses-lacking-the-tgb3-gene
#10
Ivan Lozano, Ana M Leiva, Jenyfer Jimenez, Elizabeth Fernandez, Monica Carvajal-Yepes, Maritza Cuervo, Wilmer J Cuellar
Several potexviruses (Family Alphaflexiviridae) have been reported infecting cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the Americas. They were isolated from severely diseased plants during the last 30-40 years and include: Cassava common mosaic virus (CsCMV), Cassava Caribbean mosaic virus (CsCaMV), Cassava Colombian symptomless virus (CsCSV) and Cassava virus X (CsVX). However, their definitive classification as distinct species remains unresolved for several reasons, including the lack of sequence data and unavailability of samples from original isolates...
September 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011102/variations-in-pain-and-function-before-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-comparison-between-swedish-and-australian-cohorts
#11
M M Dowsey, O Robertsson, M Sundberg, L S Lohmander, P F M Choong, A W-Dahl
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative pain and function is viewed as an important predictor of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes. We examined whether variations in pain and function outcomes existed at 12 months between two centres in Sweden and Australia, and whether this was explained by variations in patient presentation for TKA. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Patients from one centre in Australia (St. Vincent's Hospital (SVH), N = 516) and in Sweden (Trelleborg (TBG), N = 899) who underwent primary TKA between 2012 and 2013...
June 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863274/the-cysteine-residues-at-the-c-terminal-tail-of-bamboo-mosaic-virus-triple-gene-block-protein-2-are-critical-for-efficient-plasmodesmata-localization-of-protein-1-in-the-same-block
#12
Tsai-Ling Ho, Hsiang-Chi Lee, Yuan-Lin Chou, Yang-Hao Tseng, Wei-Cheng Huang, Chiung-Hua Wung, Na-Sheng Lin, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ban-Yang Chang
The movement of some plant viruses are accomplished by three proteins encoded by a triple gene block (TGB). The second protein (TGBp2) in the block is a transmembrane protein. This study was aimed to unravel the mechanism underlying the relatively inefficient cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) caused by amino acid substitutions for the three Cys residues, Cys-109, Cys-112 and Cys-119, at the C-terminal tail of TGBp2. Results from confocal microscopy revealed that substitutions of the three Cys residues of TGBp2, especially Cys-109 and Cys-112, would reduce the efficiency of TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796545/biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-putative-new-potexvirus-infecting-senna-occidentalis
#13
Jorge A M Rezende, Viviana M Camelo-García, Sónia C S Andrade, José E Buriolla, Elliot W Kitajima, Ligia M L Duarte
In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of, production of polyclonal antibodies against, and development of biological assays for a putative new potexvirus, named senna mosaic virus (SenMV), found infecting Senna occidentalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The complete genome sequence of SenMV comprises 6775 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail. The genome organization is similar to those of other potexviruses, with five open reading frames coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the triple gene block (TGB 1, 2, and 3) proteins, and coat protein (CP)...
February 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596735/optically-biaxial-re-entrant-and-frustrated-mesophases-in-chiral-non-symmetric-liquid-crystal-dimers-and-binary-mixtures
#14
Vediappen Padmini, Palakurthy Nani Babu, Geetha G Nair, D S Shankar Rao, Channabasaveshwar V Yelamaggad
Sixteen optically active, non-symmetric dimers, in which cyanobiphenyl and salicylaldimine mesogens are interlinked by a flexible spacer, were synthesized and characterized. While the terminal chiral tail, in the form of either (R)-2-octyloxy or (S)-2-octyloxy chain attached to salicylaldimine core, was held constant, the number of methylene units in the spacer was varied from 3 to 10 affording eight pairs of (R & S) enantiomers. They were probed for their thermal properties with the aid of orthoscopy, conoscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction...
September 6, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555917/exergaming-xbox-kinect%C3%A2-versus-traditional-gym-based-exercise-for-postural-control-flow-and-technology-acceptance-in-healthy-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Gillian Barry, Paul van Schaik, Alasdair MacSween, John Dixon, Denis Martin
BACKGROUND: The use of exergaming is a potential alternative to traditional methods of balance training, which can be repetitive and somewhat monotonous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exergaming using XBOX Kinect™ versus traditional gym-based exercise with no virtual stimuli (TGB) on postural control, technology acceptance, flow experience and exercise intensity, in young healthy adults. METHODS: Fifty healthy active adults (age: 33.8 ± 12...
2016: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466022/acute-cognitive-impact-of-antiseizure-drugs-in-naive-rodents-and-corneal-kindled-mice
#16
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Fabiola Vanegas, Matthew J Mau, Tristan K Underwood, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are associated with cognitive liability in patients with epilepsy, thus ASDs without this risk would be preferred. Little comparative pharmacology exists with ASDs in preclinical models of cognition. Few pharmacologic studies exist on the acute effects in rodents with chronic seizures. Predicting risk for cognitive impact with preclinical models may supply valuable ASD differentiation data. METHODS: ASDs (phenytoin [PHT]; carbamazepine [CBZ]; valproic acid [VPA]; lamotrigine [LTG]; phenobarbital [PB]; tiagabine [TGB]; retigabine [RTG]; topiramate [TPM]; and levetiracetam [LEV]) were administered equivalent to maximal electroshock median effective dose ([ED50]; mice, rats), or median dose necessary to elicit minimal motor impairment (median toxic dose [TD50]; rats)...
September 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431485/comparative-genomics-of-syntrophic-branched-chain-fatty-acid-degrading-bacteria
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Takashi Narihiro, Masaru K Nobu, Hideyuki Tamaki, Yoichi Kamagata, Yuji Sekiguchi, Wen-Tso Liu
The syntrophic degradation of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) such as 2-methylbutyrate and isobutyrate is an essential step in the production of methane from proteins/amino acids in anaerobic ecosystems. While a few syntrophic BCFA-degrading bacteria have been isolated, their metabolic pathways in BCFA and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation as well as energy conservation systems remain unclear. In an attempt to identify these pathways, we herein performed comparative genomics of three syntrophic bacteria: 2-methylbutyrate-degrading "Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp...
September 29, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331012/first-report-of-inherited-thyroxine-binding-globulin-deficiency-in-iran-caused-by-a-known-de-novo-mutation-in-serpina7
#18
Fahimeh Soheilipour, Hassan Fazilaty, Fatemeh Jesmi, William A Gahl, Babak Behnam
BACKGROUND: Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is the main transporter of thyroid hormones in human serum, encoded by the gene TBG (SERPINA7), located in long arm of X-chromosome (Xq21-q22). Deficiency of SERPINA7 (serum protease inhibitor, clade A [alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin], member 7) leads to inherited TBG deficiency. Several mutations have been reported in the coding and noncoding regions of SERPINA7 in association with TGB deficiency. METHODS: Automated chemiluminescence immunoassays were used to determine TSH, free and total T4 and T3 (fT4, TT4, TT3) and TBG...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118327/a-novel-block-of-plant-virus-movement-genes
#19
Ekaterina A Lazareva, Alexander A Lezzhov, Tatiana V Komarova, Sergey Y Morozov, Manfred Heinlein, Andrey G Solovyev
Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV) is a recently discovered and so far poorly characterized bacilliform plant virus with a positive-stranded RNA genome consisting of three RNA species. Here, we demonstrate that the proteins encoded by the ORF2 and ORF3 in HGSV RNA2 are necessary and sufficient to mediate cell-to-cell movement of transport-deficient Potato virus X in Nicotiana benthamiana. These two genes represent a specialized transport module called a 'binary movement block' (BMB), and ORF2 and ORF3 are termed BMB1 and BMB2 genes...
June 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016773/attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-delivery-of-a-novel-dna-vaccine-induces-immune-responses-and-provides-protection-against-duck-enteritis-virus
#20
Xueyan Liu, Qing Liu, Kangpeng Xiao, Pei Li, Qiong Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qingke Kong
DNA vaccines are widely used to prevent and treat infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases; however, their relatively low immunogenicity is an obstacle to their use. In this study, we constructed a novel and universal DNA vaccine vector (pSS898) that can be used to build DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV) and other viruses that require DNA vaccines to provide protection. This vaccine vector has many advantages, including innate immunogenicity, efficient nuclear trafficking and resistance to attack from nucleases...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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