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Environmental load

Alexandra M Koenig, Laura Ramo-Fernández, Christina Boeck, Maria Umlauft, Markus Pauly, Elisabeth B Binder, Clemens Kirschbaum, Harald Gündel, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: The inconsistency in results of cortisol alterations after childhood maltreatment (CM) might arise due to the fact that no study so far considered the effects of environmental factors such as maltreatment load and genetic factors such as the influence of FKBP5 genotype on stress hormone regulation. This study analyzed the interaction between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 within the FKBP5 gene and the severity of maternal CM experiences (maltreatment load) on hair steroid levels of mother-infant-dyads...
April 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yasuaki Kanada, Ayami Katayama, Hideshi Ikemoto, Kana Takahashi, Mana Tsukada, Akio Nakamura, Shogo Ishino, Tadashi Hisamitsu, Masataka Sunagawa
Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms of abnormal defecation and abdominal discomfort. Psychological factors are well known to be involved in onset and exacerbation of IBS. A few studies have reported effectiveness of traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines in IBS treatment. Yokukansan (YKS) has been shown to have anti-stress and anxiolytic effects. We investigated the effect of YKS on defecation induced by stress and involvement of oxytocin (OT), a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, in order to elucidate the mechanism of YKS action...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Anthony Boucly, François Rochet, Quentin Arnoux, Jean-Jacques Gallet, Fabrice Bournel, Héloïse Tissot, Virginie Marry, Emmanuelle Dubois, Laurent Michot
The heterogeneous radiolysis of organic molecules in clays is a matter of considerable interest in astrochemistry and environmental sciences. However, little is known about the effects of highly ionizing soft X-rays. By combining monochromatized synchrotron source irradiation with in situ Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (in the mbar range), and using the synoptic view encompassing both the gas and condensed phases, we found the water and pyridine pressure conditions under which pyridine is decomposed in the presence of synthetic Sr2+ -hydroxyhectorite...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frank M Hauser, Janneke W Hulshof, Thorsten Rößler, Ralf Zimmermann, Michael Pütz
Chemical waste from the clandestine production of amphetamine is of forensic and environmental importance due to its illegal nature which often leads to dumping into the environment. In this study 27 aqueous amphetamine waste samples from controlled Leuckart reactions performed in Germany, the Netherlands and Poland were characterised to increase the knowledge about the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of such waste. Aqueous waste samples from different reaction steps were analysed to determine characteristic patterns which could be used for classification...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Tsuyoshi Honjo, Yuhwan Seo, Yudai Yamasaki, Nobumitsu Tsunematsu, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Hiroaki Yamato, Takehiko Mikami
The Olympic Games will be held in Tokyo in 2020 and the period will be the hottest period of the year in Japan. Marathon is a sport with a large heat load, and it is said that the risk of heat stroke rises more than other sports activities. The thermal environment of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic marathon course is analyzed by using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) map of the center area of Tokyo. The change due to the place, the effect of the shadow of the building, and the position on the course was analyzed from the distribution of WBGT and UTCI in the short-term analysis of sunny day from August 2 to August 6, 2014...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Huan Li, Feng Liu, Wei Peng, Kang Yan, Haixu Zhao, Ting Liu, Hui Cheng, Peixi Chang, Fangyan Yuan, Huanchun Chen, Weicheng Bei
Gram-negative bacteria have evolved numerous two-component systems (TCSs) to cope with external environmental changes. The CpxA/CpxR TCS consisting of the kinase CpxA and the regulator CpxR, is known to be involved in the biofilm formation and virulence of Escherichia coli . However, the role of CpxA/CpxR remained unclear in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , a bacterial pathogen that can cause porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP). In this report, we show that CpxA/CpxR contributes to the biofilm formation ability of A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yongqin Li, Mengchao Yao, Qiulian Zhou, Yan Cheng, Lin Che, Jiahong Xu, Junjie Xiao, Zhongming Shen, Yihua Bei
Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Janja Vidmar, Primož Oprčkal, Radmila Milačič, Ana Mladenovič, Janez Ščančar
Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) exhibit great potential for the removal of metal contaminants from wastewater. After their use, there is a risk that nZVI will remain dispersed in remediated water and represent potential nano-threats to the environment. Therefore, the behaviour of nZVI after remediation must be explored. To accomplish this, we optimised a novel method using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) for the sizing and quantification of nZVI in wastewater matrices...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chunmao Chen, Xianyang Yao, Qing X Li, Qinghong Wang, Jiahao Liang, Simin Zhang, Jie Ming, Zhiyuan Liu, Jingmin Deng, Brandon A Yoza
Phenols are industrially generated intermediate chemicals found in wastewaters that are considered a class of environmental priority pollutants. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors are used for phenolic wastewater treatment and exhibit high volume loading capability, favorable granule settling, and tolerance to impact loads. Use of support materials can promote biological productivity and accelerate start-up period of UASB. In the present study, turf soil was used as a support material in a mesophilic UASB reactor for the removal of phenols in wastewater...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Carissa Lyons, Ted Brown, Helen Bourke-Taylor
BACKGROUND/AIM: Occupational therapists offer a unique perspective regarding the contribution of the environment to occupational performance. Therefore, a scale that measures the unique characteristics of the primary school classroom environment where children complete their daily schoolwork occupations is needed. The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a new teacher-report questionnaire that measures a number of environmental characteristics of primary school classrooms...
April 16, 2018: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Katherine L Forsyth, Hunter J Hawthorne, Nibras El-Sherif, Rachelen S Varghese, Vickie K Ernste, Jordyn Koenig, Renaldo C Blocker
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe interruptions experienced by emergency nurses and establish convergence validity of 1 objective workload measure by linking interruption characteristics to objective and subjective measures of workload. METHODS: Interruptions were captured in real time across 8- or 12-hour shifts using a previously validated Workflow Interruptions Tool (WIT). Data collected on each interruption included type, priority, and location where the interruption occurred...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
Corine Orline Nzeteu, Anna Christine Trego, Florence Abram, Vincent O'Flaherty
Background: Nowadays, the vast majority of chemicals are either synthesised from fossil fuels or are extracted from agricultural commodities. However, these production approaches are not environmentally and economically sustainable, as they result in the emission of greenhouse gases and they may also compete with food production. Because of the global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is an urgent interest in developing alternative sustainable sources of chemicals. In recent years, organic waste streams have been investigated as attractive and sustainable feedstock alternatives...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ashish Kumar Nayak, Anjali Pal
In this research, the performance of naturally abundant lignocellulosic by-product, Abelmoschus esculentus, and its processed seed powder referred as AESP, as a potential biosorbent for the removal of acridine orange (AO) from the aqueous environment was examined. The AESP biosorbent was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pHZPC analyses. The average size of the biosorbent according to particle size distribution analysis was found to be ∼132 μm...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Carlos Valdes, Gonzalo Bustos, Jose L Martinez, Claudio Laurido
Pain is a sensory experience of a complex physiological nature in which is not only involved the nervous system. Among its many features is the development of chronic pain that is more complicated to treat because of the central somatization processes involved, becoming inefficient treatments used in other forms of pain. Among them is the role of glial cells, whose participation is such that some authors have proposed to chronic pain as a gliopathy. Because of this, the drug target of possible treatments focuses on modulating nociceptive response affecting transduction into the central nervous system through affecting synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
2018: PloS One
Pedro Daleo, Juan Alberti, Ari Jumpponen, Allison Veach, Florencia Ialonardi, Oscar Iribarne, Brian Silliman
Microbial community assembly is affected by a combination of forces that act simultaneously, but the mechanisms underpinning their relative influences remain elusive. This gap strongly limits our ability to predict human impacts on microbial communities and the processes they regulate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that increased salinity stress, food web alteration and nutrient loading interact to drive outcomes in salt marsh fungal leaf communities. Both salinity stress and food web alterations drove communities to deterministically diverge, resulting in distinct fungal communities...
April 12, 2018: Ecology
Josep Mas-Pla, Anna Menció
Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Adriana Paola Manfredi, Ignacio Ballesteros, Felicia Sáez, Nora Inés Perotti, María Alejandra Martínez, María José Negro
This work focuses a whole process assessment on post-harvesting sugarcane residues for 2G ethanol production by different saccharification-fermentation conditions at high solids loading, performed after steam explosion, alkaline and acidic pretreatments. Carbohydrate recoveries and enzymatic digestibility results showed that alkali and steam explosion pretreatments were effective for the biomass assayed. Due to a significant improvement (60%) of the glucose released by combining hemicellulases and cellulases only after the NaOH pretreatment, the most favorable process settled comprised an alkali-based pretreatment followed by a pre-saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF)...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Emily M Bock, Brady S L Coleman, Zachary M Easton
Denitrifying bioreactors are recently-established agricultural best management practices with growing acceptance in the US Midwest but less studied in other agriculturally significant regions, such as the US Mid-Atlantic. A bioreactor was installed in the Virginia Coastal Plain to evaluate performance in this geographically novel region facing challenges managing nutrient pollution. The 25.3 m3 woodchip bed amended with 10% biochar (v/v) intercepted subsurface drainage from 6.5 ha cultivated in soy. Influent and effluent nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and flowrate were monitored intensively during the second year of operation...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhengjian Yang, Bao Cheng, Yaqian Xu, Defu Liu, Jun Ma, Daobin Ji
Eutrophication has become a severe environmental problem in some tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. A two-year field investigation of nutrients, oxygen stable isotopes (δ18 O), and hydrogen stable isotopes (δD) was performed from January 2010 to December 2011 to determine the sources of nutrients in Xiangxi Bay (XXB). The results showed that nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon varied seasonally depending on hydrodynamic changes. The bottom-layer intrusive density current decreased nitrogen and silicon concentrations and increase phosphorus concentrations in XXB, while the middle-layer intrusive density current increased nitrogen and silicon concentrations and decrease phosphorus concentrations...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lucas Tadeu Fuess, Marcelo Loureiro Garcia, Marcelo Zaiat
Sugarcane vinasse has been widely used as a soil fertilizer in the Brazilian sucro-alcohol industry for recycling potassium and water. However, the potential negative effects from long-term soil fertirrigation represent a major drawback regarding this practice, whereas the application of biodigestion represents an efficient method for reducing the polluting organic load and recovering bioenergy from vinasse. Regardless of the predicted use for vinasse, an understanding of the potential of each option is imperative, as the seasonal alterations in the inorganic/organic fractions of vinasse directly affect its management...
April 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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