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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437740/stabilization-of-metal-loid-s-in-two-contaminated-agricultural-soils-comparing-biochar-to-its-non-pyrolysed-source-material
#1
Lukáš Trakal, Irene Raya-Moreno, Kerry Mitchell, Luke Beesley
Two metal(loid) contaminated agricultural soils were amended with grape stalk (wine production by-product)-derived biochar as well as its pre-pyrolysed origin material, to investigate their geochemical impacts on As, Cr, Cu and Zn. Detailed physico-chemical evaluation combined with a column leaching test determined the retention of metal(loid)s from soil solution by each amendments. A pot experiment measured metal(loid)s in soil pore water and their uptake to ryegrass when the amendments were mixed into soils at 1 and 5% (w/w)...
April 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432508/estimation-of-environmental-flow-incorporating-water-quality-and-hypothetical-climate-change-scenarios
#2
Bendangtola Walling, Shushobhit Chaudhary, C T Dhanya, Arun Kumar
Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432449/enteroparasitoses-and-toxocarosis-affecting-children-from-mar-del-plata-city-argentina
#3
Carla Lavallén, Beatriz Brignani, Karina Riesgo, Amalia Rojas, Gabriela Colace, Martín Biscaychipi, Estela Chicote, Cristian Giuntini, Mariela Kifer, María Eugenia Del Río, Guillermo Denegri, Marcela Dopchiz
This study evaluated the existence of enteroparasitoses and toxocarosis in children of peripheral (PC) and urban communities (UC) from Mar del Plata city (Argentina) and their associations with socio-environmental conditions. A Parasite Vulnerability Index (PVI) was elaborated using variables such as overcrowding, floor type, drinking water source, wastewater disposal, solid waste disposal, presence of animals and schooling level. The PC evidenced statistically significant higher frequencies of families with high (38...
April 21, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426988/solar-photocatalytic-application-of-nbo2oh-as-alternative-photocatalyst-for-water-treatment
#4
Luana Márcia Bezerra Batista, Alexsandro Jhones Dos Santos, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Paula de Melo Alves, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle
Water recycling and industrial effluents remediation are a hot topic of research to reduce the environmental impact of the human activity. Persistent organic pollutants are highly recalcitrant compounds with hazardous effects associated to their fate in water bodies. Several novel technologies have been developed during the last decades to deal with this novel contamination. However, the natural sources and idiosyncrasy of each country lead to the potential application of different technologies. In this context, we have focused on the development of phocotalytic treatment of solutions containing dyes using a novel photocatalytic material, the NbO2OH...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426285/the-yin-and-yang-of-autism-genetics-how-rare-de-novo-and-common-variations-affect-liability
#5
Pauline Chaste, Kathryn Roeder, Bernie Devlin
The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is complex, involving both genetic and environmental contributions to individual and population-level liability. Early researchers hypothesized that ASD arises from polygenic inheritance, but later results, such as the identification of mutations in certain genes that are responsible for syndromes associated with ASD, led others to propose that de novo mutations of major effect would account for most cases. This yin and yang of monogenic causes and polygenic inheritance continues to this day...
April 19, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420134/visual-detection-and-tracking-system-for-a-spherical-amphibious-robot
#6
Shuxiang Guo, Shaowu Pan, Liwei Shi, Ping Guo, Yanlin He, Kun Tang
With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system was designed and implemented in this study. Given the restrictions presented by the amphibious environment and the small-sized spherical amphibious robot, an industrial camera and vision algorithms using adaptive appearance models were adopted to construct the proposed system. To handle the problem of light scattering and absorption in the underwater environment, the multi-scale retinex with color restoration algorithm was used for image enhancement...
April 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419875/falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-comparison-of-community-and-home-based-falls
#7
Robyn M Lamont, Meg E Morris, Hylton B Menz, Jennifer L McGinley, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Falls are common and debilitating in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and restrict participation in daily activities. Understanding circumstances of falls in the community and at home may assist clinicians to target therapy more effectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of community and home fallers and the circumstances that contribute to falls in people living with PD. METHODS: People with mild-moderately severe PD (n=196) used a daily falls diary and telephone hotline to report prospectively the occurrence, location and circumstances of falls over 14 months...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418639/supermagnetically-tuned-halloysite-nanotubes-functionalized-with-aminosilane-for-covalent-laccase-immobilization
#8
Avinash A Kadam, Jiseon Jang, Dae Sung Lee
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were tuned with supermagnetic Fe3O4 (M-HNTs) and functionalized with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (A-M-HNTs). Gluteraldehyde (GTA) was linked to A-M-HNTs (A-M-HNTs-GTA) and explored for the covalent laccase immobilization. The structural characterization of M-HNTs, A-M-HNTs, and A-M-HNTs-GTA immobilized laccase (A-M-HNTs-GTA-Lac) was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission high resolution transmission electron microscopy, magnetic property measurement system, and thermogavimetric analyses...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418198/stress-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-recurrent-seizures-in-adults
#9
Elisa Baldin, W Allen Hauser, Alison Pack, Dale C Hesdorffer
OBJECTIVE: The literature is sparse on the complex interrelationships between stressors, depression, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between stress and epilepsy. We evaluated whether markers of stress are associated with seizure recurrence in a low income community-based cohort of adults with single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We ascertained adult residents of Northern Manhattan and Harlem, New York City, with a first unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy, between December 2010 and January 2013...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417632/evidence-of-multiple-sorption-modes-in-layered-double-hydroxides-using-mo-as-structural-probe
#10
Bin Ma, Alejandro Fernandez-Martinez, Sylvain Grangeon, Christophe Tournassat, Nathaniel Findling, Francis Claret, Ayumi Koishi, Nicolas C M Marty, Delphine Tisserand, Sarah Bureau, Eduardo Salas-Colera, Erik Elkaim, Carlo Marini, Laurent Charlet
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been considered as effective phases for the remediation of aquatic environments, to remove anionic contaminants mainly through anion exchange mechanisms. Here, a combination of batch isotherm experiments and X-ray techniques was used to examine molybdate (MoO42-) sorption mechanisms on CaAl LDHs with increasing loadings of molybdate. Advanced modelling of aqueous data shows that the sorption isotherm can be interpreted by three retention mechanisms, including two types of edge sites complexes, interlayer anion exchange, and CaMoO4 precipitation...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405217/bioprocessing-of-tea-oil-fruit-hull-with-acetic-acid-organosolv-pretreatment-in-combination-with-alkaline-h2o2
#11
Song Tang, Rukuan Liu, Fubao Fuelbiol Sun, Chunying Dong, Rui Wang, Zhongyuan Gao, Zhanying Zhang, Zhihong Xiao, Changzhu Li, Hui Li
BACKGROUND: As a natural renewable biomass, the tea oil fruit hull (TOFH) mainly consists of lignocellulose, together with some bioactive substances. Our earlier work constructed a two-stage solvent-based process, including one aqueous ethanol organosolv extraction and an atmospheric glycerol organosolv (AGO) pretreatment, for bioprocessing of the TOFH into diverse bioproducts. However, the AGO pretreatment is not as selective as expected in removing the lignin from TOFH, resulting in the limited delignification and simultaneously high cellulose loss...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404774/changes-in-the-location-of-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-hot-spots-across-the-seafloor-landscape-with-increasing-sediment-nutrient-loading
#12
Simon F Thrush, Judi E Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A M Lohrer, Conrad A Pilditch, Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403608/immobilization-of-a-cutinase-from-fusarium-oxysporum-and-application-in-pineapple-flavor-synthesis
#13
Efstratios Nikolaivits, Georgios Makris, Evangelos Topakas
In the present study, the immobilization of a cutinase from Fusarium oxysporum was carried out as cross-linked enzyme aggregates. Under optimal immobilization conditions, acetonitrile was selected as precipitant, utilizing 9.4 mg protein/mL and 10 mM glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The immobilized cutinase (imFocut5a) was tested in isooctane for the synthesis of short-chain butyrate esters, displaying enhanced thermostability compared to the free enzyme. Pineapple flavor (butyl butyrate) synthesis was optimized, leading to a conversion yield of >99% after 6 h, with an initial reaction rate of 18...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403165/triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-accumulate-prevalence-more-slowly-than-diploid-salmon-following-bath-challenge-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#14
Lindsey J Moore, Tom Ole Nilsen, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399992/microbial-quality-of-irrigation-water-used-in-leafy-green-production-in-southern-brazil-and-its-relationship-with-produce-safety
#15
Luana Tombini Decol, Letícia Sopeña Casarin, Claudia Titze Hessel, Ana Carolina Fösch Batista, Ana Allende, Eduardo César Tondo
Irrigation water has been recognized as an important microbial risk factor for fruits and vegetables in many production areas, but there is still a lack of information about how the microbiological quality of different irrigation water sources and climatic conditions influence the safety of vegetables produced in Brazil. This study evaluated the distribution of generic E. coli and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in two different water sources (ponds and streams bordering farmlands and urban areas) used for irrigation and on commercially produced lettuces in Southern Brazil...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399497/performance-of-surface-and-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetlands-treating-eutrophic-waters
#16
C Hernández-Crespo, S Gargallo, V Benedito-Durá, Beatriz Nácher-Rodríguez, M A Rodrigo-Alacreu, M Martín
Three medium size constructed wetlands (CWs) with a total surface of 90ha are working since 2009 in the Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (Spain). Two of them are fed with eutrophic waters from l'Albufera Lake. Their objectives are both reduce the phytoplankton biomass and increase the biodiversity; consequently, improved water quality is returned to the lake. A "science based governance" of these CWs is ongoing inside the LIFE+12 Albufera Project to demonstrate the environmental benefits of these features...
April 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399482/functionalized-polymer-iron-oxide-hybrid-nanofibers-electrospun-filtration-devices-for-metal-oxyanion-removal
#17
Katherine T Peter, Adam J Johns, Nosang V Myung, David M Cwiertny
Via a single-pot electrospinning synthesis, we developed a functionalized polymer-metal oxide nanofiber filter for point of use (POU) water treatment of metal oxyanions (e.g., arsenate and chromate). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) functionalization was accomplished by inclusion of surface-active, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB)] that provide strong base ion exchange sites. Embedded iron oxide [ferrihydrite (Fh)] nanoparticles were used for their established role as metal sorbents...
April 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398246/direct-electrochemical-detection-of-bisphenol-a-using-a-highly-conductive-graphite-nanoparticle-film-electrode
#18
Xinwei Dong, Xiaoli Qi, Na Liu, Yuesuo Yang, Yunxian Piao
We developed an accurate and sensitive sensor for electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA) with a high-conductivity graphite nanoparticle (GN) film electrode. The GNs consisted of several stacked graphene sheets and showed a homogenous spherical shape, high conductivity, large surface area and good adsorption properties to BPA. The constructed GN film electrode exhibited improved amperometric current responses such as decreased impedance and lowered BPA oxidation potential compared with those of a pristine electrode, and also possessed a large surface area to allow fast electron transfer and BPA accumulation...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396491/differences-in-swimming-ability-and-its-response-to-starvation-among-male-and-female-gambusia-affinis
#19
Jiangtao Li, Xiaotao Lin, Zhongneng Xu, Jun Sun
To explore the differences in the swimming ability and environmental adaptive abilities between male and female Gambusia affinis, we assessed the differences in burst swimming speeds (Uburst), critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) and their related fin areas, and consumption of energy substances after starvation at 0 (control group), 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. The results showed that the pectoral and caudal fin areas did not differ significantly between male and female G. affinis However, the dry mass, condition factors, and absolute contents of glycogen, lipids, and proteins were significantly elevated in females in the control group (P<0...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394932/radar-detection-of-pedestrian-induced-vibrations-on-michelangelo-s-david
#20
Massimiliano Pieraccini, Michele Betti, Davide Forcellini, Devis Dei, Federico Papi, Gianni Bartoli, Luca Facchini, Riccardo Corazzi, Vladimir Cerisano Kovacevic
This paper summarizes the results of a two-day dynamic monitoring of Michelangelo's David subject to environmental loads (city traffic and pedestrian loading induced by tourists visiting the Accademia Gallery). The monitoring was carried out by a no-contact technique using an interferometric radar, whose effectiveness in measuring the resonant frequencies of structures and historic monuments has proved over the last years through numerous monitoring activities. Owing to the dynamic behavior of the measurement system (radar and tripod), an accelerometer has been installed on the radar head to filter out the movement component of the measuring instrument from the measurement of the David's displacement...
2017: PloS One
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