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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330099/thermomyces-lanuginosus-lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-natural-flavor-esters-in-a-continuous-flow-microreactor
#1
Ahmad Mohammed Gumel, M S M Annuar
Enzymatic catalysis is considered to be among the most environmental friendly processes for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this study, lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lecitase Ultra™) was used to catalyze the synthesis of flavor esters, i.e., methyl butanoate and methyl benzoate by esterification of the acids with methanol in a microfluidic system. Maximum reaction rates of 195 and 115 mM min(-1) corresponding to catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K M) of 0.30 and 0.24 min(-1) mM(-1) as well as yield conversion of 54 and 41 % were observed in methyl butanoate and methyl benzoate synthesis, respectively...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330088/metals-induced-functional-stress-in-sulphate-reducing-thermophiles
#2
Ali Hussain, Javed Iqbal Qazi
All toxic metals have been known to inhibit different activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at different concentrations. The present study delineates functional responses of two thermophilic SRB species (Desulfotomaculum reducens-HA1 and Desulfotomaculum hydrothermale-HA2) to toxic metals. Bacterial activity was assessed in terms of sulphate reduction and metal precipitation employing four concentrations (1, 5, 10 and 15 ppm) of three dissolved toxic metals (Cu, Cr and Ni) independently. Both sulphidogenic bacterial species showed results in a very narrow range of fluctuations...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328040/purification-of-baso4-precipitate-contaminated-with-organic-matter-for-oxygen-isotope-measurements-%C3%AE-18-o-and-%C3%AE-17-o
#3
Luhua Xie, Baruch Spiro, Gangjian Wei
RATIONALE: Sulfate precipitates are often contaminated with nitrates and organic materials (OM), which reduce the precision and accuracy of measurements of δ(18) O and Δ(17) O values in the sulfate. Although nitrates can be effectively removed using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid solution, removing OM from the precipitates is often difficult. One effective approach is to heat powdered precipitates to high temperatures. In this study, the effect of this procedure on the δ(18) O and Δ(17) O values of BaSO4 precipitate was fully examined...
July 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326997/removal-of-phenol-by-powdered-activated-carbon-prepared-by-residue-extracted-from-coal-gasification-tar-residue
#4
Jun Shen, Xiong-Lei Wang, Yan-Xia Niu, Yu-Gao Wang, Gang Liu, Qing-Tao Sheng
coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous by-product generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The extracted CGTR by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC) and applied for phenol adsorption. The results showed that the prepared PAC under the optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances the PAC had a strong magnetic, easy to be separated after adsorbing phenol...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#5
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324713/monolithic-cobalt-doped-carbon-aerogel-for-efficient-catalytic-activation-of-peroxymonosulfate-in-water
#6
Peidong Hu, Mingce Long, Xue Bai, Cheng Wang, Caiyun Cai, Jiajun Fu, Baoxue Zhou, Yongfeng Zhou
As an emerging carbonaceous material, carbon aerogels (CAs) display a great potential in environmental cleanup. In this study, a macroscopic three-dimensional monolithic cobalt-doped carbon aerogel was developed by co-condensation of graphene oxide sheets and resorcinol-formaldehyde resin in the presence of cobalt ions, followed by lyophilization, carbonization and thermal treatment in air. Cobalt ions were introduced as a polymerization catalyst to bridge the organogel framework, and finally cobalt species were retained as both metallic cobalt and Co3O4, wrapped by graphitized carbon layers...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322436/modelling-hydraulic-transport-and-anaerobic-uptake-by-paos-and-gaos-during-wastewater-feeding-in-ebpr-granular-sludge-reactors
#7
David G Weissbrodt, Christof Holliger, Eberhard Morgenroth
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322209/complex-interactive-effects-of-water-mold-herbicide-and-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-on-pacific-treefrog-hyliola-regilla-hosts
#8
John M Romansic, James E Johnson, R Steven Wagner, Rebecca H Hill, Christopher A Gaulke, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew R Blaustein
Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global biodiversity. However, their ecological impacts are not independent of environmental conditions. For example, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has contributed to population declines and extinctions in many amphibian species, interacts with several environmental factors to influence its hosts, but potential interactions with other pathogens and environmental contaminants are understudied. We examined the combined effects of Bd, a water mold (Achlya sp...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321634/a-preliminary-study-about-the-potential-effects-of-heavy-metals-on-the-human-male-reproductive-parameters-in-hiv-infected-population-in-china
#9
Renyan Li, Letian Zhao, Lianbing Li, Zhiwei Hou, Danyan Zhang, Ling Wan, Li Wei, Yuyou Yang, Jing Lv, Mingfu Ma, Yijian Zhu
Due to the inconsistent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the human male reproduction in previous studies and the impacts of environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, on male reproduction receiving little attention in HIV-infected population, the aim of present study was to investigate whether heavy metals have potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men. The current study assessed the associations between semen quality or serum hormone and concentration of the three heavy metal toxicants (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)) in seminal, urine, and serum, and 50 HIV-infected men were recruited in the present study...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319034/sc-co-sub-2-sub-assisted-process-for-high-energy-density-aerogel-supercapacitor-the-effect-of-go-loading
#10
Maria Sarno, Lucia Baldino, Carmela Scudieri, Stefano Cardea, Paolo Ciambelli, Ernesto Reverchon
Energy density, safety, simple and environmentally friendly preparation methods are very significant aspects in the realization of a compact supercapacitor. Herein we report the use of a supercritical CO2 assisted gel drying process (SC-CO2) for the preparation of porous electrodes containing dispersed graphene in a Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) binder membrane to sandwich in a new portable supercapacitor based on graphene oxide (GO). A GO loading of 60 wt.% has been found to give the better combination of factors (porosity, wettability, mechanical and electrochemical properties,...
March 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318825/riparian-erosion-vulnerability-model-based-on-environmental-features
#11
Alejandra Botero-Acosta, Maria L Chu, Jorge A Guzman, Patrick J Starks, Daniel N Moriasi
Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314235/primary-and-secondary-pesticide-drift-profiles-from-a-peach-orchard
#12
Ohad Zivan, Yardena Bohbot-Raviv, Yael Dubowski
Atmospheric drift is considered a major loss path of pesticide from target areas, but there is still a large gap of knowledge regarding this complex phenomenon. Pesticide drift may occur during application (Primary drift) and after it (Secondary drift). The present study focuses on primary and secondary drift from ground applications in peach orchard (tree height of 3 m), under Mediterranean climate. Detailed and prolonged vertical drift profiles at close proximity to orchard are presented, together with detailed measurements of key meteorological parameters...
March 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304130/the-focus-on-chemicals-alone-in-human-dominated-ecosystems-is-inappropriate
#13
G Allen Burton
As the earth's human population continues to increase, mega-cities rapidly expand, and agriculture tries to meet their needs - ecosystems are increasingly dominated by humans. This, of course, equates to increased loadings of eroded soils, nutrients, and chemicals along with more degraded habitat. Governments will continue to struggle to address these conflicting issues and must adapt into more effective and efficient management modes. The traditional focus on using chemical-specific guidelines as the foundation of environmental protection and restoration no longer is sufficient and must move to a more realistic and effective approach...
March 17, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299471/a-comparison-study-of-the-potential-risks-induced-in-arable-land-and-forest-soils-by-carcass-derived-pollutants
#14
Il Han, Keunje Yoo, Bo Ram Kang, Jee Hyun No, Gui Nam Wee, Muhammad Imran Khan, Tae Young Jeong, Tae Kwon Lee
Improper decisions concerning animal carcass disposal sites pose grave threats to environmental biosecurity. However, only a few studies have focused on the effects of different land-use types on the composition of carcass-derived pollutants and microbial responses to the disturbances. This study was conducted using soil microcosms with minced pork built from arable land and forest soils for 5 weeks. To compare the risk induced from different land-use types by carcass burial, the soil properties, the microbial community, and multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria were evaluated for microcosm containing 0, 1...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298464/the-achilles-tendon-is-mechanosensitive-in-older-adults-adaptations-following-14%C3%A2-weeks-versus-1-5%C3%A2-years-of-cyclic-strain-exercise
#15
Gaspar Epro, Andreas Mierau, Jonas Doerner, Julian A Luetkens, Lukas Scheef, Guido M Kukuk, Henning Boecker, Constantinos N Maganaris, Gert-Peter Brüggemann, Kiros Karamanidis
The aging musculoskeletal system experiences a general decline in structure and function, characterized by a reduced adaptability to environmental stress. We investigated whether the older human Achilles tendon (AT) demonstrates mechanosensitivity (via biomechanical and morphological adaptations) in response to long-term mechanical loading. Thirty-four female adults (60-75 years) were allocated to either a medium-term (14 weeks; N=21) high AT strain cyclic loading exercise intervention or a control group (N=13), with 12 participants continuing with the intervention for 1...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298154/advanced-characterisation-of-encapsulated-lipid-powders-regarding-microstructure-by-time-domain-nuclear-magnetic-resonance
#16
Annika Linke, Theresa Anzmann, Jochen Weiss, Reinhard Kohlus
Encapsulation is an established technique to protect sensitive materials from environmental stress. In order to understand the physical protection mechanism against oxidation, knowledge about the powder microstructure is required. Time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has the potential to determine the surface oil (SO) and droplet size distribution by relaxation and restricted self-diffusion, respectively. The amount of SO, the retention and encapsulation efficiency are determined based on a lipid balance...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297182/bilateral-asymmetry-in-the-human-pelvis
#17
Helen K Kurki
Asymmetry of the human axial skeleton has received much less attention that of the limb skeleton. Pelvic morphology is subject to multiple selective factors, including bipedal locomotion and obstetrics, among others, as well as environmental factors such as biomechanical loading. How these various factors influence or restrict asymmetry of the pelvis is unknown and few studies have investigated levels and patterns of pelvic asymmetry. This study examines percentage directional (%DA) and absolute (%AA) asymmetry in 14 bilaterally paired dimensions of the pelvic canal, non-canal pelvis, and femur in female (n = 111) and male (n = 126) skeletons from nine geographically dispersed skeletal samples...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295667/a-novel-potassium-ion-based-dual-ion-battery
#18
Bifa Ji, Fan Zhang, Xiaohe Song, Yongbing Tang
In this work, combining both advantages of potassium-ion batteries and dual-ion batteries, a novel potassium-ion-based dual-ion battery (named as K-DIB) system is developed based on a potassium-ion electrolyte, using metal foil (Sn, Pb, K, or Na) as anode and expanded graphite as cathode. When using Sn foil as the anode, the K-DIB presents a high reversible capacity of 66 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) over the voltage window of 3.0-5.0 V, and exhibits excellent long-term cycling performance with 93% capacity retention for 300 cycles...
March 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295202/in-situ-esterification-and-extractive-fermentation-for-butyl-butyrate-production-with-clostridium-tyrobutyricum
#19
Zhong-Tian Zhang, Steven Taylor, Yi Wang
Butyl butyrate (BB) is a valuable chemical that can be used as flavor, fragrance, extractant, etc. in various industries. Meanwhile, BB can also be used as a fuel source with excellent compatibility as gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel components. The conventional industrial production of BB is highly energy-consuming and generates various environmental pollutants. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in producing BB from renewable resources through biological routes. In this study, based on the fermentation using the hyper-butyrate producing strain Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, efficient BB production through in situ esterification was achieved by supplementation of lipase and butanol into the fermentation...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288378/preparation-of-a-stable-aqueous-suspension-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-by-a-green-method-for-applications-in-biomaterials
#20
Xiang Ji, Yahui Song, Jing Han, Lin Ge, Xiaoxiang Zhao, Chen Xu, Yongqiang Wang, Di Wu, Haixia Qiu
A green approach for the preparation of a stable reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspension from graphene oxide (GO) has been developed. This method uses l-serine (l-Ser) as the reductant and yellow dextrin (YD) as the stabilizing agent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses showed that l-Ser can efficiently reduce GO at a comparatively low temperature, and that the YD adsorbed onto the RGO facilitating the formation of a stable RGO aqueous suspension...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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