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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213304/photocatalytic-effects-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-aquatic-organisms-current-knowledge-and-suggestions-for-future-research
#1
REVIEW
Vena N Haynes, J Evan Ward, Brandon J Russell, Alexander G Agrios
Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms...
February 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212931/uv-protective-poly-lactic-acid-rosin-films-for-sustainable-packaging
#2
Meenu Narayanan, Sravanthi Loganathan, Ravi Babu Valapa, Sabu Thomas, T O Varghese
Recently, biopolymer based plastic materials are regarded as potential alternative for conventional plastics of fossil fuel origin in order to compensate depleting petroleum resources and address environmental pollution issues. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one among the biopolymers which is rapidly commercialized for food packaging application. However, the demerits accompanied with PLA like brittle nature, slower crystallization rate, poor gas barrier and high ultraviolet radiation transmission properties confines its commercial application in food packaging sector...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211052/life-history-strategy-determines-constraints-on-immune-function
#3
Benjamin J Parker, Seth M Barribeau, Alice M Laughton, Lynn H Griffin, Nicole M Gerardo
1)Determining the factors governing investment in immunity is critical for understanding host-pathogen ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Studies often consider disease resistance in the context of life-history theory, with the expectation that investment in immunity will be optimized in anticipation of disease risk. Immunity, however, is constrained by context-dependent fitness costs. How the costs of immunity vary across life-history strategies has yet to be considered. 2)Pea aphids are typically unwinged but produce winged offspring in response to high population densities and deteriorating conditions...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197136/characterization-of-the-genomic-diversity-of-norovirus-in-linked-patients-using-a-metagenomic-deep-sequencing-approach
#4
Neda Nasheri, Nicholas Petronella, Jennifer Ronholm, Sabah Bidawid, Nathalie Corneau
Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. A robust cell culture system does not exist for NoV and therefore detailed characterization of outbreak and sporadic strains relies on molecular techniques. In this study, we employed a metagenomic approach that uses non-specific amplification followed by next-generation sequencing to whole genome sequence NoV genomes directly from clinical samples obtained from 8 linked patients. Enough sequencing depth was obtained for each sample to use a de novo assembly of near-complete genome sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193261/prevalence-of-dengue-and-diversity-of-cultivable-bacteria-in-vector-aedes-aegypti-l-from-two-dengue-endemic-districts-kanchanpur-and-parsa-of-nepal
#5
Srinivas Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Rojina Shrestha, Ganga Gc, Bidya Shrestha, Basu Dev Pandey, Ishan Gautam
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, an endemic arboviral disease, represents one of the major public health concerns in Nepal. It is transmitted by bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the former being primary vector. The bacterial community plays a significant role in biology of mosquitoes; however, the bacterial communities of primary vector A. aegypti remain unstudied in Nepal. The study was designed to determine the rate of dengue seropositivity and to explore the bacterial diversity of A...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193061/metal-organic-frameworks-for-resonant-gravimetric-detection-of-trace-level-xylene-molecules
#6
Tao Xu, Pengcheng Xu, Dan Zheng, Haitao Yu, Xinxin Li
As one of typical VOCs, xylene is seriously harmful to human health. Nowadays, however, there is really lack of portable sensing method to directly detect environmental xylene that has chemical inertness. Especially when the concentration of xylene is lower than the human olfactory threshold of 470 ppb, people are indeed hard to be aware of and avoid this harmful vapor. Herein the metal-organic framework (MOF) of HKUST-1 is first explored for sensing to the nonpolar molecule of p-xylene. And the sensing mechanism is identified that is via host-guest interaction of MOF with xylene molecule...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192495/is-your-dog-empathic-developing-a-dog-emotional-reactivity-survey
#7
Flóra Szánthó, Ádám Miklósi, Enikő Kubinyi
Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190334/regenerative-polysulfide-scavenging-layers-enabling-lithium-sulfur-batteries-with-high-energy-density-and-prolonged-cycling-life
#8
Fang Liu, Qiangfeng Xiao, Hao Bin Wu, Fei Sun, Xiaoyan Liu, Fan Li, Zaiyuan Le, L I Shen, Ge Wang, Mei Cai, Yunfeng Lu
Lithium-sulfur batteries, notable for high theoretical energy density, environmental benignity and low cost, hold great potentials for next-generation energy storage. Polysulfides, the intermediates generated during cycling, may shuttle between electrodes, compromising the energy density and cycling life. We report herein a class of regenerative polysulfide-scavenging layers (RSL), which effectively immobilize and regenerate polysulfides, especially for electrodes with high sulfur loadings (e.g. 6 mg cm-2)...
February 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188208/quantitative-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-soil-samples-using-multiple-gene-targets-in-real-time-pcr
#9
A Göhler, T T Trung, V Hopf, C Kohler, J Hartleib, V Wuthiekanun, S J Peacock, D Limmathurotsakul, A Tuanyok, I Steinmetz
Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment is a prerequisite to assess the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a qPCR targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomallei in soil by validating novel qPCR gene targets selected from comparative genomic analysis...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187137/controlling-viral-outbreaks-quantitative-strategies
#10
Anna Mummert, Howard Weiss
Preparing for and responding to outbreaks of serious livestock infectious diseases are critical measures to safeguard animal health, public health, and food supply. Almost all of the current control strategies are empirical, and mass culling or "stamping out" is frequently the principal strategy for controlling epidemics. However, there are ethical, ecological, and economic reasons to consider less drastic control strategies. Here we use modeling to quantitatively study the efficacy of different control measures for viral outbreaks, where the infectiousness, transmissibility and death rate of animals commonly depends on their viral load...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185730/microorganisms-and-heavy-metals-associated-with-atmospheric-deposition-in-a-congested-urban-environment-of-a-developing-country-sri-lanka
#11
Lakshika Weerasundara, R W K Amarasekara, D N Magana-Arachchi, Abdul M Ziyath, D G G P Karunaratne, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Meththika Vithanage
The presence of bacteria and heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were investigated in Kandy, Sri Lanka, which is a typical city in the developing world with significant traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were analyzed for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb which are heavy metals common to urban environments. Al and Fe were found in high concentrations due to the presence of natural sources, but may also be re-suspended by vehicular traffic. Relatively high concentrations of toxic metals such as Cr and Pb in dissolved form were also found...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185360/effect-of-environmental-impedance-surrounding-a-radiofrequency-ablation-catheter-electrode-on-lesion-characteristics
#12
Duy T Nguyen, Kianna Nguyen, Lijun Zheng, Joseph Schuller, Matthew Zipse, Wendy S Tzou, William H Sauer
INTRODUCTION: The electrical conductivity of the environment surrounding a catheter electrode may affect radiofrequency (RF) current. A higher impedance environment enveloping a catheter tip can be insulating and thus direct RF preferentially into targeted cardiac tissue. We sought to evaluate whether different environmental impedances will affect RF lesions. METHODS: An ex vivo model using bovine myocardium, load cell, and 4 mm ablation catheter was tested using a circulating bath of normal (0...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185097/change-in-the-relative-contributions-of-habit-and-working-memory-facilitates-serial-reversal-learning-expertise-in-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Thomas C Hassett, Robert R Hampton
Functionally distinct memory systems likely evolved in response to incompatible demands placed on learning by distinct environmental conditions. Working memory appears adapted, in part, for conditions that change frequently, making rapid acquisition and brief retention of information appropriate. In contrast, habits form gradually over many experiences, adapting organisms to contingencies of reinforcement that are stable over relatively long intervals. Serial reversal learning provides an opportunity to simultaneously examine the processes involved in adapting to rapidly changing and relatively stable contingencies...
February 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177412/the-contribution-of-rice-agriculture-to-methylmercury-in-surface-waters-a-review-of-data-from-the-sacramento-valley-california
#14
K Christy Tanner, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Jacob A Fleck, Kenneth W Tate, Stephen A McCord, Bruce A Linquist
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a bioaccumulative pollutant produced in and exported from flooded soils, including those used for rice ( L.) production. Using unfiltered aqueous MeHg data from MeHg monitoring programs in the Sacramento River watershed from 1996 to 2007, we assessed the MeHg contribution from rice systems to the Sacramento River. Using a mixed-effects regression analysis, we compared MeHg concentrations in agricultural drainage water from rice-dominated regions (AgDrain) to MeHg concentrations in the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, both upstream and downstream of AgDrain inputs...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174695/the-effect-of-oral-vaccination-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-on-the-development-of-tuberculosis-in-captive-european-badgers-meles-meles
#15
Mark A Chambers, Frank Aldwell, Gareth A Williams, Si Palmer, Sonya Gowtage, Roland Ashford, Deanna J Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Francisco J Salguero, Alejandro Nunez, Allan K Nadian, Timothy Crawshaw, Leigh A L Corner, Sandrine Lesellier
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165010/limb-proportions-show-developmental-plasticity-in-response-to-embryo-movement
#16
A S Pollard, B G Charlton, J R Hutchinson, T Gustafsson, I M McGonnell, J A Timmons, A A Pitsillides
Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162248/magnetic-assessment-and-pollution-status-of-beach-sediments-from-kerala-coast-southwestern-india
#17
Marcos A E Chaparro, G Suresh, Mauro A E Chaparro, V Ramasamy, M Sundarrajan
Natural and anthropogenic activities along the coastal region of densely populated Kerala may introduce hazardous components into the coastal environment. The present study aimed to investigate the sources and impacts of hazardous components in beach sediments by environmental magnetism methods as additional tools. Magnetic parameters (such as mass-specific magnetic susceptibility χ=-1.2-154.4×10(-8)m(3)kg(-1)) and ratios that describe the magnetic properties of minerals such as Fe-oxides, indicate variable concentration of mixtures of magnetite and hematite (magnetite/hematite)...
February 2, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161204/chemical-alternatives-assessment-of-different-flame-retardants-a-case-study-including-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-as-synergist
#18
REVIEW
Karin Aschberger, Ivana Campia, Laia Quiros Pesudo, Anita Radovnikovic, Vittorio Reina
Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. Halogenated FRs (HFRs) are widely used because of their low impact on other material properties and the low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. Health and environmental hazards associated with some halogenated FRs have driven research for identifying safer alternatives. A variety of halogen-free FRs are available on the market, including organic (phosphorus and nitrogen based chemicals) and inorganic (metals) materials...
February 1, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160738/on-the-mechanical-behaviour-of-peek-and-ha-cranial-implants-under-impact-loading
#19
D Garcia-Gonzalez, J Jayamohan, S N Sotiropoulos, S-H Yoon, J Cook, C R Siviour, A Arias, A Jérusalem
The human head can be subjected to numerous impact loadings such as those produced by a fall or during sport activities. These accidents can result in skull fracture and in some complex cases, part of the skull may need to be replaced by a biomedical implant. Even when the skull is not damaged, such accidents can result in brain swelling treated by decompressive craniectomy. Usually, after recovery, the part of the skull that has been removed is replaced by a prosthesis. In such situations, a computational tool able to analyse the choice of prosthesis material depending on the patient's specific activity has the potential to be extremely useful for clinicians...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160702/safety-assessment-of-nanopesticides-using-the-roundworm-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Mauricio T Jacques, Jhones L Oliveira, Estefânia V R Campos, Leonardo F Fraceto, Daiana Silva Ávila
The extensive use of pesticides is causing environmental pollution, affecting animal organisms in different habitats and also leading human health at risk. In this study, we present as an alternative the use of nanoparticles loaded with pesticides and report their toxicological assessment to a soil organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Three nanoparticle formulations were analyzed: solid lipid nanoparticles loaded or not with atrazine and simazine, SLN; polymeric nanoparticles, NC_PCL loaded with atrazine; and chitosan/tripolyphosphate, CS/TPP, loaded or not with paraquat...
February 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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