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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474732/resource-investments-in-reproductive-growth-proportionately-limit-investments-in-whole-tree-vegetative-growth-in-young-olive-trees-with-varying-crop-loads
#1
Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Raeed Al Hariri, Alessio Morelli, Franco Famiani
It has long been debated whether tree growth is source limited, or whether photosynthesis is adjusted to the actual sink demand, directly regulated by internal and environmental factors. Many studies support both possibilities, but no studies have provided quantitative data at the whole-tree level, across different cultivars and fruit load treatments. This study investigated the effect of different levels of reproductive growth on whole-tree biomass growth across two olive cultivars with different growth rates (i...
February 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471475/assessing-viral-transfer-during-doffing-of-ebola-level-personal-protective-equipment-in-a-biocontainment-unit
#2
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471024/in-situ-antimicrobial-behavior-of-materials-having-copper-based-additives-in-a-hospital-environment
#3
Humberto Palza, Mauricio Nuñez, Roberto Bastías, Katherine Delgado
Copper and its alloys are recognized as effective antimicrobial surface materials at the laboratory scale as well as in clinical trials. Copper has been used in the healthcare setting to reduce environmental contamination and thus prevent healthcare-associated infections, complementing traditional protocols. The addition of copper nanoparticles to polymer/plastic matrices can also produce antimicrobial materials as confirmed under laboratory conditions. However, there is a lack of studies validating the antimicrobial behavior of these nanocomposite materials in clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467039/influence-of-lifestyle-characteristics-and-vdr-polymorphisms-as-risk-factors-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-a-case-control-study
#4
Luiz Angelo Vieira, Aline Amaro Dos Santos, Carla Peluso, Caio Parente Barbosa, Bianca Bianco, Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is an important cause of low back pain and its precise aetiology is not fully understood, being attributed to cumulative environmental, biomechanical and genetic effects. The vitamin D plays a key role in regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, exerting its biological activities by binding to a high-affinity receptor (VDR). Polymorphisms in VDR gene were previously associated with DD process, however with conflicting results...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463026/the-nile-rat-arvicanthis-niloticus-as-a-superior-carbohydrate-sensitive-model-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm
#5
REVIEW
Avinaash Subramaniam, Michelle Landstrom, Alice Luu, K C Hayes
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1) they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2) unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3) and they take too long to develop diabetes...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462686/plga-nanoformulation-of-sparfloxacin-enhanced-antibacterial-activity-with-photoprotective-potential-under-ambient-uv-r-exposure
#6
Jyoti Singh, Ashish Dwivedi, Lipika Ray, Deepti Chopra, Divya Dubey, Ajeet K Srivastva, Smita Kumari, Randheer Kumar, Saroj Kumar Amar, Chandana Haldar, Ratan Singh Ray
Sparfloxacin (SPFX) is a broad spectrum antibiotic which inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme activity. However, photodegradation in the presence of UVA limits its antibacterial activity and induces phototoxicity. Thus, to encounter this problem, we have developed poly d,l-lactic-co- glycolic acid (PLGA) loaded SPFX nanoparticles. Here, we have performed a comparative antibacterial activity of SPFX and its nanoparticles (NPs) through molecular docking and plate sensitivity assay. Under environmental UVA exposure, photoexcited SPFX significantly generates ROS, DNA damage and mitochondrial mediated cell death in comparison to PLGA-SPFX-NPs (nano SPFX) in human skin cell line (HaCaT)...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457858/postsynthetic-functionalization-of-three-dimensional-covalent-organic-framework-for-selective-extraction-of-lanthanide-ions
#7
Qianrong Fang, Qiuyu Lu, Yunchao Ma, Hui Li, Xinyu Guan, Yusran Yusran, Ming Xue, Yushan Yan, Shilun Qiu, Valentin Valtchev
Chemical Functionalization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is critical to tune their properties and broaden their potential applications. However, the introduction of functional groups especially in three-dimensional (3D) COFs still remains largely unexplored. Here we report a general strategy for generating a 3D carboxyl-functionalized COF through postsynthetic modification of a hydroxyl COF, and for the first time explore the carboxyl COF for selective extraction of lanthanide ions. The obtained COF shows high crystalllinity, good chemical stability, and large specific surface area...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455151/nutrient-management-via-struvite-precipitation-and-recovery-from-various-agroindustrial-wastewaters-process-feasibility-and-struvite-quality
#8
Raffaele Taddeo, Mari Honkanen, Kari Kolppo, Raghida Lepistö
Improving environmental protection and finding sustainable and renewable resources of nutrients are core issues in circular bioeconomy. Thus, this study evaluated the efficiency of recovering struvite, MgNH4 PO4 ·6H2 O, from different agro-industrial wastewaters (four highly loaded reject waters of anaerobically co-digested agro-industrial waste and a raw swine slurry) and assessed the quality of recovered struvite crystals and their reusability as fertilizer. The efficiency of crystallization (Ec 40-80%) and amount of struvite in the precipitate (Pp 55-94%) highly varied due to the characteristics of influent wastewaters, particularly to the content of competing elements, such as alkaline and heavy metals and total solids (TS)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455137/can-the-watershed-non-point-phosphorus-pollution-be-interpreted-by-critical-soil-properties-a-new-insight-of-different-soil-p-states
#9
Chen Lin, Ronghua Ma, Junfeng Xiong
The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454530/system-dynamics-model-of-taxi-management-in-metropolises-economic-and-environmental-implications-for-beijing
#10
Hao Wang, Kai Zhang, Junhua Chen, Zhifeng Wang, Guijun Li, Yuqi Yang
Taxis are an important component of urban passenger transport. Research on the daily dispatching of taxis and the utility of governmental management is important for the improvement of passenger travel, taxi driver income and environmental impacts. However, urban taxi management is a complex and dynamic system that is affected by many factors, and positive/negative feedback relationships and nonlinear interactions exist between each subsystem and variable. Therefore, conventional research methods can hardly depict its characteristics comprehensively...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454203/metals-and-arsenic-in-fish-from-a-ramsar-site-under-past-and-present-human-pressures-consumption-risk-factors-to-the-local-population
#11
Paloma Kachel Gusso-Choueri, Giuliana Seraphim de Araújo, Ana Carolina Feitosa Cruz, Tatiana Roselena de Oliveira Stremel, Sandro Xavier de Campos, Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro, Rodrigo Brasil Choueri
The risk of metals and As in seafood for traditional populations living in a Marine Protected Areas (MPA) is seldom assessed, although the risk of human exposure to contaminants is one of the indicators associated with the socioeconomic goals of MPAs. The current study aimed to estimate the potential risk of some metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic (As) for human health through the ingestion of fish locally harvested in a Ramsar site, the Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Environmental Protected Area (APA-CIP). Previous studies showed environmental impacts in this area due to former mining activities and urbanization...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450477/cyclic-compression-of-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-disc-constructs-composed-of-electrospinning-polycaprolactone
#12
Andrea Fotticchia, Emrah Demirci, Cristina Lenardi, Y Liu
There is lack of investigation capturing the complex mechanical interaction of tissue engineered IVD (intervertebral disc) constructs in physiologically-relevant environmental conditions. In this study, mechanical characterisation of anisotropic eletrospinning (ES) substrates made of polycaprolactone (PCL) was carried out in wet and dry conditions and viability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded within double layers of ES PCL was also studied. Cyclic compression of IVD-like constructs composed of an agarose core confined by ES PCL double-layers was implemented using a bioreactor and the cellular response to the mechanical stimulation was evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449111/a-comparative-study-of-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-food-waste-and-wheat-straw-process-stability-and-microbial-community-structure-shifts
#13
Xuchuan Shi, Xianglin Guo, Jiane Zuo, Yajiao Wang, Mengyu Zhang
Renewable energy recovery from organic solid waste via anaerobic digestion is a promising way to provide sustainable energy supply and eliminate environmental pollution. However, poor efficiency and operational problems hinder its wide application of anaerobic digestion. The effects of two key parameters, i.e. temperature and substrate characteristics on process stability and microbial community structure were studied using two lab-scale anaerobic reactors under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Both the reactors were fed with food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS)...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444646/lack-of-association-between-cigarette-smoking-and-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-in-the-nasopharynx-in-people-with-elevated-ebv-iga-antibody-titres
#14
Yufeng Chen, Yifei Xu, Weilin Zhao, Xue Xiao, Xiaoying Zhou, Longde Lin, Tingting Huang, Jian Liao, Yancheng Li, Xiaoyun Zeng, Guangwu Huang, Weimin Ye, Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUND: Subjects with elevated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin A (IgA) titers have a higher risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), indicating that reactivation of EBV in the local mucosa might be important for NPC carcinogenesis. Cigarette smoking appears to be one of the environmental risk factors for NPC. However, it remains unclear whether smoking-induced nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis acts through reactivating EBV in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and nasopharyngeal EBV reactivation in a NPC high-risk population...
February 14, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439498/advances-in-targeted-pesticides-with-environmentally-responsive-controlled-release-by-nanotechnology
#15
REVIEW
Bingna Huang, Feifei Chen, Yue Shen, Kun Qian, Yan Wang, Changjiao Sun, Xiang Zhao, Bo Cui, Fei Gao, Zhanghua Zeng, Haixin Cui
Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations...
February 11, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438563/new-concepts-in-anammox-processes-for-wastewater-nitrogen-removal-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#16
Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez, Barbara Muñoz-Palazon, Alejandro Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jesus Gonzalez-Lopez
The discovering of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (anammox) process led to the development of autotrophic nitrogen removal systems for the treatment of effluents with low C:N rate. The anammox processes provide an efficient way to remove high concentrations of ammonium compounds from industrial and urban wastewater and covert them to dinitrogen. Nevertheless, recently obtained results suggest new ways for research on autotrophic nitrogen removal system including possibility for low temperature operation, adaptation to high organic matter loads and antibiotics inhibition effect...
February 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435679/geospatial-distribution-of-metal-loid-s-and-human-health-risk-assessment-due-to-intake-of-contaminated-groundwater-around-an-industrial-hub-of-northern-india
#17
Rachit Kashyap, K S Verma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal, S K Bhardwaj
The study focused on analyzing concentrations of metal(loid)s, their geospatial distribution in groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India. Human health risk posed due to the intake of contaminated groundwater was also evaluated. For this, 240 samples were assayed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. For risk assessment, the methodology proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency was adopted. Geometric mean of Al, As, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn was 193...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432999/spatial-optimization-of-cropping-pattern-for-sustainable-food-and-biofuel-production-with-minimal-downstream-pollution
#18
P V Femeena, K P Sudheer, R Cibin, I Chaubey
Biofuel has emerged as a substantial source of energy in many countries. In order to avoid the 'food versus fuel competition', arising from grain-based ethanol production, the United States has passed regulations that require second generation or cellulosic biofeedstocks to be used for majority of the biofuel production by 2022. Agricultural residue, such as corn stover, is currently the largest source of cellulosic feedstock. However, increased harvesting of crops residue may lead to increased application of fertilizers in order to recover the soil nutrients lost from the residue removal...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431589/development-of-a-golf-specific-load-monitoring-tool-content-validity-and-feasibility
#19
Scott B Williams, Paul B Gastin, Anna E Saw, Sam Robertson
Athletes often record details of their training and competitions, supported by information such as environmental conditions, travel, as well as how they felt. However, it is not known how prevalent these practices are in golfers, or how valuable this process is perceived. The purpose of this study was to develop a golf-specific load monitoring tool (GLMT), and establish the content validity and feasibility of this tool amongst high-level golfers. In the first phase of development, 21 experts were surveyed to determine the suitability of items for inclusion in the GLMT...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429708/morphology-and-size-controlled-synthesis-of-a-metal-organic-framework-under-ultrasound-irradiation-an-efficient-carrier-for-ph-responsive-release-of-anti-cancer-drugs-and-their-applicability-for-adsorption-of-amoxicillin-from-aqueous-solution
#20
Reza Abazari, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Cameron L Carpenter-Warren
In this study, we have reported a biocompatible metal-organic framework (MOF) with ultra-high surface area, which we have shown to have uses as both a cancer treatment delivery system and for environmental applications. Using a sonochemical approach, highly flexible organic H3BTCTB and ditopic 4,4'-BPDC ligands, along with modulators of acetic acid and pyridine were combined to prepare a Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework, DUT-32, [Zn4O(BPDC)(BTCTB)4/3(DEF)39.7(H2O)11.3]. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize, the particle size, shape, and structure of the DUT-32...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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