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Environmental load

Richard Olawoyin, Linda Schweitzer, Kuangyuan Zhang, Oladapo Okareh, Kevin Slates
The impacts of air emissions as a consequence of industrial activities around communities of human habitation have been extensively reported. This study is the first to assess potential adverse human health effects in the Chemical Valley Sarnia (CVS) area, around the St. Clair River, using health risk models, ecological and pollution indices. Large quantities of particulate matters (PM) are generated from anthropogenic activities, which contain several heavy metals in trace quantities with potentially adverse effects to humans and environmental health...
October 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Asgar Ebadollahi, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Alireza Aliakbar
Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Lukas Mustajärvi, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Elena Gorokhova, Annika Jahnke, Anna Sobek
Environmental mixtures of chemicals consist of a countless number of compounds with unknown identity and quantity. Yet, chemical regulation is mainly built around the assessment of single chemicals. Existing frameworks for assessing the toxicity of mixtures require that both the chemical composition and quantity are known. Quantitative analyses of the chemical composition of environmental mixtures are however extremely challenging and resource-demanding. Bioassays may therefore serve as a useful approach for investigating the combined toxicity of environmental mixtures of chemicals in a cost-efficient and holistic manner...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lynn El Haddad, Shashank S Ghantoji, Mark Stibich, Jason B Fleming, Cindy Segal, Kathy M Ware, Roy F Chemaly
BACKGROUND: Environmental cleanliness is one of the contributing factors for surgical site infections in the operating rooms (ORs). To decrease environmental contamination, pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV), an easy and safe no-touch disinfection system, is employed in several hospital environments. The positive effect of this technology on environmental decontamination has been observed in patient rooms and ORs during the end-of-day cleaning but so far, no study explored its feasibility between surgical cases in the OR...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Peter J Reeve, Howard J Fallowfield
The objective of this review is to highlight the need for further investigation of microbial toxicity caused by desorption of surfactant from Surfactant Modified Zeolite (SMZ). SMZ is a low cost, versatile permeable reactive media which has the potential to treat multiple classes of contaminants. With this combination of characteristics, SMZ has significant potential to enhance water and wastewater treatment processes. Surfactant desorption has been identified as a potential issue for the ongoing usability of SMZ...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Lai Peng, José M Carvajal-Arroyo, Dries Seuntjens, Delphine Prat, Giovanni Colica, Cristina Pintucci, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
The implementation of nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) as alternative to nitrification/denitrification (N/DN) is driven by operational cost savings, e.g. 1.0-1.8 EUR/ton slurry treated. However, as for any biological nitrogen removal process, Nit/DNit can emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Challenges remain in understanding formation mechanisms and in mitigating the emissions, particularly at a low ratio of organic carbon consumption to nitrogen removal (CODrem/Nrem). In this study, the centrate (centrifuge supernatant) from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry was treated in a sequencing batch reactor...
September 29, 2017: Water Research
Mei Zhang, Yali Ma, Rongjun Li, Jiehui Zeng, Ziqi Li, Yajun Tang, Dahui Sun
In this study, we fabricated recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with core-shell structuresand particle sizes ranging from 2.5-8μm by coaxial electrospraying. The manufacturing process of core-shell microspheres by coaxial electrosprayingis simpler than thatwith other methods, and a smaller diameter can be obtained. The microspheres were analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Ali Bashiri Rezaie, Majid Montazer, Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad
In this paper, a facile environmentally friendly method is introduced for in-situ synthesis and fabrication of cauliflower-like CuO nanoparticles on the polyester fabric to produce photo and biocatalytic activities with UV protection properties on polyester fabric. The ash of burnt leaves and stems of Seidlitzia rosmarinus plant called Keliab was used as a natural and nontoxic alkaline source for simultaneous synthesis of CuO nanoparticles and surface modification of polyester without using any other compounds...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Bahram Choubin, Hamid Darabi, Omid Rahmati, Farzaneh Sajedi-Hosseini, Bjørn Kløve
Suspended sediment load (SSL) modelling is an important issue in integrated environmental and water resources management, as sediment affects water quality and aquatic habitats. Although classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms have been applied successfully to ecological and geomorphological modelling, their applicability to SSL estimation in rivers has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated use of a CART model to estimate SSL based on hydro-meteorological data. We also compared the accuracy of the CART model with that of the four most commonly used models for time series modelling of SSL, i...
October 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Stefano Canessa, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Unravelling the multiple interacting drivers of host-pathogen coexistence is crucial in understanding how an apparently stable state of endemism may shift towards an epidemic and lead to biodiversity loss. Here, we investigate the apparent coexistence of the global amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) with Bombina variegata populations in The Netherlands over a 7-year period. We used a multi-season mark-recapture dataset and assessed potential drivers of coexistence (individual condition, environmental mediation and demographic compensation) at the individual and population levels...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Weijing Zhu, Cheng Wang, Faqian Sun, Liancheng Zhao, Wenjie Dou, Zhihua Mao, Weixiang Wu
Coupled nitrogen cycling processes can alleviate the negative effects of eutrophication caused by excessive nitrogen load in estuarine ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers across different environmental gradients were examined in the sediment of Hangzhou Bay. Quantitative PCR and Pearson's correlation analyses suggested that the bacterial ammonia-oxidizers (AOB) were the dominant phylotypes capable of ammonia oxidation, while the nirS-encoding denitrifiers predominated in the denitrification process...
October 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
C V L Miller, S C Cotter
1.Tolerance and resistance are the two ways in which hosts can lessen the effects of infection. Tolerance aims to minimise the fitness effects resulting from incumbent pathogen populations, whereas resistance aims to reduce the pathogen population size within the host. While environmental impacts on resistance have been extensively recorded their impacts on variation in tolerance are virtually unexplored. 2.Here we ask how the environment, namely the host diet, influences the capacity of an organism to tolerate and resist infection, using a model host-parasite system, the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides and the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Hamed Farajnejad, Abdolreza Karbassi, Mehdi Heidari
Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants, and their presence in high concentration in waters and biota have devastating effects on flora, fauna, and human health. Flocculation process of metals during estuarine mixing can reduce the environmental hazards of metals and also can provide micronutrients to the aquatic system. The present investigation provides a thorough study of eliminating colloidal elements of copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc during estuarine mixing of Shalmanrood River water with Caspian Sea water in Iran...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Molla F Mengist, Dan Milbourne, Denis Griffin, Mike J McLaughlin, Joanne Creedon, Peter W Jones, Sheila Alves
Potatoes grown in soil with high Cd concentrations can accumulate high levels of Cd in the tubers. Although there is significant environmental variation involved in the trait of crop uptake of Cd, there are also distinctive cultivar differences. In order to understand this differential Cd accumulation mechanism, two potato cultivars were chosen that accumulate high and low levels of Cd in tubers. The patterns of Cd concentration, Cd content and dry weight accumulation of the two cultivars were examined at different stages of plant growth...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Austin K Mircheff, Yanru Wang, Meng Li, Billy X Pan, Chuanqing Ding
PURPOSE: This study asked whether pregnancy, a risk factor for dry eye disease associated with both chronic, immune-mediated- and autoimmune etiologies, augments development of clusters of coordinately functioning cells (CCFC) that may be precursors to pathological lacrimal gland infiltrates. METHODS: Lacrimal glands were from six virgin- and six term-pregnant rabbits of the same age and environmental exposure history. Seventy-two immune response-related gene transcripts were assayed by real time RT-PCR...
September 30, 2017: Ocular Surface
Azarakhsh Rafiee, Pim Van der Male, Eduardo Dias, Henk Scholten
Wind turbine site planning is a multidisciplinary task comprising of several stakeholder groups from different domains and with different priorities. An information system capable of integrating the knowledge on the multiple aspects of a wind turbine plays a crucial role on providing a common picture to the involved groups. In this study, we have developed an interactive and intuitive 3D system (Falcon) for planning wind turbine locations. This system supports iterative design loops (wind turbine configurations), based on the emerging field of geodesign...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Kate Buckman, Vivien Taylor, Hannah Broadley, Daniel Hocking, Prentiss Balcom, Rob Mason, Keith Nislow, Celia Chen
Spatial variation in mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in urban coastal watersheds reflects complex interactions between Hg sources, land use, and environmental gradients. We examined MeHg concentrations in fauna from the Delaware River estuary, and related these measurements to environmental parameters and human impacts on the waterway. The sampling sites followed a north to south gradient of increasing salinity, decreasing urban influence, and increasing marsh cover. Although mean total Hg in surface sediments (top 4cm) peaked in the urban estuarine turbidity maximum and generally decreased downstream, surface sediment MeHg concentrations showed no spatial patterns consistent with the examined environmental gradients, indicating urban influence on Hg loading to the sediment but not subsequent methylation...
September 2017: Estuaries and Coasts: Journal of the Estuarine Research Federation
Peng Zhai, Longshu Yang, Xiao Guo, Zhe Wang, Jiangtao Guo, Xiaoqi Wang, Huaiqiu Zhu
BACKGROUND: During the past decade, the development of high throughput nucleic sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis techniques have enabled the characterization of microbial communities through metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics data. To reveal the diversity of microbial communities and interactions between living conditions and microbes, it is necessary to introduce comparative analysis based upon integration of all four types of data mentioned above...
October 2, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
S Tweed, H Celle-Jeanton, L Cabot, F Huneau, V De Montety, N Nicolau, Y Travi, M Babic, L Aquilina, V Vergnaud-Ayraud, M Leblanc
The groundwater irrigation expansion, and its multiple potential impacts on the quantity and quality of water resources, is not just restricted to areas that are water limited. In this study we present the seasonal impacts irrigation practices can have on groundwater resources in a temperate humid region, where the average annual rain/PET ratio is 1.0. In this system the irrigation expansion is solely supported by groundwater pumping, but despite this only 5 boreholes are monitored for hydraulic head data. In this study, we compensate the scarce hydrophysical dataset by incorporating environmental tracers (major ions, δ(18)O, δ(2)H and δ(13)C) and dating tracers ((3)H, CFC, SF6 and (14)C)...
September 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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