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Library theory

Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Theresa Betancourt, Paul Bolton, Chiara Bonetto, Chiara Gastaldon, James Gordon, Paul O'Callaghan, Davide Papola, Kirsi Peltonen, Raija-Leena Punamaki, Justin Richards, Julie K Staples, Johanna Unterhitzenberger, Mark van Ommeren, Joop de Jong, Mark J D Jordans, Wietse A Tol, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Christopher M A Verlinden, J Sarkar, W S Hodgkiss, W A Kuperman, K G Sabra
A method of localizing unknown acoustic sources using data derived replicas from ships of opportunity has been reported previously by Verlinden, Sarkar, Hodgkiss, Kuperman, and Sabra [J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 138(1), EL54-EL59 (2015)]. The method is similar to traditional matched field processing, but differs in that data-derived measured replicas are used in place of modeled replicas and, in order to account for differing source spectra between library and target vessels, cross-correlation functions are compared instead of comparing acoustic signals directly...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Nadia Minian, Wayne K deRuiter, Mathangee Lingam, Tricia Corrin, Rosa Dragonetti, Heather Manson, Valerie H Taylor, Laurie Zawertailo, Arezoo Ebnahmady, Osnat C Melamed, Terri Rodak, Margaret Hahn, Peter Selby
BACKGROUND: Health behaviors directly impact the health of individuals, and populations. Since individuals tend to engage in multiple unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, and eating an unhealthy diet simultaneously, many large community-based interventions have been implemented to reduce the burden of disease through the modification of multiple health behaviors. Smoking cessation can be particularly challenging as the odds of becoming dependent on nicotine increase with every unhealthy behavior a smoker exhibits...
March 1, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Grace Kathryn Ryan, Andreas Bauer, Judith K Bass, Julian Eaton
INTRODUCTION: There is a severe shortage of specialist mental healthcare providers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected by humanitarian crises. In these settings, talking therapies may be delivered by non-specialists, including lay workers with no tertiary education or formal certification in mental health. This systematic review will synthesise the literature on the implementation and effectiveness of talking therapies delivered by lay workers in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises, in order to develop a Theory of Change (ToC)...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Aleksandra J Borek, Charles Abraham
BACKGROUND: Small groups are used to promote health, well-being, and personal change by altering members' perceptions, beliefs, expectations, and behaviour patterns. An extensive cross-disciplinary literature has articulated and tested theories explaining how such groups develop, function, and facilitate change. Yet these theoretical understandings are rarely applied in the development, description, and evaluation of health-promotion, group-based, behaviour-change interventions. METHODS: Medline database, library catalogues, search engines, specific journals and reference lists were searched for relevant texts...
February 15, 2018: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
Dalibor Hr Scaron Ak, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard Olsen, Jacob Kongsted
We present theory and implementation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model in combination with coupled cluster (CC) theory (PDE-CC). This model has been implemented in the Dalton quantum chemistry program by adapting the CC code to the polarizable embedding library (PElib). In the PDE-CC method, the smaller, but chemically important core region is described with a high-level CC method. The environment surrounding the core region can be separated into two levels of description: an inner and an outer region...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Shai Abehsera, Shir Zaccai, Binyamin Mittelman, Lilah Glazer, Simy Weil, Isam Khalaila, Geula Davidov, Ronit Bitton, Raz Zarivach, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang, Rivka Manor, Eliahu D Aflalo, Amir Sagi
The pancrustacean theory groups crustaceans and hexapods (once thought to comprise separate clades within the Arthropoda) into a single clade. A key feature common to all pancrustaceans is their chitinous exoskeleton, with a major contribution by cuticular proteins. Among these, are the CPAP3's, a family of cuticular proteins, first identified in the hexapod Drosophila melanogaster and characterized by an N-terminal signaling peptide and three chitin-binding domains. In this study, CPAP3 proteins were mined from a transcriptomic library of a decapod crustacean, the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu Wang, Hongxun Fang, Ionut Tranca, Hang Qu, Xinchang Wang, Albert J Markvoort, Zhongqun Tian, Xiaoyu Cao
Chiral amplification in molecular self-assembly has profound impact on the recognition and separation of chiroptical materials, biomolecules, and pharmaceuticals. An understanding of how to control this phenomenon is nonetheless restricted by the structural complexity in multicomponent self-assembling systems. Here, we create chiral octahedra incorporating a combination of chiral and achiral vertices and show that their discrete nature makes these octahedra an ideal platform for in-depth investigation of chiral transfer...
February 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Peter Maximilian Kadletz, Yahya Motemani, Joy Iannotta, Steffen Salomon, Chinmay Khare, Lukas Grossmann, Hans Jürgen Maier, Alfred Ludwig, Wolfgang W Schmahl
Ti-Ta thin films exhibit properties that are of interest for applications as micro actuators and as biomedical implants. A Ti-Ta thin film materials library was deposited at T = 25 °C by magnetron sputtering employing the combinatorial approach, which led to a compositional range of Ti87Ta13 to Ti14Ta86. Subsequent high-throughput characterization methods permitted a quick and comprehensive study of the crystallographic, microstructural and morphological properties which strongly depend on the chemical composition...
January 22, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Laura E Ratcliff, Augustin Degomme, José A Flores-Livas, Stefan Goedecker, Luigi Genovese
Performing high accuracy hybrid functional calculations for condensed matter systems containing a large number of atoms is at present computationally very demanding or even out of reach if high quality basis sets are used. We present a highly optimized multiple GPU implementation of the exact exchange operator which allows one to perform fast hybrid functional density-functional theory calculations with systematic basis sets without additional approximations for up to a thousand atoms...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mohammad Atif, Praveen Kumar Kolluru, Chakradhar Thantanapally, Santosh Ansumali
The entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM), a discrete space-time kinetic theory for hydrodynamics, ensures nonlinear stability via the discrete time version of the second law of thermodynamics (the H theorem). Compliance with the H theorem is numerically enforced in this methodology and involves a search for the maximal discrete path length corresponding to the zero dissipation state by iteratively solving a nonlinear equation. We demonstrate that an exact solution for the path length can be obtained by assuming a natural criterion of negative entropy change, thereby reducing the problem to solving an inequality...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Tsion Assefa, Damen Haile Mariam, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Miliard Derbew
BACKGROUND: A rapid transition from severe physician workforce shortage to massive production to ensure the physician workforce demand puts the Ethiopian health care system in a variety of challenges. Therefore, this study discovered how the health system response for physician workforce shortage using the so-called flooding strategy was viewed by different stakeholders. METHODS: The study adopted the grounded theory research approach to explore the causes, contexts, and consequences (at the present, in the short and long term) of massive medical student admission to the medical schools on patient care, medical education workforce, and medical students...
December 28, 2017: Human Resources for Health
Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman, Peter Reece Jones, Bridget Russell, Daksha Trivedi, Alan Sinclair, Antony Bayer, Greta Rait, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Chris Burton
BACKGROUND: Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions that coexist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia and diabetes may be at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemic episodes because they are less able to manage their diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To identify the key features or mechanisms of programmes that aim to improve the management of diabetes in people with dementia and to identify areas needing further research...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Kate Walters, Rachael Frost, Kalpa Kharicha, Christina Avgerinou, Benjamin Gardner, Federico Ricciardi, Rachael Hunter, Ann Liljas, Jill Manthorpe, Vari Drennan, John Wood, Claire Goodman, Ana Jovicic, Steve Iliffe
BACKGROUND: Mild frailty or pre-frailty is common and yet is potentially reversible. Preventing progression to worsening frailty may benefit individuals and lower health/social care costs. However, we know little about effective approaches to preventing frailty progression. OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an evidence- and theory-based home-based health promotion intervention for older people with mild frailty. (2) To assess feasibility, costs and acceptability of (i) the intervention and (ii) a full-scale clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Kevin A Cradock, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Francis M Finucane, Rhyann McKay, Leo R Quinlan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Heather L Gainforth
OBJECTIVE: Dietary behavior is closely connected to type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) and specific components of dietary interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes associated with changes in HbA1c and body weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched. Reports of randomized controlled trials published during 1975-2017 that focused on changing dietary behavior were selected, and methodological rigor, use of BCTs, and fidelity and intervention features were evaluated...
December 2017: Diabetes Care
Mia T Minen, Carlita Anglin, Alexandra Boubour, Allison Squires, Linda Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Migraine is one of the top 10 most disabling conditions among adults worldwide. Most migraine research is quantitative and indicates concerns about medication adherence, stigma, and more. Qualitative studies might reveal an improved understanding of migraine patients' perspectives regarding migraine treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize the qualitative research on migraine patients' perspectives regarding migraine treatment to (a) identify common patterns across various types of migraine treatment studies and (b) inform future research...
January 2018: Headache
Gillian Waller, Tracy Finch, Emma L Giles, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. METHODS: A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
Merijn L M Salverda, Jeroen Koomen, Bertha Koopmanschap, Mark P Zwart, J Arjan G M de Visser
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the "greedy" substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hsiang-Han Huang, Tzu-Han Sun, Chia-I Lin, Yi-Ru Chen
Background: Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children's desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child's motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library) using the keywords "Activity," "Cerebral Palsy," "Preschool," "Motivation," "Mastery motivation," "Gross motor," and "Toddler...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Alison Quinlan, Ryan E Rhodes, Mark R Beauchamp, Danielle Symons Downs, Darren E R Warburton, Chris M Blanchard
BACKGROUND: Identifying critical life transitions in people's physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited), and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity...
November 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
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