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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286719/essentially-entropic-lattice-boltzmann-model
#1
Mohammad Atif, Praveen Kumar Kolluru, Chakradhar Thantanapally, Santosh Ansumali
The entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM), a discrete space-time kinetic theory for hydrodynamics, ensures nonlinear stability via the discrete time version of the second law of thermodynamics (the H theorem). Compliance with the H theorem is numerically enforced in this methodology and involves a search for the maximal discrete path length corresponding to the zero dissipation state by iteratively solving a nonlinear equation. We demonstrate that an exact solution for the path length can be obtained by assuming a natural criterion of negative entropy change, thereby reducing the problem to solving an inequality...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282069/health-system-s-response-for-physician-workforce-shortages-and-the-upcoming-crisis-in-ethiopia-a-grounded-theory-research
#2
Tsion Assefa, Damen Haile Mariam, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Miliard Derbew
BACKGROUND: A rapid transition from severe physician workforce shortage to massive production to ensure the physician workforce demand puts the Ethiopian health care system in a variety of challenges. Therefore, this study discovered how the health system response for physician workforce shortage using the so-called flooding strategy was viewed by different stakeholders. METHODS: The study adopted the grounded theory research approach to explore the causes, contexts, and consequences (at the present, in the short and long term) of massive medical student admission to the medical schools on patient care, medical education workforce, and medical students...
December 28, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235986/managing-diabetes-in-people-with-dementia-a-realist-review
#3
Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman, Peter Reece Jones, Bridget Russell, Daksha Trivedi, Alan Sinclair, Antony Bayer, Greta Rait, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Chris Burton
BACKGROUND: Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions that coexist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia and diabetes may be at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemic episodes because they are less able to manage their diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To identify the key features or mechanisms of programmes that aim to improve the management of diabetes in people with dementia and to identify areas needing further research...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214975/home-based-health-promotion-for-older-people-with-mild-frailty-the-homehealth-intervention-development-and-feasibility-rct
#4
Kate Walters, Rachael Frost, Kalpa Kharicha, Christina Avgerinou, Benjamin Gardner, Federico Ricciardi, Rachael Hunter, Ann Liljas, Jill Manthorpe, Vari Drennan, John Wood, Claire Goodman, Ana Jovicic, Steve Iliffe
BACKGROUND: Mild frailty or pre-frailty is common and yet is potentially reversible. Preventing progression to worsening frailty may benefit individuals and lower health/social care costs. However, we know little about effective approaches to preventing frailty progression. OBJECTIVES: (1) To develop an evidence- and theory-based home-based health promotion intervention for older people with mild frailty. (2) To assess feasibility, costs and acceptability of (i) the intervention and (ii) a full-scale clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
December 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162585/diet-behavior-change-techniques-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Kevin A Cradock, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Francis M Finucane, Rhyann McKay, Leo R Quinlan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Heather L Gainforth
OBJECTIVE: Dietary behavior is closely connected to type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) and specific components of dietary interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes associated with changes in HbA1c and body weight. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched. Reports of randomized controlled trials published during 1975-2017 that focused on changing dietary behavior were selected, and methodological rigor, use of BCTs, and fidelity and intervention features were evaluated...
December 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159874/meta-synthesis-on-migraine-management
#6
REVIEW
Mia T Minen, Lita Anglin, Alexandra Boubour, Allison Squires, Linda Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Migraine is one of the top 10 most disabling conditions among adults worldwide. Most migraine research is quantitative and indicates concerns about medication adherence, stigma, and more. Qualitative studies might reveal an improved understanding of migraine patients' perspectives regarding migraine treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize the qualitative research on migraine patients' perspectives regarding migraine treatment to (a) identify common patterns across various types of migraine treatment studies and (b) inform future research...
November 21, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137649/exploring-the-factors-affecting-the-implementation-of-tobacco-and-substance-use-interventions-within-a-secondary-school-setting-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Gillian Waller, Tracy Finch, Emma L Giles, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. METHODS: A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133391/adaptive-benefits-from-small-mutation-supplies-in-an-antibiotic-resistance-enzyme
#8
Merijn L M Salverda, Jeroen Koomen, Bertha Koopmanschap, Mark P Zwart, J Arjan G M de Visser
Populations with large mutation supplies adapt via the "greedy" substitution of the fittest genotype available, leading to fast and repeatable short-term responses. At longer time scales, smaller mutation supplies may in theory lead to larger improvements when distant high-fitness genotypes more readily evolve from lower-fitness intermediates. Here we test for long-term adaptive benefits from small mutation supplies using in vitro evolution of an antibiotic-degrading enzyme in the presence of a novel antibiotic...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124053/contextual-factors-and-mastery-motivation-in-young-children-with-and-without-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#9
Hsiang-Han Huang, Tzu-Han Sun, Chia-I Lin, Yi-Ru Chen
Background: Mastery motivation is the driving force behind children's desire to explore the surrounding world and their comprehensive development. However, disease factors may lower a child's motivation and hamper development. The aim of this review is to examine mastery motivation in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the impact of contextual factors on mastery motivation. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PsycINFO, Medline, and Airiti Library) using the keywords "Activity," "Cerebral Palsy," "Preschool," "Motivation," "Mastery motivation," "Gross motor," and "Toddler...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121884/evaluation-of-a-physical-activity-intervention-for-new-parents-protocol-paper-for-a-randomized-trial
#10
Alison Quinlan, Ryan E Rhodes, Mark R Beauchamp, Danielle Symons Downs, Darren E R Warburton, Chris M Blanchard
BACKGROUND: Identifying critical life transitions in people's physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited), and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity...
November 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120511/the-design-of-behavioural-interventions-labelled-as-patient-mediated-a-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Jeremy Y Ng, Anna R Gagliardi
OBJECTIVE: Patient-mediated interventions (PMIs) directed at patients and/or physicians improve patient or provider behaviour and patient outcomes. However, what constitutes a PMI is not clear. This study described interventions explicitly labelled as "patient-mediated" in primary research. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine, PsychINFO, HealthSTAR, Social Work Abstracts, CINAHL and Cochrane Library were searched from inception on 1 January 2017 for English language studies that developed or evaluated behavioural interventions referred to as "patient-mediated" or "patient mediated" in the full text...
November 9, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109930/error-assessment-in-molecular-dynamics-trajectories-using-computed-nmr-chemical-shifts
#12
David R Koes, John K Vries
Accurate chemical shifts for the atoms in molecular mechanics (MD) trajectories can be obtained from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations that depend solely on the coordinates of the atoms in the localized regions surrounding atoms of interest. If these coordinates are correct and the sample size is adequate, the ensemble average of these chemical shifts should be equal to the chemical shifts obtained from NMR spectroscopy. If this is not the case, the coordinates must be incorrect. We have utilized this fact to quantify the errors associated with the backbone atoms in MD simulations of proteins...
January 1, 2017: Computational & Theoretical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043934/library-conversations-reclaiming-interpersonal-communication-theory-for-understanding-professional-encounters-by-marie-l-radford-and-gary-p-radfordchicago-ala-neal-schuman-2017-168p-isbn-978-0-8389-1484-7-75-00-softcover
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#14
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978045/mitoriboscins-mitochondrial-based-therapeutics-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-cscs-bacteria-and-pathogenic-yeast
#15
Bela Ozsvari, Marco Fiorillo, Gloria Bonuccelli, Anna Rita Cappello, Luca Frattaruolo, Federica Sotgia, Rachel Trowbridge, Richard Foster, Michael P Lisanti
The "endo-symbiotic theory of mitochondrial evolution" states that mitochondrial organelles evolved from engulfed aerobic bacteria, after millions of years of symbiosis and adaptation. Here, we have exploited this premise to design new antibiotics and novel anti-cancer therapies, using a convergent approach. First, virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) and computational chemistry were used to identify novel compounds binding to the 3D structure of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. The resulting library of ∼880 compounds was then subjected to phenotypic drug screening on human cancer cells, to identify which compounds functionally induce ATP-depletion, which is characteristic of mitochondrial inhibition...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973845/mesalamine-5-asa-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-diverticulitis
#16
REVIEW
Flloyd Carter, Majd Alsayb, John K Marshall, Yuhong Yuan
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease is a common condition that increases in prevalence with age. Recent theories on the pathogenesis of diverticular inflammation have implicated chronic inflammation similar to that seen in ulcerative colitis. Mesalamine, or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a mainstay of therapy for individuals with ulcerative colitis. Accordingly, 5-ASA has been studied for prevention of recurrent diverticulitis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of mesalamine (5-ASA) for prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
October 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944752/a-randomised-controlled-study-of-the-effectiveness-of-breathing-retraining-exercises-taught-by-a-physiotherapist-either-by-instructional-dvd-or-in-face-to-face-sessions-in-the-management-of-asthma-in-adults
#17
Mike Thomas, Anne Bruton, Paul Little, Stephen Holgate, Amanda Lee, Lucy Yardley, Steve George, James Raftery, Jennifer Versnel, David Price, Ian Pavord, Ratko Djukanovic, Michael Moore, Sarah Kirby, Guiqing Yao, Shihua Zhu, Emily Arden-Close, Manimekalai Thiruvothiyur, Frances Webley, Mark Stafford-Watson, Elizabeth Dixon, Lynda Taylor
BACKGROUND: Asthma control is suboptimal, resulting in quality of life (QoL) impairment and costs. Breathing retraining exercises have evidence of effectiveness as adjuvant treatment, but are infrequently used. OBJECTIVES: To transfer the contents of a brief (three-session) physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining programme to a digital versatile disc (DVD) and booklet format; to compare the effectiveness of the self-guided intervention with that of 'face-to-face' physiotherapy and usual care for QoL and other asthma-related outcomes; to perform a health economic assessment of both interventions; and to perform a process evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methods...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935393/the-effectiveness-of-psychological-interventions-on-self-care-psychological-and-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Ying Jiang, Shefaly Shorey, Betsy Seah, Wanxian Chan, Wilson Wai San Tam, Wenru Wang
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence to determine the effects of psychological interventions on self-care and psychological and health outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: We evaluated the effectiveness of randomized controlled trials using psychological methods or theory on self-care behaviors, anxiety and depression levels, HRQoL, and physical function. Studies published in English, from January 2006 to December 2016, were considered. We searched published and unpublished studies in the following electronic databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929075/why-cannot-we-have-an-etiological-classification-for-the-patients-with-granular-myringitis
#19
Mohan Bansal
Though granular myringitis (GM) is not a very rare disease it does not have any classification. Its exact etiology is not known. The granulations on tympanic membrane also occur in association with other lesions of external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear. The aims of this study were to know the etiological factors of GM and classify the disease according to its etiological factors and associated disorders of EAC and middle ear. Data were retrieved from the search of four electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925699/ab-initio-computation-of-energy-deposition-during-electron-ionization-of-molecules
#20
Karl K Irikura
The dissociative ionization of molecules under electron impact forms the basis for analytical mass spectrometry of volatile compounds. It is also important in other situations, notably plasmas. Although qualitative theory for mass spectrometry was developed long ago, progress toward predictive theory has been slow. A major obstacle has been ignorance of the amount of energy deposited in the molecular ion, prior to its fragmentation. Here, we consider the Binary-Encounter Bethe (BEB) theory, which was originally developed for predicting total ionization cross sections...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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