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Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Yin-Ku Liang, Liu-Jiao Bian
Kringle 5, the fifth fragment of plasminogen, is known to be important for inhibiting the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cell (VEC), while not having any effects on normal endothelial cells. Therefore, it may be a potential tumor therapy candidate. However, the ligand of the Kringle 5 in VEC has not yet been identified. In this study, the possible ligand of Kringle 5 in vitro was screened and validated using Ph.D.-7 phage display peptide library with molecular docking, along with surface plasma resonance (SPR)...
2016: PloS One
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Denghai Mi, Weiwei Ren, Kehu Yang
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and induced killer cells for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of interleukin-2 and induced killer cells on NSCLC, so as to provide references for further clinical practice and research. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in Cochrane library (Issue 2, 2013), Web of Science (1980-March 2013), PubMed (1966-March 2013), China Knowledge Resource Integrated database (CNKI) (1994-March 2013), China Biology Medicine database (CBM) (1978-March 2013), VIP (1989-March 2013), and Wan Fang databases (1997-March 2013)...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
David J Keene, Dipesh Mistry, Julian Nam, Elizabeth Tutton, Robert Handley, Lesley Morgan, Emma Roberts, Bridget Gray, Andrew Briggs, Ranjit Lall, Tim Js Chesser, Ian Pallister, Sarah E Lamb, Keith Willett
BACKGROUND: Close contact casting (CCC) may offer an alternative to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery for unstable ankle fractures in older adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) determine if CCC for unstable ankle fractures in adults aged over 60 years resulted in equivalent clinical outcome compared with ORIF, (2) estimate cost-effectiveness to the NHS and society and (3) explore participant experiences. DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, equivalence randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic evaluation and qualitative study...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
N M Rankin, D McGregor, E Stone, P N Butow, J M Young, K White, T Shaw
Lung cancer is a significant international health problem. Aligning clinical practice with evidence-based guideline recommendations has the potential to improve patient outcomes. This scoping review describes evidence-practice gaps across the diagnostic and management care pathway for lung cancer. We conducted searches of online databases Medline, PsychInfo, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library to identify studies published between 2008 and 2012. Of 614 articles screened, 65 met inclusion criteria. We identified seven evidence-practice gaps: (1) delays in timely diagnosis and referral; (2) curative and (3) palliative treatments are under-utilised; (4) older age and co-morbidities influence the use of treatments; (5) the benefits of multidisciplinary team review are not available to all lung cancer patients; (6) psychosocial needs are unmet; and (7) early referral to palliative care services is under-utilised...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Ali Jassem Buabbas, Hamza Mohammad Hassan Al-Shawaf, Abdullah Abdulaziz Almajran
BACKGROUND: In medical education, information and communication technology (ICT) knowledge and skills have become a necessity and an integral part of preparing tomorrow's doctors to be sufficiently competent to use informatics resources effectively and efficiently for the best practice of medicine. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to study the literacy of the preprofessional students in ICT before and after taking the basic informatics course at the Health Sciences Center at Kuwait University, to understand their potential and their attitudes toward using ICT, including e-learning...
June 20, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Oleksa G Rewa, Pierre-Marc Villeneuve, Philippe Lachance, Dean T Eurich, Henry T Stelfox, R T Noel Gibney, Lisa Hartling, Robin Featherstone, Sean M Bagshaw
OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy is increasingly utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU), of which continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is most common. Despite CRRT being a relatively invasive and resource intensive technology, there remains wide practice variation in its application. This systematic review appraised the evidence for quality indicators (QIs) of CRRT care in critically ill patients. DESIGN: A comprehensive search strategy was developed and performed in five citation databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed) and select grey literature sources...
October 11, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Noritaka Nakamichi, Takahiro Ishimoto, Yoshihide Yamauchi, Yusuke Masuo, Yukio Kato
The aim of the present study is to discover multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) inhibitors with neuroblastoma-selective cytotoxicity by means of fluorescence assay with a membrane-permeable fluorescent dye, Fluo-8 AM, based on our observation that gene expression of Mrp3 in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells was remarkably higher than that in primary cultured cortical neurons, as determined by real-time PCR. Neuro2a cells showed minimal fluorescence upon incubation with Fluo-8 AM. However, blocking of Mrp3 efflux function by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection or inhibition with probenecid resulted in significant dye accumulation, observed as an increase of fluorescence...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
O S Michael
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria...
June 2016: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Megan S C Lim, Cassandra J C Wright, Elise R Carrotte, Alisa E Pedrana
Issue addressed: Social networking sites (SNS) are increasingly popular platforms for health promotion. Advancements in SNS health promotion require quality evidence; however, interventions are often not formally evaluated. This study aims to describe evaluation practices used in SNS health promotion.Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Communication and Mass Media Complete, and Cochrane Library databases. Articles published between 2006 and 2013 describing any health promotion intervention delivered using SNS were included...
October 6, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Charles Girardot, Jelle Scholtalbers, Sajoscha Sauer, Shu-Yi Su, Eileen E M Furlong
BACKGROUND: The yield obtained from next generation sequencers has increased almost exponentially in recent years, making sample multiplexing common practice. While barcodes (known sequences of fixed length) primarily encode the sample identity of sequenced DNA fragments, barcodes made of random sequences (Unique Molecular Identifier or UMIs) are often used to distinguish between PCR duplicates and transcript abundance in, for example, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). In paired-end sequencing, different barcodes can be inserted at each fragment end to either increase the number of multiplexed samples in the library or to use one of the barcodes as UMI...
October 8, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Amado Rivero-Santana, Daniel Ferreira, Lilisbeth Perestelo-Pérez, Eric Westman, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Antonio Sarría, Pedro Serrano-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis in dementia is at present one of the main challenges both in clinical practice and research. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are included in the current diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but their clinical utility is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of studies analyzing the diagnostic performance of CSF Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the discrimination between AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) dementias...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alison Turner, Abeda Mulla, Andrew Booth, Shiona Aldridge, Sharon Stevens, Fraser Battye, Peter Spilsbury
BACKGROUND: NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity...
October 1, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Teresa Iacono, Kellie Stagg, Natalie Pearce, Alana Hulme Chambers
BACKGROUND: Uptake of e-health, the use of information communication technologies (ICT) for health service delivery, in allied health appears to be lagging behind other health care areas, despite offering the potential to address problems with service access by rural and remote Australians. The aim of the study was to conduct a scoping review of studies into the application of or attitudes towards ehealth amongst allied health professionals conducted in Australia. METHODS: Studies meeting inclusion criteria published from January 2004 to June 2015 were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mary E Northridge, Sara S Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Implementation science holds promise for better ensuring that research is translated into evidence-based policy and practice, but interventions often fail or even worsen the problems they are intended to solve due to a lack of understanding of real world structures and dynamic complexity. While systems science alone cannot possibly solve the major challenges in public health, systems-based approaches may contribute to changing the language and methods for conceptualising and acting within complex systems...
October 4, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Xi-Xi He, Xiao-Li Wu, Ren-Pin Chen, Chao Chen, Xiao-Gang Liu, Bin-Jiao Wu, Zhi-Ming Huang
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical syndrome with the main characteristic of diffuse liver cells with fatty changes. The clinical evolution of NAFLD includes simple non-alcoholic fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted this review to identify the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) in NAFLD. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase...
2016: PloS One
Zheng Li, Kai Zhang, Shu-Mei Lin, Deng-Hai Mi, Nong Cao, Zhi-Zhen Wen, Zhong-Xin Li
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) are important treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not eligible for resection and liver transplantation. Therefore, it is important to establish comparisons between RFA, PEI and the two therapies in combination. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of combined RFA-PEI versus monotherapy with either RFA or PEI for HCC to provide references for clinical practice and further research...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
J Herst, M Crump, F G Baldassarre, J MacEachern, J Sussman, D Hodgson, M C Cheung
In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
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