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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037017/preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-versus-postoperative-chemoradiotherapy-for-stage-ii-iii-resectable-rectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Jin Ho Song, Jae Uk Jeong, Jong Hoon Lee, Sung Hwan Kim, Hyeon Min Cho, Jun Won Um, Hong Seok Jang
PURPOSE: Whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is better than postoperative CRT in oncologic outcome and toxicity is contentious in prospective randomized clinical trials. We systematically analyze and compare the treatment result, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate between preoperative CRT and postoperative CRT in stage II-III rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1990 to 2014 for relevant trials...
September 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#2
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035814/enzyme-engineering-reaching-the-maximal-catalytic-efficiency-peak
#3
REVIEW
Moshe Goldsmith, Dan S Tawfik
The practical need for highly efficient enzymes presents new challenges in enzyme engineering, in particular, the need to improve catalytic turnover (kcat) or efficiency (kcat/KM) by several orders of magnitude. However, optimizing catalysis demands navigation through complex and rugged fitness landscapes, with optimization trajectories often leading to strong diminishing returns and dead-ends. When no further improvements are observed in library screens or selections, it remains unclear whether the maximal catalytic efficiency of the enzyme (the catalytic 'fitness peak') has been reached; or perhaps, an alternative combination of mutations exists that could yield additional improvements...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032590/a-scoping-approach-to-systematically-review-published-reviews-adaptations-and-recommendations
#4
REVIEW
Annette Schultz, Leah Goertzen, Janet Rothney, Pamela Wener, Jennifer Enns, Gayle Halas, Alan Katz
Knowledge translation is a central focus of the health research community, which includes strategies to synthesize published research to support uptake within healthcare practice and policy arenas. Within the literature concerning review methodologies, a new discussion has emerged concerning methods that review and synthesize published review articles. In this paper, our multidisciplinary team from family medicine, nursing, dental hygiene, kinesiology, occupational therapy, physiology, population health, clinical psychology and library sciences contribute to this discussion by sharing our experiences in conducting three scoping reviews of published review studies...
October 15, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031522/video-based-surgical-learning-improving-trainee-education-and-preparation-for-surgery
#5
Paulo Mota, Nuno Carvalho, Emanuel Carvalho-Dias, Manuel João Costa, Jorge Correia-Pinto, Estevão Lima
BACKGROUND: Since the end of the XIX century, teaching of surgery has remained practically unaltered until now. With the dawn of video-assisted laparoscopy, surgery has faced new technical and learning challenges. Due to technological advances, from Internet access to portable electronic devices, the use of online resources is part of the educational armamentarium. In this respect, videos have already proven to be effective and useful, however the best way to benefit from these tools is still not clearly defined...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031081/optimization-of-the-promega-powerseq%C3%A2-auto-y-system-for-efficient-integration-within-a-forensic-dna-laboratory
#6
E A Montano, J M Bush, A M Garver, M M Larijani, S M Wiechman, C H Baker, M R Wilson, R A Guerrieri, E A Benzinger, D N Gehres, M L Dickens
The application of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is growing in the forensic DNA field, as forensic DNA laboratories are continuously seeking methods to gain information from a limited or degraded forensic sample. However, the laborious nature of current MPS methodologies required for successful library preparation and sequencing leave opportunities for improvement to make MPS a practical option for processing forensic casework. In this study, the Promega PowerSeq™ Auto/Y System Prototype, a MPS laboratory workflow that incorporates multiplex amplification, was selected for optimization with the objectives to introduce automation for relieving manual processing, and to reduce the number of steps recommended by the standard protocol...
October 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017518/current-practice-in-methodology-and-reporting-of-the-sample-size-calculation-in-randomised-trials-of-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#7
Bethan Copsey, Susan Dutton, Ray Fitzpatrick, Sarah E Lamb, Jonathan A Cook
BACKGROUND: A key aspect of the design of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is determining the sample size. It is important that the trial sample size is appropriately calculated. The required sample size will differ by clinical area, for instance, due to the prevalence of the condition and the choice of primary outcome. Additionally, it will depend upon the choice of target difference assumed in the calculation. Focussing upon the hip and knee osteoarthritis population, this study aims to systematically review how the trial size was determined for trials of osteoarthritis, on what basis, and how well these aspects are reported...
October 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994336/chronic-hypertension-effect-of-blood-pressure-control-on-pregnancy-outcome
#8
Anca M Panaitescu, Stephanie Roberge, Kypros H Nicolaides
CONTEXT: In pregnancies with chronic hypertension (CH), compared to those without CH, there is a 10-fold increase in the risk of preeclampsia (PE) and two-fold increase in risk of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. OBJECTIVE: To examine the evidence of whether in patients with CH and mild to moderate hypertension the level of control of blood pressure during pregnancy has a beneficial or adverse effect on the risk of PE or SGA. METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of patients with mild to moderate CH in pregnancy that reported the impact of different levels of control of blood pressure on the risk of PE or SGA...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994322/viewpoints-of-parents-and-nurses-on-how-to-design-products-to-enhance-parent-infant-bonding-at-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-qualitative-study-based-on-existing-designs
#9
Laura Schrauwen, Deedee R Kommers, Sidarto Bambang Oetomo
AIM: To investigate how product design can be used to improve parent-infant bonding in a neonatal intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Impaired parent-infant bonding is an inevitable consequence of premature birth, which negatively influences development. Products, systems, or services that support the bonding process might counter these negative influences. METHOD: The first step was to trace existing products by performing a literature search in PubMed, the university library, and Google...
January 1, 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992744/physician-communication-via-internet-enabled-technology-a-systematic-review
#10
Neil G Barr, Glen E Randall, Norman P Archer, David M Musson
The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science...
October 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990575/a-systematic-review-of-the-concept-and-clinical-applications-of-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-in-tendon-pathology
#11
Mohamed A Imam, James Holton, Saman Horriat, Ahmed S Negida, Florian Grubhofer, Rohit Gupta, Ali Narvani, Martyn Snow
Tendon pathologies are a group of musculoskeletal conditions frequently seen in clinical practice. They can be broadly classified into traumatic, degenerative and overuse-related tendinopathies. Rotator cuff tears, Achilles tendinopathy and tennis elbow are common examples of these conditions. Conventional treatments have shown inconsistent outcomes and might fail to provide satisfactory clinical improvement. With the growing trend towards the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in other branches of medicine, there is an increasing interest in treating tendon pathologies using the bone marrow MSC...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988642/risk-of-beta-cell-autoimmunity-presence-for-progression-to-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Qing Ling, Jing Lu, Jingjing Li, Qianyue Xu, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Islet autoantibodies have been applied for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at an asymptomatic stage in individuals with high-risk genotypes. Evidence is insufficient to support a broad application of islet autoantibody screening for T1DM in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the evidence of an association between islet autoantibodies and the development of T1DM in a pooled population of both genetically at-risk individuals and general people without definite genetic background...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985510/high-throughput-approaches-to-pinpoint-function-within-the-noncoding-genome
#13
REVIEW
Antonino Montalbano, Matthew C Canver, Neville E Sanjana
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas nuclease system is a powerful tool for genome editing, and its simple programmability has enabled high-throughput genetic and epigenetic studies. These high-throughput approaches offer investigators a toolkit for functional interrogation of not only protein-coding genes but also noncoding DNA. Historically, noncoding DNA has lacked the detailed characterization that has been applied to protein-coding genes in large part because there has not been a robust set of methodologies for perturbing these regions...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983246/sleep-an-open-source-python-software-for-visualization-analysis-and-staging-of-sleep-data
#14
Etienne Combrisson, Raphael Vallat, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Christian O'Reilly, Tarek Lajnef, Aymeric Guillot, Perrine M Ruby, Karim Jerbi
We introduce Sleep, a new Python open-source graphical user interface (GUI) dedicated to visualization, scoring and analyses of sleep data. Among its most prominent features are: (1) Dynamic display of polysomnographic data, spectrogram, hypnogram and topographic maps with several customizable parameters, (2) Implementation of several automatic detection of sleep features such as spindles, K-complexes, slow waves, and rapid eye movements (REM), (3) Implementation of practical signal processing tools such as re-referencing or filtering, and (4) Display of main descriptive statistics including publication-ready tables and figures...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983195/advancing-the-conversation-next-steps-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-trans-and-queer-lgbtq-health-sciences-librarianship
#15
Blake W Hawkins, Martin Morris, Tony Nguyen, John Siegel, Emily Vardell
In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community...
October 2017: Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981223/-child-behavior-disorder-clinical-reasoning-in-general-practice
#16
N Kacenelenbogen
CONTEXT: in Belgium 70 % of the children aged 0 - 14 years have at least one annual contact with their family doctor, while for the same period, only 6 - 12 % of them will see a neuropaediatrician and/or a child psychiatrist, despite the fact that a diagnostic of Externalizing behavior before the age of 6 to 7 years, such as various ways of aggressiveness, of anger or of stealing will very often alert the family, the staff of creches or nursery as well as the teachers. Other children are showing signs of Internalizing behavior, very often together with depression or other forms of anxiety...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977135/systematic-literature-review-on-models-and-practices-of-early-childhood-intervention-in-brazil
#17
Bruna Pereira Ricci Marini, Mariane Cristina Lourenço, Patrícia Carla de Souza Della Barba
OBJECTIVE: To identify which Early Childhood Intervention practices and models are described in the Brazilian literature. DATA SOURCES: A systematic integrative review of the literature indexed in databases from Virtual Health Library, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Education Resources Information Center and Portal of Periodicals of the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel was carried out, considering the period between 2005 and 2015. The following articles were analyzed: those published in English or Portuguese, fully available online, with the terms "Early Intervention", "Early Stimulation" or "Essential Stimulation" in the title, abstract or keywords; studies that enrolled children aged from 0 to 6 years, their caregivers or professionals in Early Intervention services; manuscripts published in journals classified as ≥ B2 (WebQualis; Qualis 2014) in the fields of Education or Physical Education; and studies that described Early Intervention practices...
September 21, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972531/libraries-and-librarians-key-partners-for-progress-in-health-literacy-research-and-practice
#18
Wanda Whitney, Alla Keselman, Betsy Humphreys
The field of librarianship has a history of involvement in patient education, general literacy and information literacy efforts. This history and prominent placement in communities make libraries and librarians an excellent resource in advancing health literacy practice and research. This chapter provides an overview of health literacy and health information literacy efforts in US libraries over the past two decades. The chapter begins with the description of the role of the US National Library of Medicine in developing resources, programs, and partnerships serving health information needs of the public...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971544/large-variation-in-measures-used-to-assess-outcomes-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-observational-studies
#19
REVIEW
Lucas Wiessing, Marica Ferri, Shane Darke, Roland Simon, Paul Griffiths
ISSUES: Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. APPROACH: Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in all languages, with data on treated opioid users, using Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and additional strategies (e.g. Pubmed function 'related citations' and checking reference lists of eligible studies)...
October 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970442/pain-assessment-of-elderly-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-in-the-emergency-department-implications-for-pain-management-a-narrative-review-of-current-practices
#20
REVIEW
Joshua Jones, Tin Fei Sim, Jeff Hughes
Elderly people are susceptible to both falls and cognitive impairment making them a particularly vulnerable group of patients when it comes to pain assessment and management in the emergency department (ED). Pain assessment is often difficult in patients who present to the ED with a cognitive impairment as they are frequently unable to self-report their level of pain, which can have a negative impact on pain management. This paper aims to review how cognitive impairment influences pain assessment in elderly adults who present to the ED with an injury due to a fall...
June 1, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
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