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Prostate cancer

Hale Samli, Murat Samli, Buse Vatansever, Sena Ardicli, Nazlihan Aztopal, Deniz Dincel, Ahmet Sahin, Faruk Balci
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression profiles of 86 miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant prostate cancer cell lines and to identify the genes that have a role in the development of drug resistance. METHODS: Three prostate cancer cell lines, androgen-dependent VCaP, androgen-independent PC-3 and DU-145, were used to obtain paclitaxel-resistant cells by progressively increasing the concentration of paclitaxel in the culture medium. Viability assays with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium and sulforhodamine B were used to assess the cell resistance level and cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel treatment...
September 22, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Axel Merseburger, Anne Bro Falkenberg, Olga J Kornilova
PURPOSE: To study the current level of patients' awareness, and patient-health care provider (HCP) dialogue with respect to treatment-related risks, especially cardiovascular risk (CVR) associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. METHODS: This 10-min online survey summarised data by treatment, region, and CVR (high or low). RESULTS: Of the 411 patients, 83% were at high CVR while only 8% patients were aware of CVR associated with PCa treatment, majority of which (80%) were informed about this risk by HCPs...
September 22, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Fiona Teeling, Mr Nicholas Raison, Mr Majed Shabbir, Mr Tet Yap, Professor Prokar Dasgupta, Mr Kamran Ahmed
A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the relationship between testosterone therapy and risk of recurrence in testosterone-deficient survivors of curatively treated high-risk prostate cancer. Primary outcome was the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) in 109 high-risk patients in 13 included studies (1997-2017). Biochemical and symptomatic effects of therapy were also reviewed. The BCR rate was 0.00 (0.00-0.05), lower than the expected rate for high-risk prostate cancer survivors, suggesting that testosterone therapy may not increase their BCR risk...
September 20, 2018: Urology
Jessica J Cunningham, Joel S Brown, Robert A Gatenby, Kateřina Staňková
In metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), abiraterone is conventionally administered continuously at maximal tolerated dose until treatment failure. The majority of patients initially respond well to abiraterone but the cancer cells evolve resistance and the cancer progresses within a median time of 16 months. Incorporating techniques that attempt to delay or prevent the growth of the resistant cancer cell phenotype responsible for disease progression have only recently entered the clinical setting...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mingming Zhu, Jieshu Wu, Xiao Ma, Cong Huang, Rui Wu, Weiwei Zhu, Xiaoting Li, Zhaofeng Liang, Feifei Deng, Jianyun Zhu, Wei Xie, Xue Yang, Ye Jiang, Shijia Wang, Shanshan Geng, Chunfeng Xie, Caiyun Zhong
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. Phthalate esters are a class of environmental endocrine disruptors and were reported to be cancer promoting agents, however the potential role of phthalate esters in prostate cancer has been rarely reported. Mounting evidence has shown that miR-34a is a master tumor suppressor miRNA in cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), one of the typical phthalate esters, in cell proliferation of prostate cancer cells...
September 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Reyhaneh Nosrati, Abraam Soliman, Habib Safigholi, Masoud Hashemi, Matthew Wronski, Gerard Morton, Ana Pejović-Milić, Greg Stanisz, William Y Song
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Permanent seed brachytherapy is an established treatment option for localized prostate cancer. Currently, post-implant dosimetry is performed on CT images despite challenging target delineation due to limited soft tissue contrast. This work aims to develop an MRI-only workflow for post-implant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy seeds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prostate mimicking phantom containing twenty stranded I-125 dummy seeds and calcifications was constructed...
September 19, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
N Arnouil, A Gelet, X Matillon, O Rouviere, M Colombel, A Ruffion, F Mège-Lechevallier, F Subtil, L Badet, S Crouzet
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the functional and oncologic outcomes at one year of focal therapy with HIFU compared with total prostatectomy in patients with localised prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective and monocentric study from 2008 to 2014 comparing 2 cohorts of patients with localised PCa (T1/T2 clinical stage, Gleason score≤3+4=7 and PSA<15ng/mL), one treated by focal therapy (HIFU-F group), one by robot-assisted total prostatectomy (RATP group)...
September 19, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Veysel T Yilmaz, Ceyda Icsel, Muhittin Aygun, Merve Erkisa, Engin Ulukaya
[M(sac)2 (dppp)] (1 and 2), [M(dppp)2 ](sac)2 (3 and 4) and [M(sac)2 (dppb)] (5 and 6) complexes, where M = PdII (1, 3 and 5) and PtII (2, 4 and 6), sac = saccharinate, dppp = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane and dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane, were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and X-ray diffraction. The anticancer activity of the complexes against human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU145) and colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines showed that the cationic complexes of dppp (3 and 4) and neutral Pt complex of dppb (6) were the most active agents of series...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sushma Yadav, Claudia M Kowolik, Min Lin, Darren Zuro, Susanta K Hui, Arthur D Riggs, David A Horne
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a pressing health challenge in men worldwide. Radiation therapy (RT) is widely considered a standard therapy advanced as well as localised prostate cancer. Although this primary therapy is associated with high cancer control rates, up to one third of patients undergoing radiation therapy becomes radio-resistant and/or has tumor-relapse/recurrence. Therefore, focus on new molecular targets and pathways is essential to develop novel radio-sensitizing agents for the effective and safe treatment of prostate cancer...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Jiajia Wang, Zongliang Lu, Changpeng Wu, Yanwu Li, Ya Kong, Rui Zhou, Kun Shi, Jing Guo, Na Li, Jie Liu, Wei Song, He Wang, Mingxing Zhu, Hongxia Xu
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are involved in several cellular processes related to cancer cell growth and metastasis, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. We here in investigated the effects of S0154 and S0161, two novel synthetic sodium channel blockers (SCBs), on human prostate cancer cells (PC3, DU145, and LnCaP) and a prostate cancer xenograft model. METHODS: The MTT assay was used to assess the anticancer effects of SCBs in PC3, DU145, and LnCaP cells...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Domenica Roberto, Laurence H Klotz, Vasundara Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids have demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties in a variety of malignancies, including in prostate cancer. In the present study, we explored the anti-cancer effects of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in prostate cancer. METHODS: Established prostate cancer cells (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were treated with varying concentrations of WIN. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. The anti-migration and anti-invasive potential of WIN was examined by the wound healing assay and the matrigel invasion assay...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Sabrina H Tsang, Samuel F Peisch, Brendan Rowan, Sarah C Markt, Amparo G Gonzalez-Feliciano, Siobhan Sutcliffe, Elizabeth A Platz, Lorelei A Mucci, Ericka M Ebot
We previously observed a positive association between seropositivity for the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at diagnosis. Here, we examined whether T. vaginalis seropositivity was associated with increased prostate cancer-specific or all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients. We studied 749 men with prostate cancer from the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) and 736 men with prostate cancer from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between T...
September 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Takashi Hashido, Shinya Nakasone, Mari Fukao, Seiichi Ota, Shinichi Inoue
This study aimed to compare and assess the compatibility of the bone-structure-based manual and maximization of mutual information (MMI)-algorithm-based automatic image registration using megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) images acquired with an imaging beam line. A total of 1163 MV-CBCT images from 30 prostate cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. The differences between setup errors in three directions (left-right, LR; superior-inferior, SI; anterior-posterior, AP) of both registration methods were investigated...
September 21, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Justin G Trogdon, Aaron D Falchook, Ramsankar Basak, William R Carpenter, Ronald C Chen
Importance: Localized prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment among elderly men who are not likely to benefit represents a potential source of low-value health care services. Objective: To quantify the costs to the Medicare program associated with detection and treatment of prostate cancer among elderly men in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study uses the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database to identify men 70 years or older diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2007 and to ascertain Medicare costs associated with diagnosis and workup, treatment, follow-up, and morbidity management of the disease...
September 13, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Soo Jeong Kim, Andrew J Vickers, Jim C Hu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: JAMA Oncology
David Carling, Lucy Penfold, Angela Woods, Phillip Muckett, Alexander Yu Nikitin, Tera R Kent, Shuai Zhang, Rebecca Graham, Alice Pollard
New targets are required for treating prostate cancer, particularly castrate-resistant disease. Previous studies reported that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) expression is increased in human prostate cancer. Here we show that Camkk2 deletion or pharmacological inhibition protects against prostate cancer development in a pre-clinical mouse model that lacks expression of prostate-specific phosphatase and tensin homologue (Pten). In contrast, deletion of AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk) β1 resulted in earlier onset of adenocarcinoma development...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Joshua W Russo, Ce Gao, Swati S Bhasin, Olga S Voznesensky, Carla Calagua, Seiji Arai, Peter S Nelson, Bruce Montgomery, Elahe A Mostaghel, Eva Corey, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Huihui Ye, Manoj Bhasin, Steven P Balk
The standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is designed to suppress androgen receptor (AR) activity. However, men invariably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and AR reactivation contributes to progression in most cases. To identify mechanisms that may drive CRPC, we examined a VCaP PCa xenograft model as tumors progressed from initial androgen sensitivity prior to castration to castration resistance and then on to relapse after combined therapy with further AR targeted drugs (abiraterone plus enzalutamide)...
September 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Niveditha Nerlakanti, Jiqiang Yao, Duy T Nguyen, Ami K Patel, Alexey M Eroshkin, Harshani R Lawrence, Muhammad Ayaz, Brent M Kuenzi, Neha Agarwal, Yunyun Chen, Steven Gunawan, Rezaul M Karim, Norbert Berndt, John Puskas, Anthony M Magliocco, Domenico Coppola, Jasreman Dhillon, Jingsong Zhang, Subramaniam Shymalagovindarajan, Uwe Rix, Youngchul Kim, Ranjan Perera, Nicholas J Lawrence, Ernst Schonbrunn, Kiran Mahajan
Resistance to Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists is a significant problem in the treatment of Castration resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Identification of the mechanisms by which CRPCs evade Androgen Deprivation Therapies (ADT) is critical to develop novel therapeutics. We uncovered that CRPCs rely on BRD4-HOXB13 epigenetic reprogramming for androgen-independent cell proliferation. Mechanistically, BRD4, a member of the BET bromodomain family epigenetically promotes HOXB13 expression. Consistently, genetic disruption or pharmacological suppression of HOXB13 mRNA and protein expression by the novel dual activity BET bromodomain-kinase inhibitors directly correlates with rapid induction of apoptosis, potent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, inhibits cell migration and suppresses CRPC growth...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Ben Van Calster, Laure Wynants, Jan F M Verbeek, Jan Y Verbakel, Evangelia Christodoulou, Andrew J Vickers, Monique J Roobol, Ewout W Steyerberg
CONTEXT: Urologists regularly develop clinical risk prediction models to support clinical decisions. In contrast to traditional performance measures, decision curve analysis (DCA) can assess the utility of models for decision making. DCA plots net benefit (NB) at a range of clinically reasonable risk thresholds. OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations on interpreting and reporting DCA when evaluating prediction models. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We informally reviewed the urological literature to determine investigators' understanding of DCA...
September 19, 2018: European Urology
Rano Matta, Christopher J D Wallis, Mitchell G Goldenberg, Amanda E Hird, Zachary Klaassen, Girish Kulkarni, Ronald T Kodama, Sender Herschorn, Robert K Nam
Psychological distress is prevalent among men with prostate cancer (PCa). However, the variation in antidepressant use among individuals throughout the survivorship period is unknown. We sought to examine the variation and trends in receipt of antidepressants after PCa treatment, among patients with nonmetastatic PCa. Using population-based linked administrative data, we identified men ≥66 yr old who underwent surgery (n=4952), radiotherapy (n=4994), or surveillance (n=2136), and these men were matched to general population controls (n=57127)...
September 18, 2018: European Urology
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