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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326646/effect-of-tempol-on-the-prevention-of-irradiation-induced-mucositisin-miniature-pigs
#1
Liang Hu, Yijuan Wang, Ana P Cotrim, Zhao Zhu, Runtao Gao, Changyu Zheng, Corinne M Goldsmith, Luyuan Jin, Chunmei Zhang, James B Mitchell, Bruce J Baum, Songlin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to (i) establish a useful miniature pig (minipig) model for irradiation-induced oral mucositis and (ii) evaluate the effect of Tempol to prevent its development. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Minipigs were irradiated with 6Gy for 5 consecutive days targeting the entire oral cavity. To prevent radiation damage minipigs were treated with 30 mg/kg Tempol 10 minutes before irradiation (n=4), while, the radiation-alone group was similarly injected with saline (n=4)...
March 22, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320189/tempol-4-hydroxy-tempo-inhibits-anoxia-induced-progression-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-associated-neurobehavioral-impairment-in-neonatal-rats
#2
Puneet K Samaiya, Gopeshwar Narayan, Ashok Kumar, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND: Anoxia leads to a robust generation of reactive oxygen species/nitrogen species which can result in mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cell death in the cerebral cortex of neonates. AIM: The present study investigated the pharmacological role of tempol in the treatment of rat neonatal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction induced insult progression (day-1 to day-7) and associated neurobehavioral alterations post-anoxia. METHODS: Rat pups of 30h age or postnatal day 2 (PND2) were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=5 per group): (1) Control; (2) Anoxia; (3) Anoxia+Tempol 75mg/kg; (4) Anoxia+Tempol 150mg/kg; and (5) Anoxia+Tempol 300mg/kg, and subjected to two episode of anoxia (10min each) at 24h of time interval in an enclosed chamber supplied with 100% N2...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315584/high-density-polystyrene-grafted-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-use-in-the-preparation-of-nanocomposites-with-antibacterial-properties
#3
Piotr Krystosiak, Waldemar Tomaszewski, Elżbieta Megiel
The achievement of uniform nanoparticles distribution in polymer matrix is still a major challenge in the design and fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with desired properties. In this paper we propose a novel approach for the preparation of homogeneous polystyrene/silver nanocomposites utilizing Nitroxide Mediated Radical Polymerization (NMRP). In the first step of the developed procedure, the polystyrene grafted silver nanoparticles (Ag@PS) with well-defined core-shell structure and exceptionally high grafting density (from 2 chains/nm(2) to 5...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277985/indoxyl-sulfate-potentiates-endothelial-dysfunction-via-reciprocal-role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-and-rhoa-rock-signaling-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#4
Shuang Chu, Xiaodong Mao, Hengjiang Guo, Li Wang, Zezheng Li, Yang Zhang, Yunman Wang, Hao Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Wen Peng
Accumulative indoxyl sulfate (IS) retained in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can potentiate vascular endothelial dysfunction, and herein, we aim at elucidating the underlying mechanisms from the perspective of possible association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RhoA/ROCK pathway. IS-treated nephrectomized rats are administered with antioxidants including NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, SOD analog tempol, and mitochondrion-targeted SOD mimetic mito-TEMPO to scavenge ROS, or ROCK inhibitor fasudil to obstruct RhoA/ROCK pathway...
March 13, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271339/spin-probe-multi-frequency-epr-study-of-unprocessed-cotton-fibers
#5
Antonin Marek, Maxim A Voinov, Alex I Smirnov
Known since the ancient times, cotton continues to be one of the essential materials for the human civilization. Cotton fibers are almost pure cellulose and contain both crystalline and amorphous nanodomains with different physicochemical properties. While understanding of interactions between the individual cellulose chains within the crystalline phase is important from a perspective of mechanical properties, studies of the amorphous phase lead to characterization of the essential transport parameters, such as solvent diffusion, dyeing, drug release, and toxin absorption, as well as more complex processes of enzymatic degradation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263291/iron-suppresses-erythropoietin-expression-via-oxidative-stress-dependent-hypoxia-inducible-factor-2-alpha-inactivation
#6
Keisuke Oshima, Yasumasa Ikeda, Yuya Horinouchi, Hiroaki Watanabe, Hirofumi Hamano, Yoshitaka Kihira, Seiji Kishi, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Licht Miyamoto, Tasuku Hirayama, Hideko Nagasawa, Keisuke Ishizawa, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Renal anemia is a major complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Iron supplementation, as well as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, are widely used for treatment of renal anemia. However, excess iron causes oxidative stress via the Fenton reaction, and iron supplementation might damage remnant renal function including erythropoietin (EPO) production in CKD. EPO gene expression was suppressed in mice following direct iron treatment. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α), a positive regulator of the EPO gene, was also diminished in the kidney of mice following iron treatment...
March 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263289/establishment-of-a-mouse-model-of-enalapril-induced-liver-injury-and-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis
#7
Yuji Shirai, Shingo Oda, Sayaka Makino, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern in drug development and clinical drug therapy. Since the underlying mechanisms of DILI have not been fully understood in most cases, elucidation of the hepatotoxic mechanisms of drugs is expected. Although enalapril (ELP), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, has been reported to cause liver injuries with a low incidence in humans, the precise mechanisms by which ELP causes liver injury remains unknown. In this study, we established a mouse model of ELP-induced liver injury and analyzed the mechanisms of its hepatotoxicity...
March 6, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260074/atorvastatin-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-radiation%C3%A2-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-in-pc-3-prostate-cancer-cells-to-enhance-the-cell-killing-effect
#8
Hao Yu, Shao-Qian Sun, Xiao-Bin Gu, Wen Wang, Xian-Shu Gao
Studies have reported that atorvastatin (ATO) may increase the radiosensitivity of malignant cells. However, the influence of ATO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels before and after irradiation has not been fully illustrated. In the present study, radiosensitivity was evaluated by a clonogenic assay and a cell survival curve and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. ROS were detected by a laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometry with a DCFH-DA probe. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and total SOD activity was measured using an SOD kit...
February 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244682/extracellular-histones-disarrange-vasoactive-mediators-release-through-a-cox-nos-interaction-in-human-endothelial-cells
#9
Daniel Pérez-Cremades, Carlos Bueno-Betí, José Luis García-Giménez, José Santiago Ibañez-Cabellos, Carlos Hermenegildo, Federico V Pallardó, Susana Novella
Extracellular histones are mediators of inflammation, tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Interactions between circulating histones and vascular endothelial cells are key events in histone-mediated pathologies. Our aim was to investigate the implication of extracellular histones in the production of the major vasoactive compounds released by human endothelial cells (HUVECs), prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). HUVEC exposed to increasing concentrations of histones (0.001 to 100 μg/ml) for 4 hrs induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release at 100 μg/ml...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238951/oral-administration-of-the-nitroxide-radical-tempol-exhibits-immunomodulatory-and-therapeutic-properties-in-multiple-sclerosis-models
#10
Sarah Neil, Jaebong Huh, Victoria Baronas, Xinhui Li, Henry F McFarland, Murali Cherukuri, James B Mitchell, Jacqueline A Quandt
Therapies with both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties are thought to have the greatest promise in reducing the severity and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are implicated in inflammatory-mediated damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) is a stable nitroxide radical with potent antioxidant activity...
February 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220081/muscles-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries-depends-on-fiber-type-specific-antioxidant-level
#11
Anne-Laure Charles, Anne-Sophie Guilbert, Max Guillot, Samy Talha, Anne Lejay, Alain Meyer, Michel Kindo, Valérie Wolff, Jamal Bouitbir, Joffrey Zoll, Bernard Geny
Muscle injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion largely aggravates patient prognosis but whether and how muscle phenotype modulates ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be investigated. We challenged the hypothesis that glycolytic muscles are more prone to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury than oxidative skeletal muscles. We therefore determined simultaneously the effect of 3 h of ischemia induced by aortic clamping followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR, n = 11) on both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, as compared to control animals (C, n = 11)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203527/superoxide-increases-angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-function-in-human-kidney-2-cells
#12
Mohammad Saleem, Indira Pokkunuri, Mohammad Asghar
The redox-sensitive Sp family transcription factor has been linked to the regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). However, the exact mechanism of AT1R regulation in renal cells is poorly understood. We tested the specificity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide vs. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the specific role of Sp3 transcription factor, if any, in the regulation of AT1R in human kidney cells (HK2 cells). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), but not H2O2 treatment, increased fluorescence levels of superoxide probe dihydroethidium (DHE)...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179583/pravastatin-activates-activator-protein-2-alpha-to-argument-the-angiotensin-ii-induced-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#13
Hui Ma, Wen-Jing Liang, Mei-Rong Shan, Xue-Qing Wang, Sheng-Nan Zhou, Yuan Chen, Tao Guo, Peng Li, Hai-Ya Yu, Chao Liu, Ya-Ling Yin, Yu-Lin Wang, Bo Dong, Xin-Yan Pang, Shuang-Xi Wang
We have previously reported that activation of AMP-activated kinase alpha 2 (AMPKα2) by nicotine or angiotensin II (AngII) instigates formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Apoe-/- mice. Statins, used to treat hyperlipidemia widely, activate AMPK in vascular cells. We sought to examine the effects of pravastatin on AAA formation and uncover the molecular mechanism. The AAA model was induced by AngII and evaluated by incidence, elastin degradation, and maximal abdominal aortic diameter in Apoe-/- mice...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168814/targeting-multiple-pathways-reduces-renal-and-cardiac-fibrosis-in-rats-with-subtotal-nephrectomy-followed-by-coronary-ligation
#14
N R Oosterhuis, L G Bongartz, M C Verhaar, C Cheng, Y J Xu, A van Koppen, M J Cramer, R Goldschmeding, C A Gaillard, P A Doevendans, B Braam, J A Joles
AIM: Multiple interacting pathways contribute to progression of renal and cardiac damage in chronic kidney disease followed by chronic heart failure (renocardiac syndrome). We hypothesized that simultaneous pharmacological modulation of critical pathways implicated in renocardiac syndrome would effectively reduce fibrosis in and preserve function of heart and kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to subtotal nephrectomy followed 9 weeks later by coronary artery ligation...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115642/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-against-cigarette-smoke-induced-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction
#15
Elani F Wiest, Mary T Walsh-Wilcox, Mary K Walker
In cigarette smokers endothelial dysfunction, measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), precedes cardiovascular disease and can be improved by supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We developed a mouse model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced endothelial dysfunction that resembles impaired FMD observed in human cigarette smokers and investigated the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs mediate vasoprotection. We hypothesized that loss of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in CS-exposed mice would be prevented by dietary n-3 PUFAs via a decrease in oxidative stress...
January 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105734/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-mediates-the-intracellular-signaling-pathways-of-cardiac-apoptosis-in-mice-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#16
Marilen Federico, Enrique L Portiansky, Leandro Sommese, Francisco J Alvarado, Paula G Blanco, Carolina N Zanuzzi, John Dedman, Marcia Kaetzel, Xander H T Wehrens, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
Background The impact of cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetic stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We described that myocytes from fructose-rich diet (FRD) animals exhibit arrhythmias produced by exacerbated Ca(2+) /calmodulin-protein kinase (CaMKII) activity, ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We tested the hypothesis that this mechanism also underlies cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetes. Methods and Results We generated a pre-diabetic model in mice fed with FRD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101449/immunohistochemical-expression-of-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system-components-in-response-to-tempol-in-rats-fed-a-high-salt-diet
#17
Gabriel Cao, Silvana Lorena Della Penna, Nicolás Martín Kouyoumdzian, Marcelo Roberto Choi, Susana Gorzalczany, Belisario Enrique Fernández, Jorge Eduardo Toblli, María Inés Rosón
AIM: To determine the effect of tempol in normal rats fed high salt on arterial pressure and the balance between antagonist components of the renal renin-angiotensin system. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 8% NaCl high-salt (HS) or 0.4% NaCl (normal-salt, NS) diet for 3 wk, with or without tempol (T) (1 mmol/L, administered in drinking water). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urinary sodium excretion (UVNa) were measured...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093283/lipophilic-triphenylphosphonium-derivatives-enhance-radiation-induced-cell-killing-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-tumor-cells
#18
Hironobu Yasui, Kumiko Yamamoto, Motofumi Suzuki, Yuri Sakai, Tomoki Bo, Masaki Nagane, Eri Nishimura, Tohru Yamamori, Toshihide Yamasaki, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Osamu Inanami
It has recently been reported that radiation enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism in various tumor cell lines. To examine how this radiation-induced alteration in mitochondrial function influences tumor cell viability, various lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) cation derivatives and related compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxy-piperidin (Tempol) with TPP(+) (named "Mito-") were designed to inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol (M10T) and its derivatives, Mito-(CH2)5-Tempol (M5T), Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol-Methyl (M10T-Me), Mito-C10H21 (M10), and C10H21-Tempol (10T), were prepared...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069660/antioxidant-treatment-attenuates-lactate-production-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Christoffer Laustsen, Per Mose Nielsen, Thomas Stokholm Nørlinger, Haiyun Qi, Uffe Kjærgaard Pedersen, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Jakob Appel Østergaard, Allan Flyvbjerg, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær-Larsen, Fredrik Palm, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen
The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying increased lactate dehydrogenase activity as a consequence of increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide substrate availability due to upregulation of the polyol pathway, i.e., pseudohypoxia. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in mediating these metabolic alterations using state-of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064014/gpr55-agonist-lysophosphatidylinositol-and-lysophosphatidylcholine-inhibit-endothelial-cell-hyperpolarization-via-gpr-independent-suppression-of-na-ca-2-exchanger-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-refilling
#20
Alexander I Bondarenko, Fabrizio Montecucco, Olga Panasiuk, Vadim Sagach, Nataliya Sidoryak, Karim J Brandt, François Mach
Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) are lipid signaling molecules that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In addition, LPC suppresses acetylcholine (Ach)-induced responses. We aimed to determine the influence of LPC and LPI on hyperpolarizing responses in vitro and in situ endothelial cells (EC) and identify the underlying mechanisms. Using patch-clamp method, we show that LPI and LPC inhibit EC hyperpolarization to histamine and suppress Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanged (NCX) currents in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 5, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
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