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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458041/role-of-superoxide-ion-formation-in-hypothermia-rewarming-induced-contractile-dysfunction-in-cardiomyocytes
#1
Niccole Schaible, Young Soo Han, Torkjel Tveita, Gary C Sieck
Rewarming following accidental hypothermia is associated with circulatory collapse due primarily to impaired cardiac contractile (systolic) function. Previously, we found that reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity underlies hypothermia/rewarming (H/R)-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. This reduced Ca2+ sensitivity is associated with troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation. We hypothesize that H/R induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in cardiomyocytes, which leads to cTnI phosphorylation and reduced myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456512/local-injections-of-superoxide-dismutase-attenuate-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#2
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433520/intermittent-hypoxia-promotes-melanoma-lung-metastasis-via-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-responses-in-a-mouse-model-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#3
Lian Li, Fangyuan Ren, Chao Qi, Leiqian Xu, Yinshan Fang, Maoli Liang, Jing Feng, Baoyuan Chen, Wen Ning, Jie Cao
BACKGROUND: Recently, increased tumor incidence and cancer-related mortality have been reported among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark feature of OSA, contributes to the metastasis of tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which tumor metastasis is accelerated by OSA-like IH remain to be elucidated. METHODS: C57BL/6 J male mice were subjected to intravenous injection of B16F10 melanoma cells before receiving IH treatment...
February 12, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431894/sample-ripening-through-nanophase-separation-impacts-the-performance-of-dynamic-nuclear-polarization
#4
Emmanuelle Weber, Giuseppe Sicoli, Hervé Vezin, Ghislaine Frébourg, Daniel Abergel, Geoffrey Bodenhausen, Dennis Kurzbach
Mixtures of water and glycerol provide popular matrices for low-temperature spectroscopy of vitrified samples. However, they involve counterintuitive physicochemical properties, such as spontaneous nanoscopic phase separations (NPS) in solutions that appear macroscopically homogeneous. We demonstrate that such phenomena can substantially impact the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) by factors up to 20% by causing fluctuations in local concentrations of polarization agents (radicals). Thus, a spontaneous NPS of water/glycerol mixtures that takes place on time scales on the order of 30-60 min results in a confinement of polarization agents in nanoscopic water-rich vesicles, which in return affects the DNP...
February 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424564/oxidative-stress-impairs-cgmp-dependent-protein-kinase-activation-and-vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein-serine-phosphorylation
#5
Anees A Banday, Mustafa F Lokhandwala
Reactive oxygen species induce vascular dysfunction and hypertension by directly interacting with nitric oxide (NO) which leads to NO inactivation. In addition to a decrease in NO bioavailability, there is evidence that oxidative stress can also modulate NO signaling during hypertension. Here, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on NO signaling molecules cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) which are known to mediate vasodilatory actions of NO. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were provided with tap water (control), 30 mM L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a pro-oxidant), 1 mM tempol (T, an antioxidant) and BSO + T for 3 wks...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421569/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-hybrid-nitroxide-based-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#6
Komba Thomas, Terry W Moody, Robert T Jensen, Jason Tong, Cassie L Rayner, Nigel L Barnett, Kathryn E Fairfull-Smith, Lisa A Ridnour, David A Wink, Steven E Bottle
Dual-acting hybrid anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory agents were developed employing the principle of pharmacophore hybridization. Hybrid agents were synthesized by combining stable anti-oxidant nitroxides with conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several of the hybrid nitroxide-NSAID conjugates displayed promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on two Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cells (A549 and NCI-H1299) and in ameliorating oxidative stress induced in 661 W retinal cells...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419407/hyperoxia-causes-mitochondrial-fragmentation-in-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-by-increasing-expression-of-pro-fission-proteins
#7
Cui Ma, Andreas M Beyer, Matthew Durand, Anne V Clough, Daling Zhu, Laura Norwood Toro, Maia Terashvili, Johnathan D Ebben, R Blake Hill, Said H Audi, Meetha Medhora, Elizabeth R Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: We explored mechanisms that alter mitochondrial structure and function in pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) function after hyperoxia. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mitochondrial structures of PECs exposed to hyperoxia or normoxia were visualized and mitochondrial fragmentation quantified. Expression of pro-fission or fusion proteins or autophagy-related proteins were assessed by Western blot. Mitochondrial oxidative state was determined using mito-roGFP. Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester estimated mitochondrial polarization in treatment groups...
February 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388466/reactive-oxygen-species-induced-ca2-influx-via-trpv4-and-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-the-su5416-hypoxia-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#8
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Haiyang Jiang, Zahna Bigham, Xin Yun, Corinne Kliment, John C Huetsch, Mahendra Damarla, Larissa A Shimoda
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease characterized by elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure, in part due to formation of occlusive lesions in the distal arterioles of the lung. These complex lesions may comprise multiple cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying EC dysfunction in PAH, lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were isolated from normoxic rats (N-MVEC) and rats subjected to SU5416 plus hypoxia (SuHx), an experimental model of PAH...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359965/tempol-a-superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-drug-prevents-chronic-ischemic-renal-injury-in-two-kidney-one-clip-hypertensive-rats
#9
Douglas Vq Nunes, Cristiane A Costa, Graziele F De Bem, Viviane Sc Cordeiro, Izabelle B Santos, Lenize Crm Carvalho, Alessandro K Jordão, Anna C Cunha, Vitor F Ferreira, Roberto S Moura, Angela C Resende, Dayane T Ognibene
Tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, has been shown to attenuate radical-induced damage, exerting beneficial effects in the animal models of oxidative stress and hypertension. This study evaluated the effect of Tempol on renal structural and functional alterations in two-Kidney, one-Clip hypertensive rats. In this study, young male Wistar rats had the left kidney clipped (2K1C), and sham-operated animals (Sham) were used as controls. Animals received Tempol (1mmol/L in drinking water) or vehicle for 5 weeks...
January 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351453/superoxide-inhibition-restores-endothelium-dependent-dilatation-in-aging-arteries-by-enhancing-impaired-adherens-junctions
#10
Fumin Chang, Sheila Flavahan, Nicholas A Flavahan
Endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilatation is impaired in aging arteries. The dysfunction reflects increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is reversed by inhibiting superoxide with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, and is assumed to reflect superoxide-mediated inactivation of NO. However, the dysfunction also reflects Src-dependent degradation and loss of VE-cadherin from adherens junctions, resulting in a selective impairment in the ability of the junctions to amplify endothelial dilatation...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351439/role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sulfide-quinone-oxoreductase-in-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-contraction-of-rat-pulmonary-arteries
#11
Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Vladimir A Snetkov, Yasin Shaifta, Inmaculada Docio, Michelle J Connolly, Charles E Mackay, Greg A Knock, Jeremy Pt Ward, Philip I Aaronson
Application of H2S ('sulfide') elicits a complex contraction in rat pulmonary arteries (PA) comprising a small transient contraction (phase 1; Ph1) followed by relaxation and then a second, larger, and more sustained contraction (phase 2; Ph2). We investigated the mechanisms causing this response using isometric myography in rat second order PA, with Na2S as a sulfide donor. Both phases of contraction to 1000μM Na2S were attenuated by the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (3μM) and by 50μM ryanodine; the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1μM) was without effect...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327381/oxidative-stress-impairs-myocyte-autophagy-resulting-in-myocyte-hypertrophy
#12
Jia-Pu Wang, Rui-Fang Chi, Ke Wang, Teng Ma, Xiao-Fei Guo, Xiao-Li Zhang, Bao Li, Fu-Zhong Qin, Xue-Bin Han, Bian-Ai Fan
Insufficient or excessive myocyte autophagy is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Reactive oxygen species mediate myocyte hypertrophy in vitro and pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy in vivo. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress induces autophagy impairment that results in myocyte hypertrophy. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 and 50 μm hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for 48 h pretreated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) or sham operation...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296095/free-radical-scavenging-reverses-fructose-induced-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#13
Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes
We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium-hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure...
2018: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229746/inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-dependent-oxidative-stress-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-mediates-the-antihypertensive-effects-of-acupuncture-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#14
Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Cai-Shuo Ji, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Guang-Xia Shi, Marc Fisher, Cun-Zhi Liu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where the sympathetic nervous control center is located, contributes to neural mechanisms of hypertension. Acupuncture was previously reported to favorably affect high blood pressure. However, little is known about the effect of acupuncture on oxidative stress-modulated mechanisms in hypertension. This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via ameliorating oxidative stress and the redox-sensitive pathway in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
December 11, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217357/tempol-prevents-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-induced-memory-impairment
#15
Karem H Alzoubi, Abeer M Rababa'h, Omar N Yaqoub
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD...
December 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210997/tempol-supplementation-restores-diaphragm-force-and-metabolic-enzyme-activities-in-mdx-mice
#16
David P Burns, Izza Ali, Clement Rieux, James Healy, Greg Jasionek, Ken D O'Halloran
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by striated muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Since oxidative stress is recognized as a secondary pathology in DMD, the efficacy of antioxidant intervention, using the superoxide scavenger tempol, was examined on functional and biochemical status of dystrophin-deficient diaphragm muscle. Diaphragm muscle function was assessed, ex vivo, in adult male wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, with and without a 14-day antioxidant intervention...
December 6, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207011/astragaloside-iv-prevents-kidney-injury-caused-by-iatrogenic-hyperinsulinemia-in-a-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-rat-model
#17
Ke-Qiang He, Wei-Zu Li, Xiao-Qing Chai, Yan-Yan Yin, Yan Jiang, Wei-Ping Li
Diabetic patients are able to manage their blood glucose with exogenous insulin but, ultimately, remain at risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Long‑term use of insulin may lead to iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia, which has been suggested to cause kidney injury. However, there are no effective interventions for iatrogenic hyperinsulinemia leading to kidney damage. In the present paper, the hypothesis that astragaloside IV (AS‑IV), a novel saponin purified from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, may prevent DN in iatrogenic hyperinsulinemic diabetic rats through antioxidative and anti‑inflammatory mechanisms was investigated...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196315/phosphorylated-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-contributes-to-rat-hiv-related-neuropathic-pain-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Daigo Ikegami, Wan Huang, Hirotsugu Kanda, Takafumi Iida, Ching-Hang Liu, Keiya Takahashi, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system. C/EBPβ, one of C/EBPs is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192783/mesodomain-and-protein-associated-solvent-phases-with-temperature-tunable-200-265-k-dynamics-surround-ethanolamine-ammonia-lyase-in-globally-polycrystalline-aqueous-solution-containing-dimethyl-sulfoxide
#19
Benjamen Nforneh, Kurt Warncke
Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the spin probe, TEMPOL, is used to resolve solvent phases that surround the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) protein from Salmonella typhimurium at low temperature (T) in frozen, globally polycrystalline aqueous solution and to report on the T dependence of their detectably rigid and fluid states. EAL plays a role in human gut microbiome-based disease conditions, and physicochemical studies provide insight into protein structure and mechanism, toward potential therapeutics...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183754/nitroxide-tempol-down-regulates-kinase-activities-associated-with-nadph-oxidase-function-in-phagocytic-cells-and-potentially-decreases-their-fungicidal-response
#20
Gérsika B Santos, Ana C G Ribeiro, Samuel N P Lima, Andrés Trostchansky, Cláudio Daniel Cerdeira, Maísa R P L Brigagão
AIMS: The identification of novel targets to control inflammation in humans is probably the primary challenge that impairs the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, the modulation of intracellular signaling pathways in phagocytes may be an interesting means of achieving this goal. However, this change to signaling can compromise the host's susceptibility to invading pathogens. We investigated whether the antioxidant nitroxide Tempol regulates the activity of kinases associated with the production of oxidants in neutrophils, which affects the fungicidal capability of these cells...
November 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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