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Cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641094/emerging-concepts-in-cytomegalovirus-infection-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Jose F Camargo, Krishna V Komanduri
Despite the refinements in molecular methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the advent of highly effective preemptive strategies, CMV remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. CMV can cause tissue-invasive disease including pneumonia, hepatitis, colitis, retinitis, and encephalitis. Mortality in HCT recipients with CMV disease can be as high as 60%. CMV infection has been associated with increased risk of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, increased risk of graft-versus-host disease, and high rates of nonrelapse mortality following HCT...
June 14, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637105/cytomegalovirus-gastric-ulcer-complicated-with-pyloric-obstruction-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Sung Hwan Kang, Kee Myung Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Sun Kyo Lim, Jae Chul Hwang, Jin Hong Kim
In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections could aggravate the course of IBD but it is difficult to distinguish CMV infection from IBD exacerbation endoscopically. Usually, CMV tends to localize to the colon and other organic involvements were reported very rare in the IBD patients. Herein, we report a case that CMV gastric ulcer complicated with pyloric obstruction in a patient with ulcerative colitis during ganciclovir therapy, which was resolved by surgical gastrojejunostomy with review of literature...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633098/high-prevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-surgical-intestinal-specimens-from-infants-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-spontaneous-intestinal-perforation-a-retrospective-observational-study
#3
Soley Omarsdottir, Margret Agnarsdottir, Charlotte Casper, Abiel Orrego, Mireille Vanpée, Afsar Rahbar, Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe, often fatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects preterm infants, and there is evidence that neonatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may in some cases contribute to its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CMV in infants with NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy intestinal specimens from 61 infants with NEC, spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP), or related surgical complications were collected at Karolinska University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#4
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630092/characterization-of-high-avidity-cytomegalovirus-specific-t-cells-with-differential-tetramer-binding-coappearing-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Justyna Ogonek, Kriti Verma, Christian Schultze-Florey, Pavankumar Varanasi, Susanne Luther, Patrick Schweier, Wolfgang Kühnau, Gudrun Göhring, Elke Dammann, Michael Stadler, Arnold Ganser, Ulrike Koehl, Christian Koenecke, Eva M Weissinger, Lothar Hambach
CMV reactivation is a major complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Immune reconstitution of CMV-specific CTLs (CMV-CTLs) is essential for virus control. During CMV-CTL monitoring using mutated HLA/CMV tetramers selectively detecting high-avidity T cells, we observed coappearance of CMV-CTLs with low (CMV tet(low) CTLs) and high tetramer binding (CMV tet(high) CTLs) in 53/115 CMV IgG(+) patients stem cell transplanted from CMV IgG(+) donors. However, the relevance of these coappearing differentially tetramer binding ("dual") CMV-CTLs was unclear...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629849/analysis-of-archived-newborn-dried-blood-spots-dbs-identifies-congenital-cytomegalovirus-as-a-major-cause-of-unexplained-pediatric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#6
Lucy Meyer, Bazak Sharon, Tina C Huang, Abby C Meyer, Kristin E Gravel, Lisa A Schimmenti, Elizabeth C Swanson, Hannah E Herd, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Kirsten R Coverstone, Mark McCann, Mark R Schleiss
PURPOSE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, accurate diagnosis of cCMV as the etiology of SNHL is problematic beyond the neonatal period. This study therefore examined whether cCMV infection could be identified retrospectively in children presenting with unexplained SNHL to a multidisciplinary diagnostic outpatient otolaryngology clinic at an academic medical center in Minnesota. METHODS: Over a 4-year period, 57 patients with an age range of 3months to 10years with unexplained SNHL were recruited to participate in this study...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628650/the-human-cytomegalovirus-glycoprotein-pul11-acts-via-cd45-to-induce-t-cell-il-10-secretion
#7
Jasmin Zischke, Panagiota Mamareli, Claudia Pokoyski, Ildar Gabaev, Sabine Buyny, Roland Jacobs, Christine S Falk, Matthias Lochner, Tim Sparwasser, Thomas F Schulz, Penelope C Kay-Fedorov
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen, infection with which can cause severe disease for immunocompromised individuals. The complex changes wrought on the host's immune system during both productive and latent HCMV infection are well known. Infected cells are masked and manipulated and uninfected immune cells are also affected; peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation is reduced and cytokine profiles altered. Levels increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which may be important for the establishment of HCMV infections and is required for the development of high viral titres by murine cytomegalovirus...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628043/immunotherapy-for-transplantation-associated-viral-infections
#8
Claire Roddie, Karl S Peggs
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early clinical trials demonstrate that adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific T cells to restore virus-specific immunity is an effective strategy to control CMV and EBV infection after HSCT, conferring protection in 70%-90% of patients. The field has evolved rapidly to develop solutions to some of the manufacturing challenges identified in early clinical studies, such as prolonged in vitro culture, optimization of the purity of the virus-specific T cell product, the potential limitations of targeting a single viral antigen, and how to manage the patient with a virus-naive donor...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628024/-evaluation-of-dynamic-telomere-length-shortening-of-lymphocytes-in-immunocompromised-children-with-chronic-diseases-of-the-respiratory
#9
E Khalturina, I Nesterova
Nowadays it is common to observe the growth of viral-viral and viral-bacterial co-infections in children of different ages, due to dysfunction of lymphocytes (DL), which can be connected with the process of the accelerated shortening of the end structures of chromosomal telomeres, telomere length changes are described in lymphocytes of children with chronic mono-infections. The conducted study has shown the shortening of telomere lymphocytes in children with CDRT seropositive for mixed-herpes viral infections (herpes simplex virus, virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in various combinations) and for bacterial co-infections - Chlamydia trachomatis and (or) Mycoplasma pneumoniae...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627633/robust-cancer-specific-gene-expression-by-a-novel-cassette-with-htert-and-cmv-promoter-elements
#10
Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Takuya Sadahira, Hideo Ueki, Rie Kinoshita, Hitoshi Murata, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Junichiro Futami, Yasutomo Nasu, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Hiromi Kumon, Nam-Ho Huh, Masami Watanabe
We developed and validated a novel hTERT/CMV promoter element-driven gene expression cassette that can robustly enhance cancer-specific gene expression. The following gene expressional elements were located in tandem within the plasmid construct: [hTERT core promoter, cytomegalovirus (CMV) minimized promoter, RU5' sequence, an inserted gene, BGH polyA, hTERT enhancer]; this is hereafter referred to as the hT/Cm-R-hT construct. Using various human cancer cell lines and normal cells, the cancer-specific transcription of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was examined by western blotting and fluorescence microscopy...
June 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626460/differential-effect-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-age-on-the-expression-of-cd57-cd300a-and-cd161-on-t-cell-subpopulations
#11
Fakhri Hassouneh, Nelson Lopez-Sejas, Carmen Campos, Beatriz Sanchez-Correa, Raquel Tarazona, Rafael Solana, Alejandra Pera
Immunosenescence is a progressive deterioration of the immune system with aging. It affects both innate and adaptive immunity limiting the response to pathogens and to vaccines. As chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is probably one of the major driving forces of immunosenescence, and its persistent infection results in functional and phenotypic changes to the T-cell repertoire, the aim of this study was to analyze the effect of CMV-seropositivity and aging on the expression of CD300a and CD161 inhibitory receptors, along with the expression of CD57 marker on CD4(+), CD8(+), CD8(+)CD56(+) (NKT-Like) and CD4(-)CD8(-) (DN) T-cell subsets...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624987/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-central-germany-an-underestimated-risk
#12
Hannah Rütten, Anke Rissmann, Birgit Brett, Serban-Dan Costa, Birgit Doßow, Jacqueline Färber, Stefan Fest, Christiane Fritzsch, Anke Lux, Ilona Päge, Claudia Spillner, Anke Redlich
PURPOSE: This is the first study to determine the cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegativity rate for women of childbearing age in Saxony-Anhalt and to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant congenital CMV (cCMV) infection in Central Germany, because there are no valid data available. METHODS: The retrospective study was undertaken between January 2005 and December 2015. For the first time in Germany, the following seven data sources were used to analyze the prevalence of clinically relevant cCMV infection and the rate of CMV seronegative women of childbearing age: CMV Screening in maternity unit, University Women's Hospital, Social Paediatrics Centre (SPC), Malformation Monitoring Centre (MMC), Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and In-house Doctor Department...
June 17, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624868/how-does-cytomegalovirus-factor-into-diseases-of-aging-and-vaccine-responses-and-by-what-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Allison E Aiello, Yen-Ling Chiu, Daniela Frasca
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen for both clinical and population settings. There is a growing body of research implicating CMV in multiple health outcomes across the life course. At the same time, there is mounting evidence that individuals living in poverty are more likely to be exposed to CMV and more likely to experience many of the chronic conditions for which CMV has been implicated. Further research on the causal role of CMV for health and well-being is needed. However, the strong evidence implicating CMV in type 2 diabetes, autoimmunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, vaccination, and age-related alterations in immune function warrants clinical and public health action...
June 18, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624867/cytomegalovirus-cmv-research-in-immune-senescence-comes-of-age-overview-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-cmv-and-immunosenescence
#14
EDITORIAL
Janko Nikolich-Žugich, René A W van Lier
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most complex and most ubiquitous latent persistent viruses, with a considerable ability to evade and manipulate the immune system. Following an early-life infection, most immunocompetent humans spend several decades living with CMV, and, because the virus in these hosts does not cause manifest disease, CMV can be considered part of normal aging for more than half of humanity. However, there is accumulating evidence that CMV carriage is not a null event and that both potentially harmful and potentially beneficial outcomes emanate from the interaction of CMV with its mammalian hosts...
June 17, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624612/human-mast-cells-present-antigen-to-autologous-cd4-t-cells
#15
Sahar Lotfi-Emran, Brant R Ward, Quang T Le, Andrea L Pozez, Masoud H Manjili, Judith Woodfolk, Lawrence B Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs), the primary effector cell of the atopic response, participate in immune defense at host/environment interfaces, yet the mechanisms by which they interact with CD4(+)-T cells has been controversial. OBJECTIVE: We utilize in situ-matured primary human MCs and matched CD4(+)-T cells to diligently assess the ability of MCs to act as antigen-presenting cells. METHODS: We examined mature human skin-derived MCs by flow cytometry for expression of antigen-presenting molecules; for their ability to stimulate CD4(+)-T cells to express CD25 and proliferate when exposed to superantigen or to CMV antigen using matched T cells and MCs from CMV seropositive or seronegative donors; and for uptake of antigens...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624460/identification-of-kx2-391-as-an-inhibitor-of-hbv-transcription-by-a-recombinant-hbv-based-screening-assay
#16
Keisuke Harada, Hironori Nishitsuji, Saneyuki Ujino, Kunitada Shimotohno
Antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that are currently applicable for clinical use are limited to nucleos(t)ide analogs targeting HBV polymerase activity and pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN). Towards establishing an effective therapy for HBV related diseases, it is important to develop a new anti-HBV agent that suppresses and eradicates HBV. This study used recombinant HBV encoding NanoLuc to screen anti-HBV compounds from 1827 US Food and Drug Administration approved compounds and identified several compounds that suppressed HBV infection...
June 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624196/evaluation-of-antisense-oligonucleotides-targeting-atxn3-in-sca3-mouse-models
#17
Lauren R Moore, Gautam Rajpal, Ian T Dillingham, Maya Qutob, Kate G Blumenstein, Danielle Gattis, Gene Hung, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Henry L Paulson, Hayley S McLoughlin
The most common dominantly inherited ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene that encodes an abnormally long polyglutamine tract in the disease protein, ATXN3. Mice lacking ATXN3 are phenotypically normal; hence, disease gene suppression offers a compelling approach to slow the neurodegenerative cascade in SCA3. Here we tested antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target human ATXN3 in two complementary mouse models of SCA3: yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) MJD-Q84...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623282/a-nationwide-study-of-severe-and-protracted-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#18
Wen-I Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Liang-Shiou Ou, Chuen Hsueh, Jing-Long Huang
Diarrhoea lasting longer than 14 days and failing to respond to conventional management is defined as severe and protracted diarrhoea (SD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence, pathogens and prognosis of SD in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Among 246 patients with predominantly paediatric-onset PIDs from 2003-2015, 21 [Btk (six), IL2RG (four), WASP, CD40L, gp91 (three each), gp47, RAG2 (one each)] and five [CVID (four), SCID (one)] without identified mutations had SD before prophylactic treatment...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623251/highly-functional-t-cell-receptor-repertoires-are-abundant-in-stem-memory-t-cells-and-highly-shared-among-individuals
#19
Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Kazutaka Kitaura, Ren Chishaki, Masashi Shibata, Kumi Oshima, Hiroshi Hamana, Hiroyuki Kishi, Atsushi Muraguchi, Kiyotaka Kuzushima, Hiroh Saji, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki, Tatsuo Ichinohe
To expand our knowledge of the ontogeny of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific T-cell subsets, we combined next-generation deep sequencing and single-cell multiplex clonotype analysis to evaluate the diversity and frequency of paired TCRs, their functions and whether clonotypic TCRs are shared among different individuals. Using an HLA-A*02-restricted cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65-derived immunogenic peptide, we found that the more dominant pp65-specific TCR clonotypes in the blood of healthy donors have higher binding affinities for the CMV peptide and arise from clonotypes that are highly shared among individuals...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623181/allele-level-hla-matching-for-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-for-non-malignant-diseases-in-children-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Mary Eapen, Tao Wang, Paul A Veys, Jaap J Boelens, Andrew St Martin, Stephen Spellman, Carmem Sales Bonfim, Colleen Brady, Andrew J Cant, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Stella M Davies, John Freeman, Katherine C Hsu, Katharina Fleischhauer, Chantal Kenzey, Joanne Kurtzberg, Gerard Michel, Paul J Orchard, Annalisa Paviglianiti, Vanderson Rocha, Michael R Veneris, Fernanda Volt, Robert Wynn, Stephanie J Lee, Mary M Horowitz, Eliane Gluckman, Annalisa Ruggeri
BACKGROUND: The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Haematology
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