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Cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742877/predictors-of-mortality-in-autoimmune-disease-patients-with-concurrent-cytomegalovirus-infections-detected-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#1
Kyoung Yong Lee, Byung-Woo Yoo, Sung Soo Ahn, William Han Bae, Hyukmin Lee, Seung Min Jung, Sang-Won Lee, Yong-Beom Park, Jason Jungsik Song
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegaloviruses (CMV) can have a significant impact on the prognosis of immunocompromised patients. Unlike in the transplantation and AIDS fields, only a few studies on CMV infections have been published in the field of autoimmunity. In this study, we examined the clinical outcomes of CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases at a single tertiary medical institution. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to identify the mortality risk factors associated with CMV infections in patients with autoimmune diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741727/placental-pericytes-and-cytomegalovirus-infectivity-implications-for-hcmv-placental-pathology-and-congenital-disease
#2
David M Aronoff, Hernan Correa, Lisa M Rogers, Ravit Arav-Boger, Donald J Alcendor
PROBLEM: Placental pericytes are essential for placental microvascular function, stability, and integrity. Mechanisms of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pathogenesis incorporating placental pericytes are unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: HCMV-infected placental tissue was stained by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Primary placental pericytes, cytotrophoblasts, and villous fibroblasts were exposed to HCMV; and infectivity was analyzed by microscopy and immunofluorescence...
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740748/a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-candidate-vaccine-based-on-japanese-encephalitis-virus-replicon-system
#3
Pingsheng Hu, Xiaoming Chen, Lihong Huang, Shukai Liu, Fuyu Zang, Jinchao Xing, Youyue Zhang, Jiaqi Liang, Guihong Zhang, Ming Liao, Wenbao Qi
In the swine industry, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease which causes heavy economic losses worldwide. Effective prevention and disease control is an important issue. In this study, we described the construction of a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) DNA-based replicon with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter based on the genome of Japanese encephalitis live vaccine virus SA14-14-2, which is capable of offering a potentially novel way to develop and produce vaccines against a major pathogen of global health...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740621/direct-cost-analysis-of-the-second-year-post-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-bone-marrow-transplant-centre-of-tunisia
#4
Myriam Razgallah Khrouf, Leila Achour, Asma Thabti, Mohamed Ali Soussi, Nour Abdejelil, Olfa Lazreg, Chema Drira, Aida Zahaf, Saloua Ladab, Tarek Ben Othman
Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medically complicated therapy with a long recovery time. In Tunisia, the National Health Insurance Fund (CNAM) covers only the first year post-transplantation, after which the costs are borne by the hospital. Objective: Describe complications that can occur during the second year post-allogeneic HSCT and calculate direct costs in different groups of patients. Methods: In this pharmacoeconomic study, medical records of the second year post-allogeneic HSCT were collected...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738350/unilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss-medical-context-and-etiology
#5
Antoine Paul, Sandrine Marlin, Marine Parodi, Isabelle Rouillon, Joanne Guerlain, Véronique Pingault, Vincent Couloigner, Erea Noel Garabedian, Françoise Denoyelle, Natalie Loundon
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL) is known to impact on school performance and social skills during childhood, but the etiologies remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess various etiologies and to study the clinical contexts in this population. METHODS: The study is a retrospective review. Characteristics of hearing loss (HL), audiometric parameters, imaging, and genetic and medical contexts were analyzed. RESULTS: Eighty children were included...
July 22, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737006/unrecognized-viral-infections-and-chromosome-abnormalities-as-a-cause-of-fetal-death-examination-with-fluorescence-in%C3%A2-situ-hybridization-immunohistochemistry-and-polymerase-chain-reaction
#6
Bente Ediassen Opsjøn, Svein Arne Nordbø, Christina Vogt
Fifteen to 50% of fetal deaths remain unexplained after post-mortem examination depending on inclusion criteria and classification systems. Our aim was to examine a selection of unexplained fetal deaths in order to investigate whether any common chromosome aberrations or viral infections were present. Reports from 351 fetal autopsies performed at the Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at St. Olavs University Hospital from 2001 through 2010 were reviewed. Of these, 105 fetal deaths were classified as unexplained...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735999/results-of-real-time-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-sterile-pyuria
#7
M Sarier, M Demir, S Goktas, I Duman, M Buyukkinaci, Y Yuksel, S Tekin, A H Yavuz, A Sengul
Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. Sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (rtMPCR) assay in sterile pyuria of renal transplant recipients...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735326/high-seroprevalence-of-cmv-among-women-of-childbearing-age-implicates-high-burden-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-poland
#8
Joanna Siennicka, Milena Dunal-Szcepaniak, Agnieszka Trzcińska, Paulina Godzik, Magdalena Rosińska
Cytomegaloviruses are common worldwide, with variable frequency of infections. The infection in pregnancy may lead to pregnancy loss or serious sequelae for the child. To understand the risk posed by CMV in Poland we conducted cross-sectional study on women aged 15-49 basing on existing serum bank. Age dependent incidence, the rates of congenital infection and sequelae were modelled from sero-prevalence, literature and demographic data. The overall anti-CMV IgG prevalence was 81.9% increasing from 74.3% in <30 years old to 94...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734808/-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-manifesting-as-neonatal-respiratory-distress-in-an-hiv-exposed-uninfected-newborn
#9
A Pham, H El Mjati, N Nathan, F Kieffer, D Mitanchez
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common intrauterine infections, affecting approximately 1% of all live births. There are few reports on congenital CMV infections manifesting as isolated pneumonitis. CASE REPORT: We report a case of congenital CMV with neonatal respiratory distress affecting an HIV-exposed uninfected infant. This infant required noninvasive ventilation beginning within the first 15min of life. The initial chest X-ray showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacifications...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734481/cytomegalovirus-primoinfection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Paola Torres, Triana Lobatón, Fiorella Cañete, Ariadna Clos, Míriam Mañosa, Eduard Cabré, Eugeni Domènech
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734175/cd8-t-cell-programming-by-cytomegalovirus-vectors-applications-in-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-vaccination
#11
REVIEW
Klaus Früh, Louis Picker
Vectors based on cytomegalovirus (CMV) represent a novel vaccine platform that maintains high frequencies of non-exhausted effector memory T cells in both CMV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals. In non-human primate models, CMV vectored vaccines provide unprecedented protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Moreover, CMV vectors can be genetically altered to program highly diverse CD8+ T cell responses that differ in their epitope targeting including conventional, MHC-I restricted CD8+ T cells as well as unconventional CD8+ T cells restricted by MHC class II or non-polymorphic MHC-E...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733760/intrauterine-therapy-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-valganciclovir-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Vera Seidel, Cornelia Feiterna-Sperling, Jan-Peter Siedentopf, Jörg Hofmann, Wolfgang Henrich, Christoph Bührer, Katharina Weizsäcker
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause for sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation in children without genetic diseases worldwide. There is little evidence guiding therapeutic strategies during pregnancy when intrauterine fetal CMV infection is confirmed. We provide a systematic review of the use of ganciclovir (GCV) or VGCV during pregnancy discussing safety of its use for mother and fetus and describe two cases of intrauterine therapy of fetal CMV infection with valganciclovir (VGCV)...
July 21, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731372/exploring-the-effect-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-the-anti-ebv-antibody-response-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Linda Rolf, Anne-Hilde Muris, Amandine Mathias, Renaud Du Pasquier, Inga Koneczny, Giulio Disanto, Jens Kuhle, Sreeram Ramagopalan, Jan Damoiseaux, Joost Smolders, Raymond Hupperts
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and vitamin D insufficiency are potentially interacting risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of high-dose vitamin D3 supplements on antibody levels against the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and to explore any underlying mechanism affecting anti-EBNA-1 antibody levels. METHODS: This study utilized blood samples from a randomized controlled trial in RRMS patients receiving either vitamin D3 (14,000 IU/day; n = 30) or placebo ( n = 23) over 48 weeks...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730648/calcineurin-inhibitor-withdrawal-or-tapering-for-kidney-transplant-recipients
#14
REVIEW
Krishna M Karpe, Girish S Talaulikar, Giles D Walters
BACKGROUND: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can reduce acute transplant rejection and immediate graft loss but are associated with significant adverse effects such as hypertension and nephrotoxicity which may contribute to chronic rejection. CNI toxicity has led to numerous studies investigating CNI withdrawal and tapering strategies. Despite this, uncertainty remains about minimisation or withdrawal of CNI. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to look at the benefits and harms of CNI tapering or withdrawal in terms of graft function and loss, incidence of acute rejection episodes, treatment-related side effects (hypertension, hyperlipidaemia) and death...
July 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728316/use-of-novel-oral-anticoagulant-to-treat-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-superinfected-cytomegalovirus-colitis
#15
Seok Hwan Kim, Sunhee Jang, Yegyu Sung, Jun Kyu Park, Yunjung Park, Jintak Yun, Sang Bum Kang
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease, and affect mainly the gastrointestinal tract but also have extraintestinal sequelae, such as arterial and venous thromboembolism. Thromboembolic complications, particularly pulmonary thromboembolism, can be life threatening and require prompt management with anticoagulants. Conventional vitamin K antagonists have been used for the treatment of thromboembolic complications, but the development of novel oral anticoagulants has shifted the paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725308/a-case-with-vitamin-d-deficiency-induced-cytomegalovirus-enteritis-presenting-as-bowel-pseudo-obstruction
#16
Shou-Wu Lee, Chung-Wang Ko, Szu-Chia Liao, Chung-Shihn Chang, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chi-Sen Chang
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in small intestines has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old woman with abdominal pain for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed wall-thickening of the segmental small bowel. Enteroscopy disclosed discrete ulcers at the jejunum, and biopsy histopathology showed positive CMV immunoreactivity. Laboratory tests showed positive blood CMV with a viral load of 9,400 DNA copies/mL and high IgG titer and low vitamin D level. After antiviral therapy and oral vitamin D supply, her symptoms improved...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723706/oral-shedding-of-herpesviruses-in-hiv-patients-with-varying-degrees-of-immune-status
#18
Dirk P Dittmer, Kristen Tamburro, Huichao Chen, Anthony Lee, Marcia K Sanders, Tischan A Wade, Sonia Napravnik, Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Caroline H Shiboski, Judith A Aberg
OBJECTIVE: Herpesvirus shedding in the oral cavity was analyzed to determine if presence in the oral compartment correlates with systemic changes in HIV-associated immune deficiency as measured by CD4+ counts, plasma HIV viral load (VL) and presence of AIDS-defining events. DESIGN: A5254 is a multicenter, cross-sectional, single-visit study to evaluate oral complications of HIV/AIDS and determine the association between clinical appearance, herpesvirus shedding and immune status as ascertained by CD4 count and HIV viral load...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722153/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-the-anti-human-cytomegalovirus-drug-letermovir-in-subjects-with-hepatic-impairment
#19
D Kropeit, D McCormick, K Erb-Zohar, V S Moiseev, Z D Kobalava, H P Stobernack, H Zimmermann, H Rübsamen-Schaeff
AIM: Human cytomegalovirus constitutes a prevalent and serious threat to immunocompromised individuals and requires new treatments. Letermovir is a novel viral-terminase inhibitor that has demonstrated prophylactic/preemptive activity against human cytomegalovirus in Phase 2 and 3 transplant trials. As unchanged letermovir is primarily excreted via the liver by bile, this trial aimed to assess the effect of hepatic impairment on letermovir pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Phase 1, open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety comparison of multiple once-daily oral letermovir in female subjects with hepatic impairment and healthy matched controls...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720115/expression-pattern-of-cd11c-on-lung-immune-cells-after-disseminated-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#20
Yi Liao, Xinglou Liu, Yuan Huang, Heyu Huang, Yuanyuan Lu, Yanan Zhang, Sainan Shu, Feng Fang
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently and is widespread globally. Numerous studies have shown that various types of immune cells play roles in mediating the response to CMV infection. CD11c, a commonly used dendritic cell (DC) marker, is expressed by other immune cells as well, such as T cells. This study analyzed the immune cells that express CD11c and monitored the expression level of their specific cell surface markers in the lung following a disseminated murine (M)CMV infection...
July 18, 2017: Virology Journal
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