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Cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914937/mcl-1-small-molecule-inhibitors-encapsulated-into-nanoparticles-exhibit-increased-killing-efficacy-towards-hcmv-infected-monocytes
#1
Christine M Burrer, Helen Auburn, Xu Wang, Juntao Luo, Fardokht A Abulwerdi, Zaneta Nikolovska-Coleska, Gary C Chan
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) spreads and establishes a persistent infection within a host by stimulating the survival of carrier myeloid cells via the upregulation of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. However, the lack of potent Mcl-1-specific inhibitors and a targetable delivery system has limited to ability to exploit Mcl-1 as a therapeutic strategy to eliminate HCMV-infected monocytes. In this study, we found a lead compound from a novel class of Mcl-1 small-molecule inhibitors rapidly induced death of HCMV-infected monocytes...
November 30, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914462/recombinant-mhc-tetramers-for-isolation-of-virus-specific-cd8-cells-from-healthy-donors-potential-approach-for-cell-therapy-of-posttransplant-cytomegalovirus-infection
#2
A S Vdovin, S Y Filkin, P R Yefimova, S A Sheetikov, N M Kapranov, Y O Davydova, E S Egorov, E G Khamaganova, M Y Drokov, L A Kuzmina, E N Parovichnikova, G A Efimov, V G Savchenko
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a high risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation, which in the absence of T-cell immunity can result in the development of an acute inflammatory reaction and damage of internal organs. Transfusion of the virus-specific donor T-lymphocytes represents an alternative to a highly toxic and often ineffective antiviral therapy. Potentially promising cell therapy approach comprises transfusion of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, specific to the viral antigens, immediately after their isolation from the donor's blood circulation without any in vitro expansion...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913630/adaptive-nkg2c-nk-cell-response-and-the-risk-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#3
Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Marta Crespo, Jose Yélamos, Aura Muntasell, María José Pérez-Sáez, Silvia Pérez-Fernández, Joan Vila, Carlos Vilches, Julio Pascual, Miguel López-Botet
CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) has been associated with an increased risk for graft loss and reduced host survival. CMV promotes persistent expansions of NK cells expressing the CD94/NKG2C receptor. The NKG2C (KLRC2) gene is frequently deleted, and copy number influences the adaptive response of NKG2C(+) NK cells. The distribution of NKG2C(+) NK cells and NKG2C genotypes (NKG2C(+/+), NKG2C(+/del), NKG2C(del/del)) were studied in cross-sectional (n = 253) and prospective (n = 122) KTR cohorts...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913304/effects-of-nongenetic-factors-on-immune-cell-dynamics-in-early-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#4
Diana van den Heuvel, Michelle A E Jansen, Kazem Nasserinejad, Willem A Dik, Ellen G van Lochem, Liesbeth E Bakker-Jonges, Halima Bouallouch-Charif, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Herbert Hooijkaas, Jacques J M van Dongen, Henriëtte A Moll, Menno C van Zelm
BACKGROUND: . Numbers of blood leukocyte subsets are highly dynamic in childhood and differ greatly between individuals. Inter-individual variation is only partly accounted for by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Determine which nongenetic factors affect the dynamics of innate leukocytes, and naive and memory lymphocyte subsets. METHODS: . We performed six-color flow cytometry and linear mixed effect modeling to define the dynamics of 62 leukocyte subsets from birth to 6 years of age in 1,182 children with one to five measurements per individual...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912771/a-dna-vaccine-encoding-the-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-genotype-ivb-glycoprotein-confers-protection-in-muskellunge-esox-masquinongy-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-and-lake-trout-salvelinus-namaycush
#5
Isaac F Standish, Elena V Millard, Travis O Brenden, Mohamed Faisal
BACKGROUND: The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most serious fish pathogens. In 2003, a novel sublineage (genotype IVb) of this deadly virus emerged in the Great Lakes basin causing serious fish kills. We have previously demonstrated that a DNA plasmid (pcDNA), containing a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb glycoprotein (G) gene insert (designated pVHSivb-G) confers moderate protection in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), a highly susceptible species upon challenge...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#6
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909890/does-severity-of-cerebral-mri-lesions-in-congenital-cmv-infection-correlates-with-the-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation
#7
Stefan Lyutenski, Friedrich Götz, Alexandros Giourgas, Omid Majdani, Eva Bültmann, Heinrich Lanfermann, Thomas Lenarz, Anja M Giesemann
The objective is to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of typical brain lesions in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection and cochlear implant (CI) outcome. The design of the study is a retrospective single-institutional chart review (2005-2015), performed in a tertiary academic referral center. 23 children with typical signs of cCMV infection on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss were retrospectively evaluated...
December 1, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908907/importance-of-diagnostic-work-up-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#8
Elza Pollak-Christian, Kyong-Soon Lee
We report a full-term neonate presenting with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with hepatosplenomegaly, 'blueberry muffin' rash, intracranial calcifications, thrombocytopenia and respiratory distress. Maternal history was relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the first trimester of pregnancy. CMV infection is an important cause of GBS; thus, women presenting GBS during pregnancy should be screened for CMV infection. If positive, they may benefit from specialised monitoring and treatment in the antenatal period, which may decrease the risk of major neurodevelopmental sequelae of congenital CMV in the neonate...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908284/obscured-hemorrhagic-pancreatitis-after-orthotopic-heart-transplantation-complicated-with-acute-right-heart-failure-and-hepatic-dysfunction-a-case-report
#9
Ting-Wei Lin, Meng-Ta Tsai, Jun-Neng Roan, Yi-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ming Tsai, Chwan-Yau Luo
BACKGROUND: Pancreatitis is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and can lead to significant morbidities and mortality. The incidence of pancreatitis is even higher in patients undergoing heart transplantation than in those undergoing other cardiac surgeries. Nevertheless, the clinical presentations of pancreatitis are frequently atypical in these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a heart recipient who was complicated with acute right heart failure initially after orthotopic heart transplantation and developed devastating unanticipated hemorrhagic pancreatitis 1 month after the transplantation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907183/activation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-by-a-recombinant-human-cytomegalovirus-strain-expressing-an-nkg2d-ligand
#10
Adriana Tomić, Pavankumar R Varanasi, Mijo Golemac, Suzana Malić, Peggy Riese, Eva M Borst, Eva Mischak-Weissinger, Carlos A Guzmán, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić, Martin Messerle
Development of an effective vaccine against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a need of utmost medical importance. Generally, it is believed that a live attenuated vaccine would best provide protective immunity against this tenacious pathogen. Here, we propose a strategy for an HCMV vaccine that aims at the simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. An HCMV strain expressing the host ligand ULBP2 for the NKG2D receptor was found to be susceptible to control by natural killer (NK) cells, and preserved the ability to stimulate HCMV-specific T cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905258/hla-mismatched-haploidentical-transplantation-using-low-dose-anti-thymocyte-globulin-atg-thymoglobulin
#11
Shinichi Kako, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Hirofumi Nakano, Kazuaki Kameda, Tomotaka Ugai, Ryoko Yamasaki, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Masahiro Ashizawa, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Shun-Ichi Kimura, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Rie Yamazaki, Junya Kanda, Yoshinobu Kanda
Objectives To clarify optimal strategies for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods Twelve patients who underwent HSCT from a haploidentical related donor using low-dose thymoglobulin were analyzed retrospectively. Thymoglobulin was added to conditioning regimens at 2.5 mg/kg/day for 2 days (days -4 and -3). Prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was performed with cyclosporine and methotrexate. Results The median age of the patients was 33 years...
December 1, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903803/the-human-cytomegalovirus-ie1-protein-antagonizes-pml-nuclear-body-mediated-intrinsic-immunity-via-the-inhibition-of-pml-de-novo-sumoylation
#12
Eva-Maria Schilling, Myriam Scherer, Nina Reuter, Johannes Schweininger, Yves A Muller, Thomas Stamminger
: PML nuclear bodies (NBs) are accumulations of cellular proteins embedded in a scaffold-like structure built by SUMO-modified PML/TRIM19. PML and other NB proteins act as cellular restriction factors against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), however, this intrinsic defense is counteracted by the immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) of HCMV. IE1 directly interacts with the PML coiled-coil domain via its globular core region and disrupts NB foci by inducing a loss of PML SUMOylation. Here, we demonstrate that IE1 acts via abrogating the de novo SUMOylation of PML...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903736/t-and-b-cell-markers-in-dried-blood-spots-of-neonates-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-b-cell-numbers-at-birth-are-associated-with-long-term-outcomes
#13
Roberta Rovito, Marjolein J Korndewal, Menno C van Zelm, Dimitrios Ziagkos, Els Wessels, Mirjam van der Burg, Aloys C M Kroes, Anton W Langerak, Ann C T M Vossen
Congenital CMV infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection that can cause long-term impairment (LTI). The pathogenesis of LTI is not completely understood. Fetal immunity may play a role in controlling the infection and preventing LTI, although immune activation may also contribute to fetal immunopathology. In this study, we analyzed various molecular markers of T and B cell numbers in neonatal dried blood spots of 99 children with cCMV and 54 children without cCMV: δRec-ψJα signal joints on TCR excision circles, intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element signal joints on Igκ-deleting recombination excision circles, genomic intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element coding joint, genomic Vδ1-Jδ1, and Vδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902595/prognostic-impact-of-viral-reactivations-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-first-complete-response
#14
Sarah Guenounou, Cécile Borel, Emilie Bérard, Edwige Yon, Marylise Fort, Catherine Mengelle, Sarah Bertoli, Audrey Sarry, Suzanne Tavitian, Françoise Huguet, Michel Attal, Christian Récher, Anne Huynh
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) serological status of donor and recipient as well as CMV reactivation have been associated with a lower risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Since immunosuppression following transplant allows resurgence of many other viruses, we retrospectively evaluated the impact of viral reactivations on relapse and survival in a cohort of 136 AML patients undergoing alloSCT in first remission from sibling (68%) or unrelated (32%) donors...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902356/luciferase-tagged-wild-type-and-tropism-deficient-mouse-cytomegaloviruses-reveal-early-dynamics-of-host-colonization-following-peripheral-challenge
#15
Helen Farrell, Martha Oliveira, Kate Macdonald, Joseph Yunis, Michael Mach, Kimberley Bruce, Philip Stevenson, Rhonda Cardin, Nicholas Davis-Poynter
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish persistent, systemic infections and cause disease by maternal-fetal transfer, suggesting that their dissemination is a key target for anti-viral intervention. Late clinical presentation has meant that human CMV dissemination is not well understood. Murine CMV provides a tractable model. Whole mouse imaging of virus-expressed luciferase has proved a useful way to track systemic infections. MCMV, in which the abundant lytic gene M78 was luciferase tagged via a self-cleaving peptide (M78-LUC), allowed serial, unbiased imaging of systemic and peripheral infection without significant virus attenuation...
October 26, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902353/corrigendum-to-follicular-helper-t-cells-and-virus-specific-antibody-response-in-primary-and-reactivated-human-cytomegalovirus-infections-of-the-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-transplant-patients
#16
Francesca Bruno, Chiara Fornara, Paola Zelini, Milena Furione, Elena Carrara, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Ilaria Cane, Federico Mele, Federica Sallusto, Daniele Lilleri, Giuseppe Gerna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899387/activation-of-cytomegalovirus-corneal-endotheliitis-following-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#17
Tien-En Tan, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Jodhbir S Mehta
A case of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis following laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is presented. A 32-year-old man presented 3 weeks after uncomplicated myopic LASIK with unilateral LASIK flap oedema, interface fluid accumulation, keratic precipitates, anterior uveitis and raised intraocular pressure. Despite treatment with topical corticosteroids, he had 3 further recurrent episodes. Specular microscopy showed decreased endothelial cell density and aqueous humour. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was positive for CMV DNA...
November 29, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893348/cost-utility-and-budget-impact-of-methylene-blue-treated-plasma-compared-to-quarantine-plasma
#18
Joseph B Babigumira, Solomon J Lubinga, Emma Castro, Brian Custer
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue and visible light treatment and quarantine are two methods used to reduce adverse events, mostly infections, associated with the transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the budget impact and cost-utility of these two methods from a payer's perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A budget impact and cost-utility model simulating the risks of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus, a West Nile virus-like infection, allergic reactions and febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions achieved using plasma treated with methylene blue and visible light (MBP) and quarantine plasma (QP) was constructed for Spain...
November 16, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888673/clinical-correlates-of-pp65-antigenemia-monitoring-in-the-first-months-of-post-kidney-transplant-in-patients-undergoing-universal-prophylaxis-or-preemptive-therapy
#19
Fabiana Rabe Carvalho, Rachel Ingrid Juliboni Cosendey, Cintia Fernandes Souza, Thalia Medeiros, Paulo Alexandre Menezes, Andrea Alice Silva, Jorge Reis Almeida, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon
INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity in kidney transplant patients. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study viral replication and serological response in the first months post kidney transplant in patients undergoing universal prophylaxis or preemptive therapy and correlate the findings with the clinical course of HCMV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Independent from the clinical strategy adopted for managing HCMV infection, prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy, the pp65 antigenemia assay and serological response were assessed on the day of transplantation, and then weekly during the first three months of post-transplant...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887982/genotypic-resistance-of-cytomegalovirus-to-antivirals-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-from-portugal-a-retrospective-study
#20
Ana Bela Campos, Joana Ribeiro, Carlos Pinho Vaz, Fernando Campilho, Rosa Branca, António Campos, Inês Baldaque, Rui Medeiros, David Boutolleau, Hugo Sousa
The aim of this study was to characterize Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) drug resistance mutations in UL97 and UL54 genes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients in Portugal. We have performed a retrospective study with 22 patients from a cohort of patients with different haematological malignancies submitted to allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2014. Patients were selected according to clinical and laboratory data of HCMV infection and management. HCMV resistance mutations were characterized by sequencing of UL97 and UL54 genes...
November 22, 2016: Antiviral Research
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