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Embryo viability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428945/a-successful-pregnancy-using-completely-immotile-but-viable-frozen-thawed-spermatozoa-selected-by-laser
#1
Huanhua Chen, Guixue Feng, Bo Zhang, Hong Zhou, Jinhui Shu, Xianyou Gan
The aim of this study was to report a successful pregnancy using completely immotile frozen-thawed spermatozoa selected by laser. A single laser shot was used to detect the presence of viable immotile spermatozoa in fresh and frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa. The viability rate was 55.8% after the laser detection, and cryopreservation was carried out immediately. The thawing test was performed on the day of oocyte pick-up, and no motile sperm were observed after extending the culture for another 4 hours, while a survival rate of 39...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419158/identification-of-pre-fertilization-reproductive-barriers-and-the-underlying-cytological-mechanism-in-crosses-among-three-petal-types-of-jasminum-sambac-and-their-relevance-to-phylogenetic-relationships
#3
Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Chunsun Gu, Xinping Jia, Lijian Liang, Jiale Su
Crosses among single-, double- and multi-petal jasmine cultivars (Jasminum sambac Aiton) are unable to easily generate hybrids. To identify the reproductive barriers restricting hybrid set, dynamic changes in jasmine pollen viability and pistil receptivity were compared at different flowering stages. Pollen-pistil interactions in six reciprocal crosses were also investigated to characterize pollen-stigma compatibility. Additionally, paraffin sections of pollinated embryo sacs were prepared for subsequent analyses of developmental status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417052/relationship-between-meiotic-spindles-visualization-and-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-outcomes-in-human-oocytes
#4
Elham Asa, Reza Tabatabaee, Ahmad Farrokhi, Reza Nejatbakhsh
In assisted reproductive techniques, the operator attempts to select morphologically best embryos to predict embryo viability. Development of polarized light microscope, which evaluates the oocytes' spindles according to birefringence of living cells, had been helpful in oocyte selection. The aim of this study is evaluating the relationship between meiotic spindles visualization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in human oocytes. In this study, 264 oocytes from 24 patients with an average age of 30...
March 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414752/an-angiogenesis-platform-using-a-cubic-artificial-eggshell-with-patterned-blood-vessels-on-chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane
#5
Wenjing Huang, Makoto Itayama, Fumihito Arai, Katsuko S Furukawa, Takashi Ushida, Tomohiro Kawahara
The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) containing tiny blood vessels is an alternative to large animals for studies involving angiogenesis and tissue engineering. However, there is no technique to design the direction of growing blood vessels on the CAM at the microscale level for tissue engineering experiments. Here, a methodology is provided to direct blood vessel formation on the surface of a three-dimensional egg yolk using a cubic artificial eggshell with six functionalized membranes. A structure on the lateral side of the eggshell containing a straight channel and an interlinked chamber was designed, and the direction and formation area of blood vessels with blood flow was artfully defined by channels with widths of 70-2000 μm, without sharply reducing embryo viability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411063/deploying-dengue-suppressing-wolbachia-robust-models-predict-slow-but-effective-spatial-spread-in-aedes-aegypti
#6
Michael Turelli, Nicholas H Barton
A novel strategy for controlling the spread of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya is to transform mosquito populations with virus-suppressing Wolbachia. In general, Wolbachia transinfected into mosquitoes induce fitness costs through lower viability or fecundity. These maternally inherited bacteria also produce a frequency-dependent advantage for infected females by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which kills the embryos produced by uninfected females mated to infected males...
April 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398618/fertility-and-embryo-fetal-development-assessment-in-rats-and-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#7
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on male and female fertility and on embryo-fetal development (EFD). METHODS: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was administered daily by oral gavage starting 2 weeks (for female) or 4 weeks (for male) before mating, during cohabitation, and until necropsy in the male rat fertility study or through gestation day (GD) 17 in the female rat combined fertility/EFD study...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396257/b-vitamin-and-choline-supplementation-increases-neuroplasticity-and-recovery-after-stroke
#8
Nafisa M Jadavji, Joshua T Emmerson, Amanda J MacFarlane, William G Willmore, Patrice D Smith
Folates are B-vitamins that play an important role in brain function. Dietary and genetic deficiencies in folate metabolism result in elevated levels of homocysteine which have been linked to increased risk of developing a stroke. Reducing levels of homocysteine before or after a stroke through B-vitamin supplementation has been a focus of many clinical studies, however, the results remain inconsistent. Animal model systems provide a powerful mechanism to study and understand functional impact and mechanisms through which supplementation affects stroke recovery...
April 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393271/analysis-of-implantation-and-ongoing-pregnancy-rates-following-the-transfer-of-mosaic-diploid-aneuploid-blastocysts
#9
Elpida Fragouli, Samer Alfarawati, Katharina Spath, Dhruti Babariya, Nicoletta Tarozzi, Andrea Borini, Dagan Wells
Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) is widely used in IVF and aims to improve outcomes by avoiding aneuploid embryo transfers. Chromosomal mosaicism is extremely common in early development and could affect the efficacy of PGT-A by causing incorrect embryo classification. Recent innovations have allowed accurate mosaicism detection in trophectoderm samples taken from blastocysts. However, there is little data concerning the impact of mosaicism on viability, and the optimal clinical pathway for such embryos is unclear...
April 9, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390692/detection-of-mosaicism-at-blastocyst-stage-with-the-use-of-high-resolution-next-generation-sequencing
#10
REVIEW
Santiago Munné, Dagan Wells
A significant proportion of human preimplantation embryos produced during the course of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments contain two or more cytogenetically distinct cell lines. This phenomenon, known as chromosomal mosaicism, can involve the presence of cells with different types of aneuploidy in the absence of any normal cells or a mixture of euploid and abnormal cells. Although a high prevalence of mosaicism at the cleavage and blastocyst stages has been appreciated for two decades, the precise frequency of the phenomenon and its consequences for embryo viability have been difficult to quantify...
April 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388048/magnetofluorescent-carbon-dots-derived-from-crab-shell-for-targeted-dual-modality-bioimaging-and-drug-delivery
#11
Yueh-Yun Yao, Gangaraju Gedda, Wubshet Mekonnen Girma, Chia-Liang Yen, Yong-Chien Ling, Jia-Yaw Chang
We propose a one-pot microwave-assisted pyrolysis method for fabrication of magnetofluorescent carbon quantum dots (MFCQDs), using a combination of waste crab shell and three different transition-metal ions, Gd(3+), Mn(2+), and Eu(3+), referred to as Gd@CQDs, Mn@CQDs, and Eu@CQDs, respectively. Chitin from waste crab shell acted not only as a carbon source but also as a chelating ligand to form complexes with transition-metal ions. Gd@CQDs exhibited a high r1 relaxivity of 4.78 mM(-1)·s(-1) and a low r2/r1 ratio of 1...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387858/mitochondrial-dna-quantification-as-a-tool-for-embryo-viability-assessment-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-single-euploid-blastocyst-transfers
#12
K Ravichandran, C McCaffrey, J Grifo, A Morales, M Perloe, S Munne, D Wells, E Fragouli
STUDY QUESTION: Does the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in blastocyst biopsy specimens have the potential to serve as a biomarker of euploid embryo implantation ability, independent of morphology? SUMMARY ANSWER: The results of this study strongly suggest that elevated mtDNA levels, above a previously defined threshold, are strongly associated with blastocyst implantation failure and represent an independent biomarker of embryo viability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Improved methods of embryo selection are highly desirable in order to increase the efficiency of IVF treatment...
April 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382315/supervised-classification-of-etoposide-treated-in-vitro-adherent-cells-based-on-noninvasive-imaging-morphology
#13
Anna Leida Mölder, Johan Persson, Zahra El-Schich, Silvester Czanner, Anette Gjörloff-Wingren
Single-cell studies using noninvasive imaging is a challenging, yet appealing way to study cellular characteristics over extended periods of time, for instance to follow cell interactions and the behavior of different cell types within the same sample. In some cases, e.g., transplantation culturing, real-time cellular monitoring, stem cell studies, in vivo studies, and embryo growth studies, it is also crucial to keep the sample intact and invasive imaging using fluorophores or dyes is not an option. Computerized methods are needed to improve throughput of image-based analysis and for use with noninvasive microscopy such methods are poorly developed...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380025/effect-of-proline-rich-15-deficiency-on-trophoblast-viability-and-survival
#14
Katherine C Gates, Lindsey N Goetzmann, Jeremy D Cantlon, Kimberly M Jeckel, Russell V Anthony
Deviations from the normal program of gene expression during early pregnancy can lead to early embryonic loss as well as dysfunctional placentation, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Proline rich 15 (PRR15) is a low molecular weight nuclear protein expressed by the trophoblast during early gestation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of PRR15 mRNA in ovine trophectoderm led to demise of the embryo by gestational day 15, providing compelling evidence that PRR15 expression is critical during this precarious window of development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377783/expression-of-foreign-genes-demonstrates-the-effectiveness-of-pollen-mediated-transformation-in-zea-mays
#15
Liyan Yang, Guimei Cui, Yixue Wang, Yaoshan Hao, Jianzhong Du, Hongmei Zhang, Changbiao Wang, Huanhuan Zhang, Shu-Biao Wu, Yi Sun
Plant genetic transformation has arguably been the core of plant improvement in recent decades. Efforts have been made to develop in planta transformation systems due to the limitations present in the tissue-culture-based methods. Herein, we report an improved in planta transformation system, and provide the evidence of reporter gene expression in pollen tube, embryos and stable transgenicity of the plants following pollen-mediated plant transformation with optimized sonication treatment of pollen. The results showed that the aeration at 4°C treatment of pollen grains in sucrose prior to sonication significantly improved the pollen viability leading to improved kernel set and transformation efficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347874/nucleotide-p2y13-stimulated-phosphorylation-of-creb-is-required-for-adp-induced-proliferation-of-late-developing-retinal-glial-progenitors-in-culture
#16
Flavia Jesus Jacques, Thayane Martins Silva, Flavia Emenegilda da Silva, Isis Moraes Ornelas, Ana Lucia Marques Ventura
Nucleotides stimulate phosphorylation of CREB to induce cell proliferation and survival in diverse cell types. We report here that ADP induces the phosphorylation of CREB in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in chick embryo retinal progenitors in culture. ADP-induced increase in phospho-CREB is mediated by P2 receptors as it is blocked by PPADS but not by the adenosine antagonists DPCPX or ZM241385. Incubation of the cultures with the CREB inhibitor KG-501 prevents ADP-induced incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine, indicating that CREB is involved in retinal cell proliferation...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336451/effect-of-soybean-phosphatidylcholine-on-lipid-profile-of-bovine-oocytes-matured-in-vitro
#17
Caroline P Pitangui-Molina, Alessandra A Vireque, Alessandra Tata, Katia Roberta A Belaz, Vanessa G Santos, Christina R Ferreira, Marcos N Eberlin, Marcos Felipe Silva-de-Sá, Rui A Ferriani, Ana Carolina J S Rosa-E-Silva
The phospholipid (PL) composition of embryo and oocyte membranes affects thermal phase behavior and several physicochemical properties such as fluidity and permeability. The characterization of PL profiles and the development of suitable in vitro maturation (IVM) protocols, that are able to modify membrane's composition, may result in significant improvements in oocyte developmental potential and cryotolerance. Using soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a model supplement, we evaluated the effect of PL supplementation during IVM on bovine cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC)...
March 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333321/preconception-and-early-pregnancy-maternal-haemodynamic-changes-in-healthy-women-in-relation-to-pregnancy-viability
#18
F L Foo, A Collins, C M McEniery, P R Bennett, I B Wilkinson, C C Lees
STUDY QUESTION: Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321931/disruptions-in-valine-degradation-affect-seed-development-and-germination-in-arabidopsis
#19
Andrew B Gipson, Kyla J Morton, Rachel J Rhee, Szabolcs Simo, Jack A Clayton, Morgan E Perrett, Christiana G Binkley, Erika L Jensen, Dana L Oakes, Matthew F Rouhier, Kerry A Rouhier
We have functionally characterized the role of two putative mitochondrial enzymes in valine degradation using insertional mutants. Prior to this study, the relationship between branched-chain amino acid degradation (named for leucine, valine, and isoleucine) and seed development was limited to leucine catabolism. Using a reverse genetics approach we show that disruptions in the mitochondrial valine degradation pathway affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. A null mutant of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (CHY4, At4g31810) resulted in an embryo lethal phenotype, while a null mutant of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSD, At2g14170) resulted in seeds with wrinkled coats, decreased storage reserves, elevated valine and leucine, and reduced germination rates...
March 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287563/isolation-of-mouse-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-for-in-vitro-decidualization
#20
Katrien De Clercq, Aurélie Hennes, Joris Vriens
Decidualization is a progesterone-dependent differentiation process of endometrial stromal cells and is a prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. Although many efforts have been made to reveal the underlying mechanisms of decidualization, the exact signaling between the epithelial cells that are in contact with the embryo and the underlying stromal cells remains poorly understood. Therefore, studying decidualization in a way that takes both the epithelial and stromal cells into account could improve our knowledge about the molecular details of decidualization...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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