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Embryo viability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040520/clinical-implications-of-mitochondrial-dna-quantification-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-blinded-prospective-non-selection-study
#1
Elpida Fragouli, Caroline McCaffrey, Krithika Ravichandran, Katharina Spath, James A Grifo, Santiago Munné, Dagan Wells
STUDY QUESTION: Can quantification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in trophectoderm (TE) biopsy samples provide information concerning the viability of a blastocyst, potentially enhancing embryo selection and improving IVF treatment outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study demonstrated that euploid blastocysts of good morphology, but with high mtDNA levels had a greatly reduced implantation potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Better methods of embryo selection leading to IVF outcome improvement are necessary, as the transfer of chromosomally normal embryos of high morphological grade cannot guarantee the establishment of an ongoing pregnancy...
September 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040498/genome-stability-of-bovine-in-vivo-conceived-cleavage-stage-embryos-is-higher-compared-to-invitro-produced-embryos
#2
Olga Tšuiko, Maaike Catteeuw, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Aspasia Destouni, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Urban Besenfelder, Vitezslav Havlicek, Katrien Smits, Ants Kurg, Andres Salumets, Thomas D'Hooghe, Thierry Voet, Ann Van Soom, Joris Robert Vermeesch
STUDY QUESTION: Is the rate and nature of chromosome instability (CIN) similar between bovine in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured cleavage-stage embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: There is a major difference regarding chromosome stability of in vivo-derived and in vitro-cultured embryos, as CIN is significantly lower in in vivo-derived cleavage-stage embryos compared to in vitro-cultured embryos. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: CIN is common during in vitro embryogenesis and is associated with early embryonic loss in humans, but the stability of in vivo-conceived cleavage-stage embryos remains largely unknown...
September 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031946/spermatozoa-dna-methylation-patterns-differ-due-to-peripubertal-age-in-bulls
#3
Simon Lambert, Patrick Blondin, Christian Vigneault, Rémi Labrecque, Isabelle Dufort, Marc-André Sirard
In the dairy industry, using semen as soon as the bull is mature enough to produce it is advantageous for breeding purposes. Mammalian spermatogenesis is a hormone-dependent developmental program in which a complex cascade of events must take place to ensure that germ cells reach the proper stage of development at the proper time. Conventional indicators of semen quality such as sperm cell motility and viability usually improve as bulls mature, meeting quality criteria satisfactorily at around 16 months. Using semen before that age may affect embryo viability, but other changes occurring during the peripubertal period should be considered...
October 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030390/apc-c-fzr-1-controls-sas-5-levels-to-regulate-centrosome-duplication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Jeffrey C Medley, Lauren E DeMeyer, Megan M Kabara, Mi Hye Song
As the primary microtubule-organizing center, centrosomes play a key role in establishing mitotic bipolar spindles that secure correct transmission of genomic content. For the fidelity of cell division, centrosome number must be strictly controlled by duplicating only once per cell cycle. Proper levels of centrosome proteins are shown to be critical for normal centrosome number and function. Overexpressing core centrosome factors leads to extra centrosomes, while depleting these factors results in centrosome duplication failure...
October 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021281/survival-of-brca2-deficient-cells-is-promoted-by-gipc3-a-novel-genetic-interactor-of%C3%A2-brca2
#5
Xia Ding, Subha Philip, Betty K Martin, Yan Pang, Sandra Burkett, Deborah A Swing, Chinmayi Pamala, Daniel A Ritt, Ming Zhou, Deborah K Morrison, Xinhua Ji, Shyam K Sharan
BRCA2 loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) is frequently observed in BRCA2-mutated tumors, but its bi-allelic loss causes embryonic lethality in mice and inhibits proliferation of normal somatic cells. Therefore, it remains unclear how loss of BRCA2 contributes to tumorigenesis. One possibility is that mutation in potential genetic interactors of BRCA2, such as TRP53, is required for cell survival/proliferation in the absence of BRCA2. In this study, using an insertional mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC), we have identified GIPC3 (GAIP-interacting protein C-terminus 3) as a BRCA2 genetic interactor that contributes to survival of Brca2-null mESC...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021174/nutritional-geometry-of-paternal-effects-on-embryo-mortality
#6
Michal Polak, Leigh W Simmons, Joshua B Benoit, Kari Ruohonen, Stephen J Simpson, Samantha M Solon-Biet
Well-established causal links exist between maternal nutritional deficits and embryo health and viability. By contrast, environmental effects operating through the father that could influence embryo mortality have seldom been examined. Yet, ejaculates can require non-trivial resource allocation, and seminal plasma components are increasingly recognized to exert wide-ranging effects on females and offspring, so paternal dietary effects on the embryo should be expected. We test for effects of varying levels of protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and caloric load in adult male diet on embryo mortality in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrate that macronutrient balance and caloric restriction exert significant effects, and that nutritional effects are more impactful when a prior mating has occurred...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993454/dynamics-of-cytoplasm-and-cleavage-divisions-correlates-with-preimplantation-embryo-development
#7
Robert Milewski, Marcin Szpila, Anna Maria Ajduk
In vitro fertilization has become increasingly popular as an infertility treatment. In order to improve efficiency of this procedure, there is a strong need for a refinement of existing embryo assessment methods and development of novel, robust and non-invasive selection protocols. Studies conducted on animal models can be extremely helpful here, as they allow for more extensive research on the potential biomarkers of embryo quality. In the present paper we subjected mouse embryos to non-invasive time-lapse imaging and combine the Particle Image Velocimetry analysis of cytoplasmic dynamics in freshly fertilized oocytes with the morphokinetic analysis of recordings covering 5 days of preimplantation development...
October 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978924/sulforaphane-exerts-anti-angiogenesis-effects-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-inhibition-of-stat3-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-signalling
#8
Peng Liu, Samuel J Atkinson, Sophia E Akbareian, Zhigang Zhou, Andrea Munsterberg, Stephen D Robinson, Yongping Bao
Angiogenesis plays an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the inhibition of which is explored for cancer prevention and treatment. The dietary phytochemical sulforaphane (SFN) is known for its anti-cancer properties in vitro and in vivo; but until now, no study has focused on the role of SFN in HCC tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, in vitro cell models using a HCC cell line, HepG2, and human endothelial cells, HUVECs, as well as ex vivo and in vivo models have been used to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effect of SFN...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967912/histone-h3k4-monomethylation-catalyzed-by-trr-and-mammalian-compass-like-proteins-at-enhancers-is-dispensable-for-development-and-viability
#9
Ryan Rickels, Hans-Martin Herz, Christie C Sze, Kaixiang Cao, Marc A Morgan, Clayton K Collings, Maria Gause, Yoh-Hei Takahashi, Lu Wang, Emily J Rendleman, Stacy A Marshall, Annika Krueger, Elizabeth T Bartom, Andrea Piunti, Edwin R Smith, Nebiyu A Abshiru, Neil L Kelleher, Dale Dorsett, Ali Shilatifard
Histone H3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) is an evolutionarily conserved feature of enhancer chromatin catalyzed by the COMPASS-like methyltransferase family, which includes Trr in Drosophila melanogaster and MLL3 (encoded by KMT2C) and MLL4 (encoded by KMT2D) in mammals. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila embryos expressing catalytically deficient Trr eclose and develop to productive adulthood. Parallel experiments with a trr allele that augments enzyme product specificity show that conversion of H3K4me1 at enhancers to H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 is also compatible with life and results in minimal changes in gene expression...
October 2, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961275/eggshell-ultrastructure-and-delivery-of-pharmacological-inhibitors-to-the-early-embryo-of-r-prolixus-by-ethanol-permeabilization-of-the-extraembryonic-layers
#10
Larissa Bomfim, Priscila Vieira, Ariene Fonseca, Isabela Ramos
Most vectors of arthropod-borne diseases produce large eggs with hard and opaque eggshells. In several species, it is still not possible to induce molecular perturbations to the embryo by delivery of molecules using microinjections or eggshell permeabilization without losing embryo viability, which impairs basic studies regarding development and population control. Here we tested the properties and permeability of the eggshell of R. prolixus, a Chagas disease vector, with the aim to deliver pharmacological inhibitors to the egg cytoplasm and allow controlled molecular changes to the embryo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960418/bis-3-allyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-sulfone-tgsh-decreases-embryonic-viability-and-alters-hepatic-mrna-expression-at-two-distinct-developmental-stages-in-chicken-embryos-exposed-via-egg-injection
#11
Doug Crump, Suzanne Chiu, Kim L Williams
Concerns surrounding the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA) have increased efforts to identify suitable, safer replacement alternatives. Bis-(3-allyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfone (TGSH) represents a potential BPA alternative; however, exposure and ecotoxicological data are scarce. TGSH was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 4 concentrations ranging from 0 to 180 μg/g egg to determine effects on embryonic viability, development, and hepatic mRNA expression at two distinct developmental periods: mid-incubation (day 11) and pipping (day 20-21)...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949353/anticancer-effects-of-ginsenoside-rk3-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Zhiguang Duan, Jianjun Deng, Yangfang Dong, Chenhui Zhu, Weina Li, Daidi Fan
Ginsenoside Rk3 (Rk3) is present in the roots of processed Panax notoginseng herbs and it exerts anti-platelet aggregation, pro-immunogenic and cardioprotective effects. However, little is known regarding the anticancer activities of this compound, especially in lung cancer. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of Rk3 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and in an H460 xenograft tumor model. Our results showed that Rk3 reduced cell viability, inhibited both cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest by downregulating the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and upregulating the expression of P21...
September 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948008/defining-the-role-of-fire-in-alleviating-seed-dormancy-in-a-rare-mediterranean-endemic-subshrub
#13
Adam T Cross, Maria Paniw, Fernando Ojeda, Shane R Turner, Kingsley W Dixon, David J Merritt
Fire is a topical issue in the management of many ecosystems globally that face a drying climate. Understanding the role of fire in such ecosystems is critical to inform appropriate management practices, particularly in the case of rare and ecologically specialized species. The Mediterranean heathlands are highly fire-prone and occur in a biodiversity hotspot increasingly threatened by human activities, and determining the reproductive thresholds of at-risk heathland species is critical to ensuring the success of future conservation initiatives...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944838/effect-of-antioxidant-of-bamboo-leaves-on-gene-expression-associated-with-mouse-embryonic-fibroblast-reproduction-and-embryonic-development
#14
Feng Yu, Xiaowei Qian, Zhanghui Zeng, Xiaoli Zhao, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Hongwu Bian, Ning Han, Junhui Wang, Muyuan Zhu
Antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) was certified to be a natural antioxidant by the Chinese Ministry of Health in 2003. However, the effects of AOB on animal reproductive and developmental functions remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of AOB on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism through which AOB affects the proliferation and apoptosis of MEFs. MEFs prepared from individual embryos were treated with various dosages of AOB...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942426/rapid-dna-synthesis-during-early-drosophila%C3%A2-embryogenesis-is-sensitive-to-maternal-humpty-dumpty-protein-function
#15
Shera Lesly, Jennifer L Bandura, Brian R Calvi
Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty (hd) and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd(272-9) , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality...
September 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938783/phytochemicals-reduce-aflatoxin-induced-toxicity-in-chicken-embryos
#16
Hsin-Bai Yin, Chi-Hung Chen, Michael J Darre, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production. Moreover, AF residues in fertilized eggs result in huge economic losses by decreasing embryo viability and hatchability. This study investigated the efficacy of 2 generally recognized as safe phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), in protecting chicken embryos from AF-induced toxicity...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938734/hyperspectral-microscopy-can-detect-metabolic-heterogeneity-within-bovine-post-compaction-embryos-incubated-under-two-oxygen-concentrations-7-versus-20
#17
Melanie L Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D Abell, Ewa M Goldys, Jeremy G Thompson
STUDY QUESTION: Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929981/the-presence-of-acylated-ghrelin-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-bovine-oocytes-induces-cumulus-cell-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-and-impairs-early-embryo-development
#18
Matias A Sirini, Juan Mateo Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio Anchordoquy, Ana M Pascua, Noelia Nikoloff, Ana Carranza, Alejandro E Relling, Cecilia C Furnus
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927841/maternal-provision-of-transformer-2-is-required-for-female-development-and-embryo-viability-in-the-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis
#19
Elzemiek Geuverink, Anna H Rensink, Inge Rondeel, Leo W Beukeboom, Louis van de Zande, Eveline C Verhulst
In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N...
September 18, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926960/genetic-and-hormonal-regulation-of-chlorophyll-degradation-during-maturation-of-seeds-with-green-embryos
#20
REVIEW
Galina Smolikova, Elena Dolgikh, Maria Vikhnina, Andrej Frolov, Sergei Medvedev
The embryos of some angiosperms (usually referred to as chloroembryos) contain chlorophylls during the whole period of embryogenesis. Developing embryos have photochemically active chloroplasts and are able to produce assimilates, further converted in reserve biopolymers, whereas at the late steps of embryogenesis, seeds undergo dehydration, degradation of chlorophylls, transformation of chloroplast in storage plastids, and enter the dormancy period. However, in some seeds, the process of chlorophyll degradation remains incomplete...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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