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Embryo viability

Łukasz Rąpała, Rafał R Starzyński, Piotr Z Trzeciak, Sebastian Dąbrowski, Małgorzata Gajewska, Piotr Jurka, Roman Smolarczyk, Anna M Duszewska
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of elevated temperature on bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs), based on the expression and localization of both heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), responsible for the cellular defence mechanism, and oviduct specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) which is the most important embryotrophic protein. BOECs were cultured alone and co-cultured with cattle embryos at control (38.5°C) and elevated temperature (41°C) for 168 h. The elevated temperature had no effect on the viability of BOECs but exerted a negative effect on embryo development...
2018: PloS One
F Azizi, H R Jalil, Z Nasiri, J Moshtaghian, F Esmaeili, A Doostmohammadi, L Shabani, E Ebrahimie
Tissue engineering, as a novel transplantation therapy, aims to create biomaterial scaffolds resembling the extracellular matrix in order to regenerate the damaged tissues. Adding bioactive factors to the scaffold would improve cell-tissue interactions. In this study, the effect of chitosan poly vinyl alcohol nanofibers containing carbon nanotube scaffold with or without active bioglass (BG+ /BG- ), in combination with neonatal rat brain extract (NRBE) on cell viability, proliferation and neural differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma (EC) stem cells was investigated...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Kai Wang, Alyson Lokken, Ashley L Severance, Amy Ralston, Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
Structural maintenance of chromosome flexible domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a chromatin regulatory gene for which mutations are associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and arhinia. The contribution of oocyte- and zygote-expressed SMCHD1 to early development was examined in mice (Mus musculus) using an siRNA knockdown approach. Smchd1 knockdown compromised long-term embryo viability, with reduced embryo nuclear volumes at the morula stage, reduced blastocyst cell number, formation and hatching, and reduced viability to term...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Beppe Aquilina, Ruben J Cauchi
OBJECTIVE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Drosophila is conducive to large-scale genetic-modifier screens which can reveal novel pathways underpinning the disease mechanism. We tested the ability of a large collection of genomic deletions to enhance SMN-dependent lethality. To test our design, we asked whether our study can identify loci containing genes identified in previous genetic screens. Our objective was to find a common link between genes flagged in independent screens, which would allow us to expose novel functions for SMN in vivo...
June 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Hallysson Douglas Andrade de Araújo, Luanna Ribeiro Dos Santos Silva, Williams Nascimento de Siqueira, Caíque Silveira Martins da Fonseca, Nicácio Henrique da Silva, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque Melo, Mônica Cristina Barroso Martins, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima
This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Farzaneh Chehelcheraghi, Mohammad Bayat, Sufan Chien
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and chicken embryo extract (CEE), alone and in combination, on tissue viability of skin flaps, and mast cells (MCs), in an experimental random skin flap (RSF) rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 30 mm × 80 mm RSF was made on the dorsum of each of the forty rats, which were then divided into four groups. One group did not receive any treatment and served as the control, the second group received BMMSCs, the third group received CEE + BMMSCs, and the fourth group received CEE...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Rui Yan, Hua Xu, Xiaoxiang Fu
Neonatal brain hypoxia is a disease that affects the nervous system in children. Salidroside is a compound that has an anti-hypoxic effect, but the mechanism of salidroside in neonatal cerebral hypoxia is unclear. Hence, we investigated the regulatory effect and mechanism of salidroside on hypoxic-induced injury of neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs derived from embryo 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by hypoxia, followed by the treatment of 0.8 mM salidroside. The expression levels of miR-210 and BTG3 in NSCs were altered by transfection...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Paula R Chen, Bethany K Redel, Lee D Spate, Tieming Ji, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Randall S Prather
Improper composition of culture medium contributes to reduced viability of in vitro-produced embryos. Glutamine (Gln) is a crucial amino acid for preimplantation embryos as it supports proliferation and is involved in many different biosynthetic pathways. Previous transcriptional profiling revealed several upregulated genes related to Gln transport and metabolism in in vitro-produced porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo-produced counterparts, indicating a potential deficiency in the culture medium. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of Gln supplementation on in vitro-produced porcine embryo development, gene expression, and metabolism...
May 31, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Sylvain Loubéry, Julien De Giorgi, Anne Utz-Pugin, Lara Demonsais, Luis Lopez-Molina
Mature dry seeds are highly resilient plant structures where the encapsulated embryo is kept protected and dormant to facilitate its ultimate dispersion. Seed viability is heavily dependent on the seed coat's capacity to shield living tissues from mechanical and oxidative stress. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the seed coat, also called testa, arises after differentiation of maternal ovular integuments during seed development. We recently described a thick cuticle tightly embedded in the mature seed's endosperm cell wall...
May 30, 2018: Plant Physiology
Amir Arav, Yehudit Natan, Dorit Kalo, Alisa Komsky-Elbaz, Zvika Roth, Paolo Emanuele Levi-Setti, Milton Leong, Pasquale Patrizio
PURPOSE: This paper reports the use of a novel automatic vitrification device (Sarah, Fertilesafe, Israel) for cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos. METHODS: Mice oocytes (n = 40) and embryos (8 cells, n = 35 and blastocysts, n = 165), bovine embryos (2PN, n = 35), and MII oocytes (n = 84) were vitrified using this automated device. A total of 42 (2 cells) mice embryos, 20 (2PN) bovine embryos, and 150 MII bovine oocytes were used as fresh controls and grown to blastocysts...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Hong-Liang Lu, Jie Wang, Da-De Xu, Wei Dang
The understanding of life-history responses to increased temperature is helpful for evaluating the potential of species for tackling future climate change. Herein, adult southern grass lizards, Takydromus sexlineatus, were maintained under two thermal regimes simulating current thermal environment and a 4 °C warming scenario to determine the effects of experimental warming on female reproduction and offspring phenotypes. Experimental warming caused females to oviposit earlier and more frequently; however, it did not affect other reproductive traits, including clutch size, egg mass and clutch mass...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Thomas A Delomas, Konrad Dabrowski
Temperature-sensitive mutants have been widely utilized in single-cell and invertebrate model systems, particularly to study the function of essential genes. Few temperature-sensitive mutants have been identified in zebrafish, likely due to the difficulty of raising zebrafish at low temperatures. We describe a novel rearing protocol that allows rapid growth of larval and juvenile zebrafish at 23 °C compared to previous data in the literature. Embryos collected from four breeding pairs were maintained at 28...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Seth D Kasowitz, Jun Ma, Stephen J Anderson, N Adrian Leu, Yang Xu, Brian D Gregory, Richard M Schultz, P Jeremy Wang
The N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is the most prevalent internal RNA modification in eukaryotes. The majority of m6A sites are found in the last exon and 3' UTRs. Here we show that the nuclear m6A reader YTHDC1 is essential for embryo viability and germline development in mouse. Specifically, YTHDC1 is required for spermatogonial development in males and for oocyte growth and maturation in females; Ythdc1-deficient oocytes are blocked at the primary follicle stage. Strikingly, loss of YTHDC1 leads to extensive alternative polyadenylation in oocytes, altering 3' UTR length...
May 25, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Katherine M Polednik, Abby C Koch, Lisa K Felzien
Innate immunity provides the initial response against pathogens and includes the inflammatory response. Regulation of the initiation and duration of neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx during inflammation determines both the successfulness of pathogen elimination and the level of resulting tissue damage. Zebrafish embryos provide excellent opportunities to visualize the inflammatory response. Neutrophil granules may be stained with Sudan black, and variation in neutrophil counts may be used to monitor the level of the response...
May 24, 2018: Zebrafish
Kazuyuki Hirai, Zhuo Wang, Kohei Miura, Takaaki Hayashi, Takeshi Awasaki, Moe Wada, Yoko Keira, Hiroyuki O Ishikawa, Kyoichi Sawamura
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fuminori Tanihara, Maki Hirata, Nguyen Thi Nhien, Takayuki Hirano, Toshiki Kunihara, Takeshige Otoi
The value of laboratory and genetically-modified pigs is becoming increasingly clear; however, their in vitro development remains inefficient. Trans-ferulic acid (trans-FA) is an aromatic compound that is abundant in plant cell walls, and which exhibits antioxidant effects in vitro. Trans-FA is known to improve sperm viability and motility; however, its effects on porcine oocytes are unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effects of trans-FA supplementation during in vitro maturation on the meiotic and developmental competence of porcine oocytes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Aram Minas, Gholamreza Najafi, Ali Shalizar Jalali, Mazdak Razi
Foeniculum vulgare (FVE; fennel) is an aromatic plant belonging to Umbelliferae family, which is widely used in traditional societies because of its different pharmaceutical properties. To uncover the fennel-derived essential oil (FVEO)-induced effects on male reproductive potential, 24 mature male albino mice were divided into, control, 0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 mg kg-1 FVEO-received groups. Following 35 days, the animals were euthanized and the testicular tissue and sperm samples were collected. The histological alterations, tubular differentiation (TDI), spermiogenesis (SPI) indices, apoptosis ratio, and RNA damage of germinal cells were analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Tali Farine, Michael Parsons, Stephen Lye, Oksana Shynlova
The decidua, also known as the pregnant endometrium, is a critically important reproductive tissue. Decidual cells, comprised mainly of decidualized stromal cells and immune cells, are responsible for the secretion of hormonal and inflammatory factors which are critical for successful blastocyst implantation, placental development and play a role in the initiation of labor at term and preterm. Many pregnancy complications can arise from perturbations of a fine balance of different cell populations comprising decidua...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
José Carlos Ferreira-Silva, Leopoldo Mayer Freitas Neto, Marcelo Tigre Moura, Fernando Tenório Filho, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Claudio Coutinho Bartolomeu, Marcos Antonio Lemos Oliveira
Commercial application of reproductive biotechnologies such as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer depends on its overall efficiency. Sheep embryo transfer is gradually gaining wider adoption, but pregnancy rates after embryo transfer remain lower than those derived from natural mating for most breeds. The work was aimed to evaluate embryonic and fetal losses in Santa Inês ewes carrying twin pregnancies by natural mating or embryo transfer. Ewes were subjected to synchronized natural mating by ram effect or used as recipients for embryo transfer...
May 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Y Zhao, C Yang, X Chen, M Peng, X Chen, D Zeng
BACKGROUND: The structural integrity of a spermatozoon is very important for the processes of fertilization and embryo development. OBJECTIVE: To provide valuable data for developing better cryopreservation techniques for shrimp sperm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we examined the morphological alteration of Litopenaeus vannamei sperm after cryopreservation with different concentrations of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
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