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Embryo viability

Mario A Cepeda, Jacob J H Pelling, Caitlin L Evered, Karla C Williams, Zoey Freedman, Ioana Stan, Jessica A Willson, Hon S Leong, Sashko Damjanovski
BACKGROUND: Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by MT1-MMP, suggesting that our understanding of the role of MT1-MMP in cancer progression is incomplete...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Cancer
C Tonus, D Connan, O Waroux, B Vandenhove, J Wayet, L Gillet, D Desmecht, N Antoine, F J Ectors, L Grobet
In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing (SLF) method and an aseptic vitrification (Vitrif) technique to cryopreserve a stable primordial germ cell (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed. Viability immediately after warming was close to 80% and did not differ between the two cryopreservation methods. Proliferation tended to be slower for both cryopreservation methods compared with controls, but the difference was significant only for Vitrif. No difference was found between the two methods after flow cytometry analysis of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on several factors related to PGC phenotype...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Vladimir Isachenko, Karl Sterzik, Robert Maettner, Evgenia Isachenko, Plamen Todorov, Gohar Rahimi, Peter Mallmann, Erwin Strehler, Igor Pereligin, José Luis Alabart, Markus Merzenich
In natural conditions the oocyte and embryo are subjected to ever changing dynamic processes. However, the routine assisted reproductive technologies today involve the use of static in vitro culture systems. Objective was to determine whether there is any difference in the viability of embryos after in vitro culture under static and mechanical micro-vibration condition. It was evaluated the viability of embryonic cells (9,624 embryos) generated from 4,436 couples after in vitro culture. For Groups <29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39 years and >40 years, the following rate of high quality embryos without fragmentation (2 to 4 blastomeres on Day 2; 6 to 8 blastomeres and compacting morula on Day 3; blastocyst, expanded and hatching blastocyst on Day 5) was detected (static vs...
October 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Ying-Xue Zhang, Heng-Heng Xu, Shu-Jun Liu, Ni Li, Wei-Qing Wang, Ian M Møller, Song-Quan Song
Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
H L Sun, L N Meng, X Zhao, J R Jiang, Q Y Liu, D S Shi, F H Lu
Buffalo are characteristic livestock of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, but their low reproductive capacity necessitates the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We investigated the effects of RG108 on DNA methylation in buffalo adult fibroblasts, and on subsequent SCNT embryo development. RG108 treatment (0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mM) had no effect on cell morphology, viability, or karyotype (2n = 48), and cell growth followed a typical "S" curve. Immunohistochemistry showed that relative DNA methylation gradually decreased as RG108 concentration increased, and was significantly lower in the 20 and 100 mM groups compared to the 0, 5, and 10 mM treatments (0...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Charles E Vejnar, Miguel A Moreno-Mateos, Daniel Cifuentes, Ariel A Bazzini, Antonio J Giraldez
This protocol describes how to generate and genotype mutants using an optimized CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system in zebrafish (CRISPRscan). Because single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) have variable efficiency when targeting specific loci, our protocol starts by explaining how to use the web tool CRISPRscan to design highly efficient sgRNAs. The CRISPRscan algorithm is based on the results of an integrated analysis of more than 1000 sgRNAs in zebrafish, which uncovered highly predictive factors that influence Cas9 activity...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Zeinab Takalloo, Reza H Sajedi, Saman Hosseinkhani, S Mohsen Asghari
Artemin is an abundant thermostable protein in Artemia encysted embryos and considered as a stress protein, as its highly regulated expression is associated with stress resistance. Artemin cDNA was previously isolated and cloned from Artemia urmiana and artemin was found as an efficient molecular chaperone in vitro. Here, co-transformation of E. coli was performed with two expression vectors containing artemin and firefly luciferase for in vivo studies. The time-course of luciferase inactivation at low and elevated temperatures showed that luciferase was rapidly inactivated in control cells, but it was found that luciferase was protected significantly in artemin expressing cells...
September 28, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Fernanda Hernandes Figueira, Lais Mattos de Aguiar, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged...
September 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Viktoria Wollrab, David Caballero, Raghavan Thiagarajan, Daniel Riveline
Biological cells are usually observed on flat (2D) surfaces. This condition is not physiological, and phenotypes and shapes are highly variable. Screening based on cells in such environments have therefore serious limitations: cell organelles show extreme phenotypes, cell morphologies and sizes are heterogeneous and/or specific cell organelles cannot be properly visualized. In addition, cells in vivo are located in a 3D environment; in this situation, cells show different phenotypes mainly because of their interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix of the tissue...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gábor L Kovács, Gergely Montskó, Zita Zrínyi, Nelli Farkas, Ákos Várnagy, József Bódis
Human reproduction is a relatively inefficient process and therefore the number of infertile couples is high. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have facilitated the birth of over five million children worldwide. ART, however, superimposes its own relative inefficiency on the preexisting inefficiency of normal reproduction. The efficiency (expressed as pregnancy rate) is generally not more than 30%. Modern reproductive medicine is gradually moving from multiple embryo transfer to the transfer of a single embryo, mainly because of obvious and unwanted side effects of multiple embryo transfer (e...
April 2016: EJIFCC
C C Arraztoa, M H Miragaya, M G Chaves, V L Trasorras, M C Gambarotta, C H Péndola, D M Neild
The aims of this study were to evaluate porcine sperm vitrification in cryoloops, with and without two different cryoprotectants and assess two warming procedures. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) semen was diluted in media without and with cryoprotectants (4% dimethylformamide and 4% glycerol) to a final concentration of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa ml(-1) and vitrified using the cryoloops method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultra-rapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C)...
September 29, 2016: Andrologia
Lin Foo, Carmel McEniery, Ian Wilkinson, Christoph Lees
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy has been postulated as a potential cause or consequence of early pregnancy loss. We sought to investigate pre- and early pregnancy cardiovascular function in women with a viable pregnancy beyond the first trimester, and those suffering a first trimester pregnancy loss. METHODS: We recruited healthy women trying for pregnancy without assisted reproductive technology into an observational pre-conception study, and recorded pregnancy loss as a clinical endpoint...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Adelita D Mendoza, Teresa K Woodruff, Sarah M Wignall, Thomas V O'Halloran
Zinc is an essential metal that serves as a cofactor in a variety of cellular processes, including meiotic maturation. Cellular control of zinc uptake, availability and efflux is closely linked to meiotic progression in rodent and primate reproduction where large fluctuations in zinc levels are critical at several steps in the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Despite these well-documented roles of zinc fluxes during meiosis, only a few of the genes encoding key zinc receptors, membrane-spanning transporters, and downstream signaling pathway factors have been identified to date...
September 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ya-Juan Li, Yang-Chun Gao, He Zhou, Hai-Yan Ma, Zhong-Qiao Lin, Tian-Yu Ma, Yi Sui, Katsutoshi Arai
Triploid Chinese loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, hybrids between tetraploids from Hubei Province and diploids from Liaoning Province were mated with either diploid wild-type or triploid hybrids to analyze viability and ploidy of the resultant progenies. Both triploid males and females generated fertile gametes, but progenies from the crosses using gametes of triploid hybrids did not survive beyond the larval stages. In crosses between wild-type diploid females and triploid hybrid males, embryos ranging from 2...
October 2016: Genetica
Peter D Cooper
BACKGROUND: Modern living is awash with low-frequency electromagnetic radiation raising concern over health effects, birth defects, and infant cancers especially leukemias. Medical/scientific opinion is ambivalent, especially regarding possible mechanisms of action despite our bodies׳ many electric currents. AIMS: Are some cancers induced by morphogenetic changes rather than direct mutation? We wished to see if morphogenetic effects of weak, extremely low-frequency electric (ELF) fields in embryonated hen׳s eggs could induce cancers, knowing that such treatment is usually deleterious...
August 18, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Reza Salehi, Marcos German Colazo, Stephen Tsoi, Amir Behrouzi, Benjamin K Tsang, Michael K Dyck, Masahito Oba, Divakar Justus Ambrose
The main objectives were to determine the influence of diets enriched in α-linolenic, linoleic or oleic acid on the development and transcriptomic profile of embryos collected from dairy cattle. Non-lactating Holstein cows received one of three diets supplemented with 8% rolled oilseeds: flax (FLX, n=8), sunflower (SUN, n=7) or canola (CAN, n=8). After a minimum 35-day diet adaptation, cows were superovulated, artificially inseminated and ova/embryos recovered non-surgically 7.5 days later. Cows fed FLX had less degenerated embryos and more viable embryos than those fed CAN or SUN...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Josef Velisek, Alzbeta Stara, Eliska Zuskova
The sensitivity of early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to chronic exposure to single and combined environmental concentrations of the triazine metabolites terbuthylazine 2-hydroxy, terbuthylazine-desethyl and atrazine 2-hydroxy was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Their effects were assessed on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes (total superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, reduced glutathione), mortality, growth, development and histology...
September 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R D Nerenz
Treatment for many infertile couples often consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF) but an estimated 70% of IVF cycles fail to produce a live birth. In an attempt to improve the live birth rate, the vast majority of IVF cycles performed in the United States involve the transfer of multiple embryos, a practice that increases the risk of multiple gestation pregnancy. This is a concern because multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased incidence of maternal and fetal complications and significant cost associated with the care of preterm infants...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Michele Munk, Luiz O Ladeira, Bruno C Carvalho, Luiz S A Camargo, Nádia R B Raposo, Raquel V Serapião, Carolina C R Quintão, Saulo R Silva, Jaqueline S Soares, Ado Jorio, Humberto M Brandão
The pellucid zone (PZ) is a protective embryonic cells barrier against chemical, physical or biological substances. This put, usual transfection methods are not efficient for mammal oocytes and embryos as they are exclusively for somatic cells. Carbon nanotubes have emerged as a new method for gene delivery, and they can be an alternative for embryos transfection, however its ability to cross the PZ and mediated gene transfer is unknown. Our data confirm that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can cross the PZ and delivery of pDNA into in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Balakrishnan, F A Bhat, P Raja Singh, S Mukherjee, P Elumalai, S Das, C R Patra, J Arunakaran
OBJECTIVES: Epidermal growth factor plays a critical role in breast malignancies by enhancing cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process by which epithelial cells lose polarity and acquire migratory mesenchymal properties. Gold nanoparticles are an efficient drug delivery vehicle for carrying chemotherapeutic agents to target cancer cells and quercetin is an anti-oxidative flavonoid known with potent anti-malignant cell activity...
September 18, 2016: Cell Proliferation
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