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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287563/isolation-of-mouse-endometrial-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-for-in-vitro-decidualization
#1
Katrien De Clercq, Aurélie Hennes, Joris Vriens
Decidualization is a progesterone-dependent differentiation process of endometrial stromal cells and is a prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. Although many efforts have been made to reveal the underlying mechanisms of decidualization, the exact signaling between the epithelial cells that are in contact with the embryo and the underlying stromal cells remains poorly understood. Therefore, studying decidualization in a way that takes both the epithelial and stromal cells into account could improve our knowledge about the molecular details of decidualization...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279983/a-microrna-family-exerts-maternal-control-on-sex-determination-in-c-elegans
#2
Katherine McJunkin, Victor Ambros
Gene expression in early animal embryogenesis is in large part controlled post-transcriptionally. Maternally contributed microRNAs may therefore play important roles in early development. We elucidated a major biological role of the nematode mir-35 family of maternally contributed essential microRNAs. We show that this microRNA family regulates the sex determination pathway at multiple levels, acting both upstream of and downstream from her-1 to prevent aberrantly activated male developmental programs in hermaphrodite embryos...
February 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258975/animatio-a-history-of-ideas-on-the-beginning-of-personhood
#3
Michael Obladen
The onset of individual human life has fascinated thinkers of all cultures and epochs, and the history of their ideas may enlighten an unsettled debate. Aristotle attributed three different souls to the subsequent developmental stages. The last, the rational soul, was associated with the formed fetus, and entailed fetal movements. With some modifications, the concept of delayed ensoulment - at 30, 42, 60, or 90 days after conception - was adopted by several Christian Church Fathers and remained valid throughout the Middle Ages...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250437/medaka-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-supports-self-renewal-of-the-embryonic-stem-cell-line-and-blastomeres-in-vitro
#4
Yongming Yuan, Yunhan Hong
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) regulate diverse processes including energy metabolism, cell proliferation and embryonic development. They activate the IGF signaling pathway via binding to cell surface receptors. Here we report an essential role of IGF2 in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cell from medaka (Oryzias latipes). The medaka igf2 gene was cloned for prokaryotically expression of IGF2 ligand and green fluorescent protein-tagged IGF2 namely IGF2:GFP. With flow cytometry analysis, we demonstrated that the IGF2:GFP can bind to the cultured ES cells from medaka and zebrafish respectively...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249771/effects-of-the-copy-number-of-ribosomal-genes-genes-for-rrna-on-viability-of-subjects-with-chromosomal-abnormalities
#5
N A Lyapunova, L N Porokhovnik, N V Kosyakova, I A Mandron, T G Tsvetkova
The number of active ribosomal genes (AcRG) was evaluated in 172 carriers of chromosomal abnormalities (CA) such as Down's syndrome (DS), Robertsonian translocations (RT), Klinefelter's and Turner's syndromes, trisomy Х, disomy Y, and various structural CA. In controls (n=318), AcRG dosage varied from 119 to 190 copies with a mean of 151 copies per diploid genome. In CA carriers, except for DS newborns, AcRG dosage was not beyond these limits. As shown previously, only within these limits cellular homeostasis and organism's viability can be supported, while genomes beyond these limits are eliminated by embryonic loss...
February 26, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247212/pyruvate-antioxidant-roles-in-human-fibroblasts-and-embryonic-stem-cells
#6
Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Maria Barandalla, Silvia Colleoni, Giovanna Lazzari
Oxidative stress has been related to multiple diseases, especially during early embryonic development, when environmental alterations can lead to long-term deleterious effects. In vitro studies of oxidative stress have been mainly focused on somatic cells, but embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a promising model of early embryonic development as they are the in vitro equivalent to pluripotent cells in the embryo. Human fibroblasts and ESCs were exposed to different pro-oxidant agents (hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), and rotenone) and antioxidants (sodium pyruvate, N-acetylcysteine, Trolox, and sodium selenite) during a 72 h oxidative stress treatment...
February 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247195/repsox-improves-viability-and-regulates-gene-expression-in-rhesus-monkey-pig-interspecies-cloned-embryos
#7
Hai-Ying Zhu, Long Jin, Qing Guo, Zhao-Bo Luo, Xiao-Chen Li, Yu-Chen Zhang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Mei-Fu Xuan, Guang-Lei Zhang, Qi-Rong Luo, Jun-Xia Wang, Cheng-Du Cui, Wen-Xue Li, Zheng-Yun Cui, Xi-Jun Yin, Jin-Dan Kang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. RESULTS: Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p < 0...
February 28, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194828/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ovarian-aging
#8
Tianren Wang, Man Zhang, Zongliang Jiang, Emre Seli
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are responsible for the generation of most of the cell's energy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cellular senescence in general and ovarian aging in particular. Recent studies exploited this association by studying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as a potential biomarker of embryo viability and the use of mitochondrial nutrients and autologous mitochondrial transfer as a potential treatment for poor ovarian function and response.
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167106/the-antioxidant-action-and-mechanism-of-selenizing-schisandra-chinensis-polysaccharide-in-chicken-embryo-hepatocyte
#9
Chanjuan Yue, Jin Chen, Ranran Hou, Weijun Tian, Kuanhui Liu, Deyun Wang, Yu Lu, Jiaguo Liu, Yi Wu, Yuanliang Hu
The antioxidant action and mechanism of selenizing schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (sSCP) were investigated in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) taking schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as control. The CEH was cultured and treated with sSCP, then exposed to H2O2. The CEHs' viability, apoptosis, ROS and antioxidase contents and the protein expression in MAPKs pathway and mitochondrion-dependence apoptotic signal pathway were assayed. The results showed that sSCP could significantly raise the cell viability and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, decrease the cell apoptosis and the content of LDH, AST, ALT and MDA, down-regulate the protein expression of p-JNK1, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, Bax, Caspase 3 and cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2 in comparison with H2O2 control group...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166976/biopsy-of-bovine-embryos-produced-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-does-not-affect-pregnancy-rates
#10
Regivaldo Vieira de Sousa, Célia Regina da Silva Cardoso, Guilberth Butzke, Margot Alves Nunes Dode, Rodolfo Rumpf, Maurício Machaim Franco
Assisted reproductive techniques have significantly contributed to animal breeding programs. Similarly, genomics has provided important information and tools to improve the accuracy of selection. However, the greatest benefits of those tools can only be expected when they are combined, allowing animals to be selected accurately early in life. Therefore, obtaining DNA samples from embryos without compromising their viability is essential for the consolidation of preimplantation genomic selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect on the gestation rate of conducting a biopsy of in vivo (VV) and in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152037/reassessing-the-feasibility-of-the-zygote-score-for-predicting-embryo-viability-in-ivf-icsi-using-the-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-compared-to-the-long-protocol
#11
Pin-Yao Lin, Fu-Jen Huang, Fu-Tsai Kung, Yi-Chi Lin, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yu-Ju Lin, Kuo-Chung Lan
BACKGROUND: Many factors from the oocyte/sperm or the process of fertilization may affect the zygote formation. The zygote score (Z-score) describes the quality of a human zygote based on its pronuclear morphology, nucleolar precursor bodies, and alignment of polar bodies, and it can be used in the selection process at the zygote stage for embryo transfer or cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between different controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols and the zygote score (Z-score) and to assess the feasibility of the Z-score for predicting embryo survival in the GnRH-antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143724/effects-of-chronic-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-at-low-concentration-on-morphometrics-gene-expression-and-fecundity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Carrie E Jantzen, Fatima Toor, Kate A Annunziato, Keith R Cooper
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length...
January 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137429/full-term-potential-of-goat-in-vitro-produced-embryos-after-different-cryopreservation-methods
#13
José Carlos Ferreira-Silva, Marcelo Tigre Moura, Túlio Diego Silva, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Adauto Chiamenti, Vicente José Figueirêdo Freitas, Marcos Antonio Lemos Oliveira
Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos represents a major challenge due to their shape and relatively large cells. Embryo source and cryopreservation method are key factors to cryotolerance efficiency and few reports have investigated more promising protocols for goat embryos. The study was aimed to compare different cryopreservation methods for goat in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Goat blastocysts were subjected to conventional freezing (CF), Dimethyl sulfoxide vitrification (DMSO-V) and Dimethylformamide vitrification (DMF-V)...
January 27, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134801/marine-antifreeze-proteins-structure-function-and-application-to-cryopreservation-as-a-potential-cryoprotectant
#14
REVIEW
Hak Jun Kim, Jun Hyuck Lee, Young Baek Hur, Chang Woo Lee, Sun-Ha Park, Bon-Won Koo
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are biological antifreezes with unique properties, including thermal hysteresis(TH),ice recrystallization inhibition(IRI),and interaction with membranes and/or membrane proteins. These properties have been utilized in the preservation of biological samples at low temperatures. Here, we review the structure and function of marine-derived AFPs, including moderately active fish AFPs and hyperactive polar AFPs. We also survey previous and current reports of cryopreservation using AFPs...
January 27, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131942/sustained-release-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-thermosensitive-chitosan-gelatin-hydrogel-for-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#15
Nai-Chen Cheng, Wei-Jhih Lin, Thai-Yen Ling, Tai-Horng Young
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete several angiogenic growth factors and can be applied to treat ischemic tissue. However, transplantation of dissociated ASCs has frequently resulted in rapid cell death. Therefore, we aimed to develop a thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel that is capable of ASC sustained release for therapeutic angiogenesis. By blending gelatin in the chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel, we significantly enhanced the viability of the encapsulated ASCs. During in vitro culturing, the gradual degradation of gelatin led to sustained release of ASCs from the chitosan/gelatin hydrogel...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131724/insights-in-spatio-temporal-characterization-of-human-fetal-neural-stem-cells
#16
Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Inés Guardia, Mónica Pardo, Cristina Herranz, Rike Zietlow, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Anne Rosser, Josep M Canals
Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127503/embryonic-zebrafish-model-a-well-established-method-for-rapidly-assessing-the-toxicity-of-homeopathic-drugs-toxicity-evaluation-of-homeopathic-drugs-using-zebrafish-embryo-model
#17
Himanshu R Gupta, Yogesh Patil, Dipty Singh, Mansee Thakur
OBJECTIVES: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115687/endosperm-based-hybridization-barriers-explain-the-pattern-of-gene-flow-between-arabidopsis-lyrata-and-arabidopsis-arenosa-in-central-europe
#18
Clément Lafon-Placette, Ida M Johannessen, Karina S Hornslien, Mohammad F Ali, Katrine N Bjerkan, Jonathan Bramsiepe, Barbara M Glöckle, Carolin A Rebernig, Anne K Brysting, Paul E Grini, Claudia Köhler
Based on the biological species concept, two species are considered distinct if reproductive barriers prevent gene flow between them. In Central Europe, the diploid species Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa are genetically isolated, thus fitting this concept as "good species." Nonetheless, interspecific gene flow involving their tetraploid forms has been described. The reasons for this ploidy-dependent reproductive isolation remain unknown. Here, we show that hybridization between diploid A. lyrata and A...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109119/serotonin-transporter-protects-the-placental-cells-against-apoptosis-in-caspase-3-independent-pathway
#19
Coedy Hadden, Tariq Fahmi, Anthonya Cooper, Alena V Savenka, Vladimir V Lupashin, Drucilla J Roberts, Luc Maroteaux, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Fusun Kilic
Serotonin (5-HT) and its specific transporter, SERT play important roles in pregnancy. Using placentas dissected from 18d gestational SERT-knock out (KO), peripheral 5-HT (TPH1)-KO and wild-type (WT) mice, we explored the role of 5-HT and SERT in placental functions in detail. An abnormal thick band of fibrosis and necrosis under the giant cell layer in SERT-KO placentas appeared only moderately in TPH1-KO and minimally present in WT placentas. The majority of the changes were located at the junctional zone of the placentas in SERT...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096658/anticancer-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-girinimbine-isolated-from-murraya-koenigii
#20
Venoos Iman, Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Suzita Mohd Noor
Therapy that directly targets apoptosis and/or inflammation could be highly effective for the treatment of cancer. Murraya koenigii is an edible herb that has been traditionally used for cancer treatment as well as inflammation. Here, we describe that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii, induced apoptosis and inhibited inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) by girinimbine revealed decreased cell viability in HT-29, whereas there was no cytotoxic effect on normal colon cells...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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