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Embryo viability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194828/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ovarian-aging
#1
Tianren Wang, Man Zhang, Zongliang Jiang, Emre Seli
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are responsible for the generation of most of the cell's energy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cellular senescence in general and ovarian aging in particular. Recent studies exploited this association by studying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as a potential biomarker of embryo viability and the use of mitochondrial nutrients and autologous mitochondrial transfer as a potential treatment for poor ovarian function and response.
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167106/the-antioxidant-action-and-mechanism-of-selenizing-schisandra-chinensis-polysaccharide-in-chicken-embryo-hepatocyte
#2
Chanjuan Yue, Jin Chen, Ranran Hou, Weijun Tian, Kuanhui Liu, Deyun Wang, Yu Lu, Jiaguo Liu, Yi Wu, Yuanliang Hu
The antioxidant action and mechanism of selenizing schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (sSCP) were investigated in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) taking schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as control. The CEH was cultured and treated with sSCP, then exposed to H2O2. The CEHs' viability, apoptosis, ROS and antioxidase contents and the protein expression in MAPKs pathway and mitochondrion-dependence apoptotic signal pathway were assayed. The results showed that sSCP could significantly raise the cell viability and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, decrease the cell apoptosis and the content of LDH, AST, ALT and MDA, down-regulate the protein expression of p-JNK1, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, Bax, Caspase 3 and cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2 in comparison with H2O2 control group...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166976/biopsy-of-bovine-embryos-produced-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-does-not-affect-pregnancy-rates
#3
Regivaldo Vieira de Sousa, Célia Regina da Silva Cardoso, Guilberth Butzke, Margot Alves Nunes Dode, Rodolfo Rumpf, Maurício Machaim Franco
Assisted reproductive techniques have significantly contributed to animal breeding programs. Similarly, genomics has provided important information and tools to improve the accuracy of selection. However, the greatest benefits of those tools can only be expected when they are combined, allowing animals to be selected accurately early in life. Therefore, obtaining DNA samples from embryos without compromising their viability is essential for the consolidation of preimplantation genomic selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect on the gestation rate of conducting a biopsy of in vivo (VV) and in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152037/reassessing-the-feasibility-of-the-zygote-score-for-predicting-embryo-viability-in-ivf-icsi-using-the-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-compared-to-the-long-protocol
#4
Pin-Yao Lin, Fu-Jen Huang, Fu-Tsai Kung, Yi-Chi Lin, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yu-Ju Lin, Kuo-Chung Lan
BACKGROUND: Many factors from the oocyte/sperm or the process of fertilization may affect the zygote formation. The zygote score (Z-score) describes the quality of a human zygote based on its pronuclear morphology, nucleolar precursor bodies, and alignment of polar bodies, and it can be used in the selection process at the zygote stage for embryo transfer or cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between different controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols and the zygote score (Z-score) and to assess the feasibility of the Z-score for predicting embryo survival in the GnRH-antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143724/effects-of-chronic-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-at-low-concentration-on-morphometrics-gene-expression-and-fecundity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Carrie E Jantzen, Fatima Toor, Kate A Annunziato, Keith R Cooper
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length...
January 29, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137429/full-term-potential-of-goat-in-vitro-produced-embryos-after-different-cryopreservation-methods
#6
José Carlos Ferreira-Silva, Marcelo Tigre Moura, Túlio Diego Silva, Luis Rennan Sampaio Oliveira, Adauto Chiamenti, Vicente José Figueirêdo Freitas, Marcos Antonio Lemos Oliveira
Cryopreservation of preimplantation embryos represents a major challenge due to their shape and relatively large cells. Embryo source and cryopreservation method are key factors to cryotolerance efficiency and few reports have investigated more promising protocols for goat embryos. The study was aimed to compare different cryopreservation methods for goat in vitro produced (IVP) embryos. Goat blastocysts were subjected to conventional freezing (CF), Dimethyl sulfoxide vitrification (DMSO-V) and Dimethylformamide vitrification (DMF-V)...
January 27, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134801/marine-antifreeze-proteins-structure-function-and-application-to-cryopreservation-as-a-potential-cryoprotectant
#7
REVIEW
Hak Jun Kim, Jun Hyuck Lee, Young Baek Hur, Chang Woo Lee, Sun-Ha Park, Bon-Won Koo
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are biological antifreezes with unique properties, including thermal hysteresis(TH),ice recrystallization inhibition(IRI),and interaction with membranes and/or membrane proteins. These properties have been utilized in the preservation of biological samples at low temperatures. Here, we review the structure and function of marine-derived AFPs, including moderately active fish AFPs and hyperactive polar AFPs. We also survey previous and current reports of cryopreservation using AFPs...
January 27, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131942/sustained-release-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-thermosensitive-chitosan-gelatin-hydrogel-for-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#8
Nai-Chen Cheng, Wei-Jhih Lin, Thai-Yen Ling, Tai-Horng Young
: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) secrete several angiogenic growth factors and can be applied to treat ischemic tissue. However, transplantation of dissociated ASCs has frequently resulted in rapid cell death. Therefore, we aimed to develop a thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin hydrogel that is capable of ASC sustained release for therapeutic angiogenesis. By blending gelatin in the chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel, we significantly enhanced the viability of the encapsulated ASCs. During in vitro culturing, the gradual degradation of gelatin led to sustained release of ASCs from the chitosan/gelatin hydrogel...
January 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131724/insights-in-spatio-temporal-characterization-of-human-fetal-neural-stem-cells
#9
Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Inés Guardia, Mónica Pardo, Cristina Herranz, Rike Zietlow, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Anne Rosser, Josep M Canals
Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127503/embryonic-zebrafish-model-a-well-established-method-for-rapidly-assessing-the-toxicity-of-homeopathic-drugs-toxicity-evaluation-of-homeopathic-drugs-using-zebrafish-embryo-model
#10
Himanshu R Gupta, Yogesh Patil, Dipty Singh, Mansee Thakur
OBJECTIVES: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115687/endosperm-based-hybridization-barriers-explain-the-pattern-of-gene-flow-between-arabidopsis-lyrata-and-arabidopsis-arenosa-in-central-europe
#11
Clément Lafon-Placette, Ida M Johannessen, Karina S Hornslien, Mohammad F Ali, Katrine N Bjerkan, Jonathan Bramsiepe, Barbara M Glöckle, Carolin A Rebernig, Anne K Brysting, Paul E Grini, Claudia Köhler
Based on the biological species concept, two species are considered distinct if reproductive barriers prevent gene flow between them. In Central Europe, the diploid species Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa are genetically isolated, thus fitting this concept as "good species." Nonetheless, interspecific gene flow involving their tetraploid forms has been described. The reasons for this ploidy-dependent reproductive isolation remain unknown. Here, we show that hybridization between diploid A. lyrata and A...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109119/serotonin-transporter-protects-the-placental-cells-against-apoptosis-in-caspase-3-independent-pathway
#12
Coedy Hadden, Tariq Fahmi, Anthonya Cooper, Alena V Savenka, Vladimir V Lupashin, Drucilla J Roberts, Luc Maroteaux, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Fusun Kilic
Serotonin (5-HT) and its specific transporter, SERT play important roles in pregnancy. Using placentas dissected from 18d gestational SERT-knock out (KO), peripheral 5-HT (TPH1)-KO and wild-type (WT) mice, we explored the role of 5-HT and SERT in placental functions in detail. An abnormal thick band of fibrosis and necrosis under the giant cell layer in SERT-KO placentas appeared only moderately in TPH1-KO and minimally present in WT placentas. The majority of the changes were located at the junctional zone of the placentas in SERT...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096658/anticancer-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-girinimbine-isolated-from-murraya-koenigii
#13
Venoos Iman, Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Suzita Mohd Noor
Therapy that directly targets apoptosis and/or inflammation could be highly effective for the treatment of cancer. Murraya koenigii is an edible herb that has been traditionally used for cancer treatment as well as inflammation. Here, we describe that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii, induced apoptosis and inhibited inflammation in vitro as well as in vivo. Induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) by girinimbine revealed decreased cell viability in HT-29, whereas there was no cytotoxic effect on normal colon cells...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077604/the-mitochondrial-dna-content-of-cumulus-granulosa-cells-is-linked-to-embryo-quality
#14
V Desquiret-Dumas, A Clément, V Seegers, L Boucret, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, V Procaccio, P Reynier, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Could the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) be related to oocyte competence? SUMMARY ANSWER: The quality of embryos obtained during IVF procedures appears to be linked to mtDNA copy numbers in the CGCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte quality is linked to oocyte mtDNA content in the human and other species, and the mtDNA copy number of the oocyte is related to that of the corresponding CGCs. Moreover, the quantification of CGC mtDNA has recently been proposed as a biomarker of embryo viability...
January 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069092/reduced-competence-of-immature-and-mature-oocytes-vitrified-by-cryotop-method-assessment-by-in-vitro-fertilization-and-parthenogenetic-activation-in-a-bovine-model
#15
Daiane L Bulgarelli, Alessandra A Vireque, Caroline P Pitangui-Molina, Marcos F Silva-de-Sá, Ana Carolina J de Sá Rosa-E-Silva
This study aimed to evaluate the embryo development competence, the nuclear maturation and the viability of germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were derived from bovine ovaries and three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, GV oocytes were vitrified and underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) or not and their nuclear maturation was assessed by orcein staining. In Experiment 2, GV oocytes and MII oocytes were vitrified or not and the viability was assessed by calcein/ethidium homodimer-1 staining...
January 10, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053351/functional-analysis-of-the-abcs-of-eye-color-in-helicoverpa-armigera-with-crispr-cas9-induced-mutations
#16
Sher Afzal Khan, Michael Reichelt, David G Heckel
Many insect pigments are localized in subcellular pigment granules, and transport of pigment precursors from the cytoplasm is accomplished by ABC proteins. Drosophila melanogaster has three half-transporter genes (white, scarlet, and brown, all affecting eye pigments) and Bombyx mori has a fourth (ok). The White, Brown, Scarlet and Ok proteins each have one transmembrane and one cytoplasmic domain and they heterodimerize to form functional transporters with different substrate specificities. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create somatic and germ-line knockout mutations of these four genes in the noctuid moth Helicoverpa armigera...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046063/three-dimensional-high-frequency-ultrasonography-for-early-detection-and-characterization-of-embryo-implantation-site-development-in-the-mouse
#17
Mary C Peavey, Corey L Reynolds, Maria M Szwarc, William E Gibbons, Cecilia T Valdes, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042535/effects-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-administrations-on-oocyte-meiotic-maturation-apoptosis-and-gene-quantification-in-mouse-model
#18
Forouzan Absalan, Sadegh Saremy, Esrafil Mansori, Mahin Taheri Moghadam, Ali Reza Eftekhari Moghadam, Razie Ghanavati
OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040122/vitrification-of-mouse-mii-oocytes-developmental-competency-using-paclitaxel
#19
Farzaneh Fesahat, Azita Faramarzi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Marjan Omidi, Fatemeh Anbari, Mohammad Ali Khalili
OBJECTIVE: Oocyte cryopreservation provides an important alternative for fertility preservation for women who will be treated with cytotoxic drugs. However, it can cause spindle disorganization of microtubules, putting the zygote at risk for aneuploidy. Paclitaxel is known to stabilize the microtubules that constitute the spindle. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitable concentration of paclitaxel for adding to the vitrification media to improve the developmental potential of post-thawed mature oocytes to blastocyst formation in mice...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033492/how-cells-change-shape-and-position-in-the-early-mammalian-embryo
#20
REVIEW
Melanie D White, Jennifer Zenker, Stephanie Bissiere, Nicolas Plachta
During preimplantation development, cells of the mammalian embryo must resolve their shape and position to ensure the future viability of the fetus. These initial changes are established as the embryo expands from one to thirty-two cells, and a group of originally spherical cells is transformed into a more polarized structure with distinct cell geometries and lineages. Recent advances in the application of non-invasive imaging technologies have enabled the discovery of mechanisms regulating patterning of the early mammalian embryo...
December 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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