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Embryo viability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438507/bacterial-density-rather-than-diversity-correlates-with-hatching-success-across-different-avian-species
#1
Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez, Antonio Manuel Martín-Platero, Laura Wegener-Parfrey, Manuel Martínez-Bueno, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruano, José Antonio Navas-Molina, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, David Martín-Gálvez, Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Rob Knight, Juan José Soler
Bacterial communities within avian nests are considered an important determinant of egg viability, potentially selecting for traits that confer embryos with protection against trans-shell infection. A high bacterial density on the eggshell increases hatching failure, whether this effect could be due to changes in bacterial community or just a general increase in bacterial density. We explored this idea using intra- and interspecific comparisons of the relationship between hatching success and eggshell bacteria characterized by culture and molecular techniques (fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing)...
February 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414342/dep-and-dbp-induce-cytotoxicity-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-abnormally-enhance-neural-ectoderm-development
#2
Nuoya Yin, Shengxian Liang, Shaojun Liang, Bowen Hu, Renjun Yang, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang, Francesco Faiola
Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are two typical small phthalate esters, extensively used in personal care and consumer products. Although previous studies have linked phthalate esters to several health issues, it is still unclear whether they can affects the early stages of embryonic development. In this study, we evaluated the early developmental neurotoxicity as well as the cytotoxicity of DEP and DBP, using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Our results showed that both DEP and DBP could decrease mESC viability in a dose-dependent manner...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397877/arterial-smooth-muscle-dynamics-in-development-and-repair
#3
REVIEW
Urmas Roostalu, Jason Kf Wong
Arterial vasculature distributes blood from early embryonic development and provides a nutrient highway to maintain tissue viability. Atherosclerosis, peripheral artery diseases, stroke and aortic aneurysm represent the most frequent causes of death and are all directly related to abnormalities in the function of arteries. Vascular intervention techniques have been established for the treatment of all of these pathologies, yet arterial surgery can itself lead to biological changes in which uncontrolled arterial wall cell proliferation leads to restricted blood flow...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396043/characteristics-and-fertility-of-domestic-cat-epididymal-spermatozoa-cryopreserved-with-two-different-freezing-media
#4
Eugeny Brusentsev, Elena Kizilova, Valentina Mokrousova, Valeria Kozhevnikova, Irina Rozhkova, Sergei Amstislavsky
The study represents a comparison of cryopreservation of domestic cat epididymal spermatozoa with two commercially available freezing media: CaniPlus Freeze (CPF) and SpermFreeze (SF). The viability of nonfrozen spermatozoa evaluated by the VitalScreen test was 68.7 ± 3.0%. These figures were lower for the frozen-thawed spermatozoa: 51.2 ± 6.3% for CPF group and 54.4 ± 3.1% for SF group. The motility of nonfrozen spermatozoa was 57.2 ± 4.5%. These figures were reduced in both frozen-thawed groups; however, there was no significant difference in these parameters between CPF (30...
December 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387186/effect-of-recombinant-adeno-associated-virus-expressing-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-on-chick-embryo-umbilical-artery-vasospasm-model
#5
Yongjie Yuan, Si Yang, Chao Li, Kan Xu, Jinlu Yu
In the present study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector containing the calcitonin gene related peptide gene (rAAV-CGRP) was constructed and the therapeutic effect of rAAV-CGRP on a chick umbilical artery vasospasm model induced by chick embryo allantoic cavity hemorrhage was investigated. Fresh specific pathogen-free fertilized chicken eggs were randomly divided into a rAAV-CGRP group, an empty vector virus (AAV) group, and a control group, with 24 eggs in each group. An umbilical arterial vasospasm model was established using a needle puncture method on a vein in the chorioallantoic membrane to induce a hemorrhage in the allantoic cavity of 11-day-old chicken embryonated eggs...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356892/skin-depigmenting-action-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori-l-droppings-in-zebrafish
#6
Yeong Ro Lee, Ji-Hae Park, Rodrigo Castaneda Molina, Youn Hee Nam, Yeong-Geun Lee, Bin Na Hong, Nam-In Baek, Tong Ho Kang
The excrement of silkworms (Bombyx mori L.), referred to here as silkworm droppings (SDs), is used as a traditional drug in eastern medicine to treat skin diseases such as urticaria and atopy. However, the depigmentation effects of SDs have not previously been evaluated. We focused on the depigmentation effect of a methanol extract of SDs and isolated components of the extract using a zebrafish model system. (+)-Dehydrovomifoliol (M-1), (6R,7E,9R)-9-hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one (M-2), (3S,5R,8R)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one (M-3), roseoside (M-4), and citroside A (M-5) were isolated from only SDs extract (SDE), and chemical structures were identified through spectroscopic methods...
January 22, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340375/enhancement-of-bmp-2-mediated-angiogenesis-and-osteogenesis-by-2-n-6-o-sulfated-chitosan-in-bone-regeneration
#7
Yuanzhong Pan, Jie Chen, Yuanman Yu, Kai Dai, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu
Sulfated polysaccharides are attractive semi-synthesized materials that can be used as a mimic of heparan sulfate to modulate the protein activity and other physiological processes. In this study, we employed sulfated chitosan to enhance the angiogenic capacity of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured in a combination of BMP-2 and 2-N,6-O-sulfated chitosan (SCS) group exhibited a higher cell viability and sprouting ability. The cells also secreted more VEGF and NO. The expression patterns of angiogenic and osteogenic genes were analyzed, and VEGFR2 signaling was found to play a role in the enhancing effect of SCS...
January 17, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339137/oxygen-induced-alterations-in-the-expression-of-chromatin-modifying-enzymes-and-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-imprinted-genes
#8
William M Skiles, Avery Kester, Jane H Pryor, Mark E Westhusin, Michael C Golding, Charles R Long
Embryo culture and assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with a disproportionately high number of epigenetic abnormalities in the resulting offspring. However, the mechanisms by which these techniques influence the epigenome remain poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of oxygen concentration to influence the transcriptional control of a selection of key enzymes regulating chromatin structure. In mouse embryonic stem cells, oxygen concentrations modulated the transcriptional regulation of the TET family of enzymes, as well as the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a...
January 12, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335548/paternal-easirnas-regulate-parental-genome-dosage-in-arabidopsis
#9
German Martinez, Philip Wolff, Zhenxing Wang, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Juan Santos-González, Lei Liu Conze, Christopher DeFraia, R Keith Slotkin, Claudia Köhler
The regulation of parental genome dosage is of fundamental importance in animals and plants, as exemplified by X-chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation. The 'triploid block' is a classic example of dosage regulation in plants that establishes a reproductive barrier between species differing in chromosome number1,2. This barrier acts in the embryo-nourishing endosperm tissue and induces the abortion of hybrid seeds through a yet unknown mechanism 3 . Here we show that depletion of paternal epigenetically activated small interfering RNAs (easiRNAs) bypasses the triploid block in response to increased paternal ploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 15, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334036/short-term-storage-of-the-oocytes-affects-the-ploidy-status-in-the-yellowtail-tetra-astyanax-altiparanae
#10
Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Nycolas Levy Pereira, Takafumi Fujimoto, José Augusto Senhorini, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
In fish, many factors can affect reproduction during in vitro fertilization, therefore determination of the factors that affect affecting gamete quality is needed. However, few studies have focused on gamete quality and the ploidy status. This study was conducted to elucidate whether oocyte storage can affect ploidy status, survival, and embryo viability in the characid species Astyanax altiparanae. Oocytes were stored in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 26°C, then aliquots were fertilized immediately after extrusion (control) and also after 60, 120, 180, and 240 min of storage...
January 15, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324752/tet-protein-function-during-drosophila-development
#11
Fei Wang, Svetlana Minakhina, Hiep Tran, Neha Changela, Joseph Kramer, Ruth Steward
The TET (Ten-eleven translocation) 1, 2 and 3 proteins have been shown to function as DNA hydroxymethylases in vertebrates and their requirements have been documented extensively. Recently, the Tet proteins have been shown to also hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine in RNA. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmrC) is enriched in messenger RNA but the function of this modification has yet to be elucidated. Because Cytosine methylation in DNA is barely detectable in Drosophila, it serves as an ideal model to study the biological function of 5hmrC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310712/genome-wide-screening-of-dna-methylation-in-bovine-blastocysts-with-different-kinetics-of-development
#12
Jessica Ispada, Camila Bruna de Lima, Marc-André Sirard, Patrícia Kubo Fontes, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia Nogueira, Kelly Annes, Marcella Pecora Milazzotto
BACKGROUND: The timing of the first cell divisions may predict the developmental potential of an embryo, including its ability to establish pregnancy. Besides differences related to metabolism, stress, and survival, embryos with different speeds of development present distinct patterns of gene expression, mainly related to energy and lipid metabolism. As gene expression is regulated by epigenetic factors, and that includes DNA methylation patterns, in this study we compared the global DNA methylation profile of embryos with different kinetics of development in order to identify general pathways and regions that are most influenced by this phenotype...
January 8, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288822/copper-containing-mesoporous-bioactive-glass-promotes-angiogenesis-in-an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model
#13
Lilian B Romero-Sánchez, Manuel Marí-Beffa, Paloma Carrillo, Miguel Ángel Medina, Aránzazu Díaz-Cuenca
The osteogenic and angiogenic responses of organisms to the ionic products of degradation of bioactive glasses (BGs) are being intensively investigated. The promotion of angiogenesis by copper (Cu) has been known for more than three decades. This element can be incorporated to delivery carriers, such as BGs, and the materials used in biological assays. In this work, Cu-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 compositional system was prepared incorporating 5% mol Cu (MBG-5Cu) by replacement of the corresponding amount of Ca...
December 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276968/icotinib-inhibits-egfr-signaling-and-alleviates-psoriasis-like-symptoms-in-animal-models
#14
Fenlai Tan, Guiqun Yang, Yanping Wang, Haibo Chen, Bo Yu, He Li, Jing Guo, Xiaoling Huang, Yifang Deng, Pengxia Yu, Lieming Ding
To investigate the effects of icotinib hydrochloride and a derivative cream on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and within animal psoriasis models, respectively. The effect of icotinib on EGFR signaling was examined in HaCaT cells, while its effect on angiogenesis was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAM). The effectiveness of icotinib in treating psoriasis was tested in three psoriasis models, including diethylstilbestrol-treated mouse vaginal epithelial cells, mouse tail granular cell layer formation, and propranolol-induced psoriasis-like features in guinea pig ear skin...
December 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274177/links-between-parental-life-histories-of-wild-salmon-and-the-telomere-lengths-of-their-offspring
#15
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
The importance of parental contributions to offspring development and subsequent performance is self-evident at a genomic level; however, parents can also affect offspring fitness by indirect genetic and environmental routes. The life history strategy that an individual adopts will be influenced by both genes and environment; and this may have important consequences for offspring. Recent research has linked telomere dynamics (i.e. telomere length and loss) in early life to future viability and longevity. Moreover, a number of studies have reported a heritable component to telomere length across a range of vertebrates, though the effects of other parental contribution pathways have been far less studied...
December 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273634/loss-of-the-deubiquitinase-usp36-destabilizes-the-rna-helicase-dhx33-and-causes-preimplantation-lethality-in-mice
#16
Julia M Fraile, Diana Campos-Iglesias, Francisco Rodríguez, Aurora Astudillo, Roser Vilarrasa-Blasi, Nuria Verdaguer-Dot, Miguel A Prado, Joao A Paulo, Steven P Gygi, José I Martín-Subero, José M P Freije, Carlos López-Otín
Deubiquitinases are proteases with a wide functional diversity that profoundly impact multiple biological processes. Among them, the ubiquitin-specific protease 36 (USP36) has been implicated in the regulation of nucleolar activity. However, its functional relevance in vivo has not yet been fully described. Here, we report the generation of an Usp36-deficient mouse model to examine the function of this enzyme. We show that Usp36 depletion is lethal in pre-implantation mouse embryos, where it blocks the transition from morula to blastocyst during embryonic development...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261646/a-conserved-maternal-specific-repressive-domain-in-zelda-revealed-by-cas9-mediated-mutagenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Danielle C Hamm, Elizabeth D Larson, Markus Nevil, Kelsey E Marshall, Eliana R Bondra, Melissa M Harrison
In nearly all metazoans, the earliest stages of development are controlled by maternally deposited mRNAs and proteins. The zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active hours after fertilization. Transcriptional activation during this maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is tightly coordinated with the degradation of maternally provided mRNAs. In Drosophila melanogaster, the transcription factor Zelda plays an essential role in widespread activation of the zygotic genome. While Zelda expression is required both maternally and zygotically, the mechanisms by which it functions to remodel the embryonic genome and prepare the embryo for development remain unclear...
December 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250470/protective-effect-of-rhus-coriaria-fruit-extracts-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-in-muscle-progenitors-and-zebrafish-embryos
#18
Fadia Najjar, Francine Rizk, Gilles Carnac, Rim Nassar, Sara Jabak, Anatoly Petrovich Sobolev, Yara Bou Saada, Marwan El Sabban, Aline Hamade
Background and Purpose: Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods: Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE) and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249771/synthesis-of-novel-class-of-n-alkyl-isatin-3-iminobenzoic-acid-derivatives-and-their-biological-activity-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-human-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Muhammad Farooq, Zainab M Almarhoon, Nael Abu Taha, Almohannad A R Baabbad, Mohammed A Al-Wadaan, Ayman El-Faham
Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) and many of its derivatives are reported to have pharmacological properties. In this study, we report the synthesis and biological activity of a new class of N-alkyl-isatin-3-iminobenzoic acid derivatives prepared via the condensation of N-alkyl isatin with 4-aminobenzoic acid by conventional, microwave, and ultrasonic methods. Microwave irradiation yielded the products in a shorter reaction time with higher yields and purities. The compounds were screened in zebrafish embryos, and also in three human cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, and Jurkat) and one normal human cell line i...
December 16, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247011/histone-demethylase-activity-of-utx-is-essential-for-viability-and-regulation-of%C3%A2-hox-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-drosophila
#20
Ömer Copur, Jürg Müller
The trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for repression of Polycomb target genes. The role of enzymatic demethylation of H3K27me3 by the KDM6-family demethylases Utx, Uty and JmjD3 is however less clear. Studies in both mice and worms led to the proposal that KDM6 proteins but not their H3K27me3 demethylase activity is critical for normal development. Here, we investigated the requirement of the demethylase activity of the single KDM6 family member Utx in Drosophila We generated Drosophila expressing full-length but catalytic inactive Utx protein and found that these mutants show the same phenotypes like animals lacking Utx protein...
December 15, 2017: Genetics
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