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Amitpal Singh Saini, Catherine S Hwang, Matthew C Biagioli, Indra J Das
PURPOSE: To compare doses to organs at risk (OARs) for left-sided whole-breast radiation therapy with comparable planning target volume (PTV) coverage using three techniques: free breathing in a supine position (SFB), deep inspirational breath-hold in a supine position (SDIBH), and free breathing in prone position (PFB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with left-sided early-stage breast cancer underwent CT simulation following SFB, SDIBH, and PFB protocols for whole-breast radiation therapy...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Minna Johansson, Per Henrik Zahl, Volkert Siersma, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen, Bertil Marklund, John Brodersen
BACKGROUND: Large reductions in the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and AAA-related mortality mean that results from randomised trials of screening for the disorder might be out-dated. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of AAA screening in Sweden on disease-specific mortality, incidence, and surgery. METHODS: Individual data on the incidence of AAA, AAA mortality, and surgery for AAA in a cohort of men aged 65 years who were invited to screening between 2006 and 2009, were compared with data from an age-matched contemporaneous cohort of men who were not invited for AAA screening...
June 16, 2018: Lancet
Chie-Pein Chen, Cheng-Yi Chen, Yi-Hsin Wu, Chia-Yu Chen
Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication associated with placental oxidative stress and impaired trophoblast migration. The mechanism of defective trophoblast migration remains unknown. Forkhead O1 (FOXO1) is a transcription factor. Integrin β3 is involved in cell motility. We hypothesized that FOXO1 mediates expression of trophoblast integrin β3, which could be impaired by oxidative stress and have implications in preeclampsia. The expressions of FOXO1 and integrin β3 were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas (n=15) compared to that of controls (n=15; p<0...
June 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Konstantinos G Moulakakis, Vangelis G Alexiou, Georgios Karaolanis, George S Sfyroeras, George Theoharopoulos, Andreas Lazaris, John Kakisis, George Geroulakos
AIM: Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) is a rare but devastating complication. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of SCI following EVAR seems to be multifactorial and is underreported and not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in patients with this serious complication. MATERIAL-METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature, as per PRISMA statement guidelines, to evaluate the incidence of SCI following elective EVAR was performed...
June 6, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Daniela Mazzaccaro, Augusto Farina, Kostantinos Petsos, Giovanni Nano
BACKGROUND: to assess the role of DUS in detecting endoleaks (EL) and graft thrombosis (GT) in a cohort of patients submitted to EVAR for elective infrarenal AAA in two centers. METHODS: Data of all consecutive patients treated in two Operative Unit of Vascular Surgery, from 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2016, were retrospectively collected and evaluated. Follow-up data were analyzed to evaluate survival and device-related complications, both at thirty-day and in the mid-term...
May 19, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Sarah E Deery, Marc L Schermerhorn
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) primarily affects male patients; however, female patients with AAA have a faster rate of aneurysm growth, have higher risk of rupture even at smaller diameters, and have worse outcomes following repair of ruptured and intact aneurysms. Furthermore, early natural history studies and randomized controlled trials evaluating surveillance versus repair in small aneurysms were conducted primarily in male patients. Therefore, there are limited data regarding the ideal threshold for elective repair of AAA in women, either by aortic diameter or by alternative measures...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Yamei Sun, Qunchao Bao, Baoqin Xuan, Wenjia Xu, Deng Pan, Qi Li, Zhikang Qian
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein pUL38 has been shown to prevent premature cell death by antagonizing cellular stress responses; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we identified the host protein ubiquitin-specific protease 24 (USP24) as an interaction partner of pUL38. Mutagenesis analysis of pUL38 revealed that amino acids TFV at positions 227 to 230 were critical for its interaction with USP24. Mutant pUL38 TFV/AAA protein did not bind to USP24 and failed to prevent cell death induced by pUL38-deficient HCMV infection...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
J C Zhu, X C Dai, Y D Luo, H L Fan, Z Feng, Y W Zhang, F G Hu
Objective: To evaluate the early results of fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR) using physician-modified stent grafts (PMSGs) for the treatment of patients with thoracoabdominal pathologies. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent FEVAR using PMSGs between April 2012 and September 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The modality of FEVAR technique was assessed, perioperative clinical data was recorded and the early results were evaluated. Results: Indications were thoracoabdominal aortic pathologies, including juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (JAAA) ( n =12), chronic thoracoabdominal aortic dissection with aneurysmal dilatation ( n =3), thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) ( n =1), infrarenal AAA with an accessory renal artery in the segment of the aneurysmal neck ( n =2) and type Ⅰ endoleak after EVAR for AAA( n =1)...
March 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Manar Khashram, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Ziad Khashram, Jonathan A Williman, Gregory T Jones, Justin A Roake
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Predicting outcomes prior to elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (AAA) requires critical decision making, as the treatment offered is a prophylactic procedure to prevent death from a ruptured AAA. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a model that may predict outcomes for patients with an AAA and hence aid in clinical decision making. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was built to simulate the natural history of a patient with an AAA and to predict the 30 day and 2-5 year survival of patients undergoing treatment and surveillance...
April 9, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Emiel M J van Disseldorp, Niels J Petterson, Frans N van de Vosse, Marc R H M van Sambeek, Richard G P Lopata
Aims: Using non-invasive 3D ultrasound, peak wall stress (PWS) and aortic stiffness can be evaluated, which may provide additional criteria in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) risk assessment. In this study, these measures were determined in both young and age-matched individuals, and AAA patients while its relation to age, maximum diameter, and growth was assessed statistically. Methods and results: Time-resolved 3D-US data were acquired for 30 volunteers and 65 AAA patients...
March 29, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Kun Li, Kewei Zhang, Tianxiao Li, Shuiting Zhai
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the epidemiological data and risk factors associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in Chinese population. We reported the primary results from screening five-community population in Middle China for AAA. METHODS: From March 2014 to October 2015, an AAA screening program was performed in three urban and two rural communities. These communities were randomly selected. All at-risk residents (a total of 6925) aged 40 years or older were invited to attend an ultrasound scan for AAA...
April 3, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Quan Wang, Andrew J Serban, Rebekka M Wachter, W E Moerner
Oligomerization plays an important role in the function of many proteins, but a quantitative picture of the oligomer distribution has been difficult to obtain using existing techniques. Here we describe a method that combines sub-stoichiometric labeling and recently developed single-molecule diffusometry to measure the size distribution of oligomers under equilibrium conditions in solution, one molecule at a time. We use this technique to characterize the oligomerization behavior of Nicotiana tabacum (Nt) Rubisco activase (Nt-Rca), a chaperone-like AAA-plus ATPase essential in regulating carbon fixation during photosynthesis...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ruth A Benson, Lewis Meecham, Owain Fisher, Ian M Loftus
The UK screening programme began in 2009, and has now been expanded around the UK. Long-term follow-up of the original cohorts continues to demonstrate significant benefits for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)-related and all-cause mortality , and results from the first 5 years of the formal screening programme have demonstrated similar success. Ultrasound scanning is an effective and safe screening tool for the detection of AAA, although a variety of measurement protocols are employed internationally. Key challenges for the future of the programme relate to declining incidence of screen detected aneurysms...
April 5, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Jetty van Ginkel, Mike Filius, Malwina Szczepaniak, Pawel Tulinski, Anne S Meyer, Chirlmin Joo
Proteomic analyses provide essential information on molecular pathways of cellular systems and the state of a living organism. Mass spectrometry is currently the first choice for proteomic analysis. However, the requirement for a large amount of sample renders a small-scale proteomics study challenging. Here, we demonstrate a proof of concept of single-molecule FRET-based protein fingerprinting. We harnessed the AAA+ protease ClpXP to scan peptides. By using donor fluorophore-labeled ClpP, we sequentially read out FRET signals from acceptor-labeled amino acids of peptides...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Edmond Y Huang, Milton To, Erica Tran, Lorraine T Ador Dionisio, Hyejin J Cho, Katherine L M Baney, Camille I Pataki, James A Olzmann
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) mediates the proteasomal clearance of proteins from the early secretory pathway. In this process, ubiquitinated substrates are extracted from membrane-embedded dislocation complexes by the AAA ATPase VCP and targeted to the cytosolic 26S proteasome. In addition to its well-established role in the degradation of misfolded proteins, ERAD also regulates the abundance of key proteins such as enzymes involved in cholesterol synthesis. However, due to the lack of generalizable methods, our understanding of the scope of proteins targeted by ERAD remains limited...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Atsuko Nakayama, Hiroyuki Morita, Masatoshi Nagayama, Katsuyuki Hoshina, Yukari Uemura, Hitonobu Tomoike, Issei Komuro
BACKGROUND: Virtually no reports on the effects of exercise in patients with a small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) exist. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 1515 patients with a small AAA before surgery at 2 high-volume hospitals in Tokyo, Japan, from April 2004 to September 2015. A carefully modified cardiac rehabilitation program without excessive blood pressure elevation during exercise was prescribed to 50 patients with an AAA...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Nathan R Elwood, Allison N Martin, Florence E Turrentine, R Scott Jones, Victor M Zaydfudim
BACKGROUND: This study aims to test associations between perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative morbidity and mortality after major abdominal operations. METHODS: The 2014 ACS NSQIP dataset was queried for all patients who underwent one of the ten major abdominal operations. Separate multivariable regression models, were developed to evaluate the independent effects of perioperative blood transfusion on morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of 48,854 patients in the study cohort, 4887 (10%) received a blood transfusion...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Tomas Kron, Brent Chesson, Nicholas Hardcastle, Melissa Crain, Natalie Clements, Mark Burns, David Ball
OBJECTIVE: A randomised clinical trial comparing stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) with conventional radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (NCT01014130). We report on the technical credentialing program as prerequisite for centres joining the trial. METHODS: Participating centres were asked to develop treatment plans for two test cases to assess their ability to create plans according to protocol...
May 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Yair Hillman, Josh Kim, Indrin Chetty, Ning Wen
PURPOSE: Mobius 3D (M3D) provides a volumetric dose verification of the treatment planning system's calculated dose using an independent beam model and a collapsed cone convolution superposition algorithm. However, there is a lack of investigation into M3D's accuracy and effectiveness for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) quality assurance (QA). Here, we collaborated with the vendor to develop a revised M3D beam model for SRS/SBRT cases treated with a 6X flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and high-definition multiple leaf collimator (HDMLC) on an Edge linear accelerator...
April 2018: Medical Physics
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