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Immune engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666626/next-generation-immune-repertoire-sequencing-as-a-clue-to-elucidate-the-landscape-of-immune-modulation-by-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#1
Tatsuo Ichinohe, Takahiko Miyama, Takakazu Kawase, Yasuko Honjo, Kazutaka Kitaura, Hiroyuki Sato, Tadasu Shin-I, Ryuji Suzuki
The human immune system is a fine network consisted of the innumerable numbers of functional cells that balance the immunity and tolerance against various endogenous and environmental challenges. Although advances in modern immunology have revealed a role of many unique immune cell subsets, technologies that enable us to capture the whole landscape of immune responses against specific antigens have been not available to date. Acquired immunity against various microorganisms including host microbiome is principally founded on T cell and B cell populations, each of which expresses antigen-specific receptors that define a unique clonotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664573/tcr-repertoire-evolution-during-maintenance-of-cmv-specific-t-cell-populations
#2
REVIEW
Kilian Schober, Veit R Buchholz, Dirk H Busch
During infections and cancer, the composition of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells changes over time. TCR avidity is thought to be a major driver of this process, thereby interacting with several additional regulators of T-cell responses to form a composite immune response architecture. Infections with latent viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), can lead to large T-cell responses characterized by an oligoclonal TCR repertoire. Here, we review the current status of experimental studies and theoretical models of TCR repertoire evolution during CMV infection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661720/pd-l1-immuno-expression-assay-in-thymomas-study-of-84-cases-and-review-of-literature
#3
Prerna Guleria, Nuzhat Husain, Saumya Shukla, Sunil Kumar, Rajinder Parshad, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an immune check point inhibitor, is known to be expressed in several malignancies and is being considered as a prognostic factor and a potential immunotherapeutic target. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-L1 expression in thymomas and to determine correlation with clinicopathological features and previously published studies in the literature. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were prepared from selected blocks of thymomas and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PD-L1 was performed...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660647/development-of-an-adaptive-electroporation-system-for-intratumoral-plasmid-dna-delivery
#4
Douglas W Brown, Arya J Bahrami, David A Canton, Anandaroop Mukhopadhyay, Jean S Campbell, Robert H Pierce, Richard J Connolly
Intratumoral electroporation of plasmid DNA encoding the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 12 promotes innate and adaptive immune responses correlating with anti-tumor effects. Clinical electroporation conditions are fixed parameters optimized in preclinical tumors, which consist of cells implanted into skin. These conditions have little translatability to clinically relevant tumors, as implanted models cannot capture the heterogeneity encountered in genetically engineered mouse models or clinical tumors...
April 9, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659011/immune-system-augmentation-via-humanization-using-stem-progenitor-cells-and-bioengineering-in-a-breast-cancer-model-study
#5
Abbas Shafiee, Jacqui A McGovern, Christoph A Lahr, Christoph Meinert, Davide Moi, Ferdinand Wagner, Marietta Landgraf, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Roberta Mazzieri, Dietmar W Hutmacher
Despite significant advances, most current in vivo models fail to fully recapitulate the biological processes that occur in humans. Here we aimed to develop an advanced humanized model with features of an organ bone by providing different bone tissue cellular compartments including pre-osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSCs), endothelial and hematopoietic cells in an engineered microenvironment. The bone compartment was generated by culturing the human MSCs, umbilical vein endothelial cells with gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels in the centre of a melt-electrospun polycaprolactone tubular scaffolds which were seeded with human pre-osteoblasts...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656492/pd-1-blockade-cellular-vesicles-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Xudong Zhang, Chao Wang, Jinqiang Wang, Quanyin Hu, Benjamin Langworthy, Yanqi Ye, Wujin Sun, Jing Lin, Tianfu Wang, Jason Fine, Hao Cheng, Gianpietro Dotti, Peng Huang, Zhen Gu
Cancer cells resist to the host immune antitumor response via multiple suppressive mechanisms, including the overexpression of PD-L1 that exhausts antigen-specific CD8+ T cells through PD-1 receptors. Checkpoint blockade antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 have shown unprecedented clinical responses. However, limited host response rate underlines the need to develop alternative engineering approaches. Here, engineered cellular nanovesicles (NVs) presenting PD-1 receptors on their membranes, which enhance antitumor responses by disrupting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis, are reported...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656308/bacterial-lipid-modification-of-icp11-and-a-new-elisa-system-applicable-for-wssv-infection-detection
#7
Vidhyapriya Murugan, Krishnan Sankaran
In ELISA, a popular analytical diagnostic tool, the stable non-covalent immobilization (coating) of hydrophilic proteins/peptides on to hydrophobic polystyrene surface has remained a major common challenge. Recombinant bacterial lipid modification of proteins in Escherichia coli system has been shown in this study to solve this problem owing to the hydrophobic anchorage provided by three fatty acyl groups in N-acyl-S-diacylglyceryl Cys at the N-terminus. Exploiting this first post-translational protein engineering, the most abundantly expressed white spot syndrome viral protein ICP11 was lipid-modified and tested as a new target in a new ELISA method useful to shrimp farming...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656235/effective-cancer-immunotherapy-in-mice-by-polyic-imiquimod-complexes-and-engineered-magnetic-nanoparticles
#8
Ana Isabel Bocanegra Gondan, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Aintzane Zabaleta, Nina Gómez Blanco, Beatriz Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, María Jesús García-Granda, Daniel Padro, Jordi Llop, Blanca Arnaiz, María Gato, David Escors, Juan C Mareque-Rivas
Encouraging results are emerging from systems that exploit Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, nanotechnology, checkpoint inhibition and molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. A major remaining challenge is developing effective, durable and tumour-specific immune responses without systemic toxicity. Here, we report a simple and versatile system based on synergistic activation of immune responses and direct cancer cell killing by combined TLR ligation using polyIC as TLR3 and imiquimod (R837) as TLR7 agonist, in combination with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and phospholipid micelles loaded with zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655625/an-improved-conjugate-vaccine-technology-induction-of-antibody-responses-to-the-tumor-vasculature
#9
Elisabeth J M Huijbers, Judy R van Beijnum, Chung T Lê, Sofya Langman, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska, Kevin H Mayo, Arjan W Griffioen
The induction of an antibody response against self-antigens requires a conjugate vaccine technology, where the self-antigen is conjugated to a foreign protein sequence, and the co-application of a potent adjuvant. The choice of this foreign sequence is crucial as a very strong antibody response towards it may compromise the anti-self immune response. Here, we aimed to optimize the conjugate design for application of vaccination against the tumor vasculature, using two different approaches. First, the immunogenicity of the previously employed bacterial thioredoxin (TRX) was reduced by using a truncated from (TRXtr)...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652798/the-double-face-of-exosome-carried-micrornas-in-cancer-immunomodulation
#10
REVIEW
Romina Alfonsi, Ludovica Grassi, Michele Signore, Désirée Bonci
In recent years many articles have underlined the key role of nanovesicles, i.e., exosomes, as information carriers among biological systems including cancer. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) are key players in the dynamic crosstalk between cancer cells and the microenvironment while promote immune system control evasion. In fact, tumors are undoubtedly capable of silencing the immune response through multiple mechanisms, including the release of exosomes. TEXs have been shown to boost tumor growth and promote progression and metastatic spreading via suppression or stimulation of the immune response towards cancer cells...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651744/prospects-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-in-ovarian-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Vishal Jindal, Ena Arora, Sorab Gupta, Amos Lal, Muhammad Masab, Rashmika Potdar
Despite advances in various chemotherapy regimens, current therapeutic options are limited for ovarian cancer patients. Immunotherapy provides a promising and novel treatment option for ovarian cancer. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological tumors and current research is going on in various solid tumors like ovarian cancer. CAR T cells are genetically engineered T cells with major histocompatibility complex-independent, tumor-specific, immune-mediated cytolytic actions against cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651700/engineering-pichia-pastoris-for-efficient-production-of-a-novel-bifunctional-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus-invertebrate-type-lysozyme
#12
Peng Huang, Jinlei Shi, Qingwen Sun, Xianping Dong, Ning Zhang
Lysozymes are known as ubiquitously distributed immune effectors with hydrolytic activity against peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, to trigger cell lysis. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a novel sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus invertebrate-type lysozyme (sp-iLys) was synthesized according to the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid pPIC9K. The resulting plasmid, pPIC9K-sp-iLys, was integrated into the genome of P...
April 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649855/a-salmonella-typhi-ghost-induced-by-the-e-gene-of-phage-%C3%AF-x174-stimulates-dendritic-cells-and-efficiently-activates-the-adaptive-immune-response
#13
Gayeon Won, Seong Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park, Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee
We previously genetically engineered a Salmonella Typhi bacterial ghost (STG) as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. The underlying mechanism employed by the ghost to stimulate the adaptive immune response remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of STG on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and its activation of the adaptive immune response in vitro . Immature BMDCs were stimulated with STG, which efficiently stimulated maturation events in BMDCs, as indicated by up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II molecules on CD11+ BMDCs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644518/mathematical-modelling-of-the-interaction-between-cancer-cells-and-an-oncolytic-virus-insights-into-the-effects-of-treatment-protocols
#14
Adrianne L Jenner, Chae-Ok Yun, Peter S Kim, Adelle C F Coster
Oncolytic virotherapy is an experimental cancer treatment that uses genetically engineered viruses to target and kill cancer cells. One major limitation of this treatment is that virus particles are rapidly cleared by the immune system, preventing them from arriving at the tumour site. To improve virus survival and infectivity Kim et al. (Biomaterials 32(9):2314-2326, 2011) modified virus particles with the polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the monoclonal antibody herceptin. Whilst PEG modification appeared to improve plasma retention and initial infectivity, it also increased the virus particle arrival time...
April 11, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643810/localized-delivery-of-cl-amidine-from-electrospun-polydioxanone-templates-to-regulate-acute-neutrophil-netosis-a-preliminary-evaluation-of-the-pad4-inhibitor-for-tissue-engineering
#15
Allison E Fetz, Indira Neeli, Karyl K Buddington, Robert W Read, Matthew P Smeltzer, Marko Z Radic, Gary L Bowlin
Upon interaction, neutrophils can potentially release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on the surface of an implanted electrospun template, which may be a significant preconditioning event for implantable biomaterials of yet unknown consequences. In this study, we investigated the potential of polydioxanone templates as a delivery vehicle for Cl-amidine, an inhibitor of peptidyl arginase deiminase 4 (PAD4), and if drug elution could attenuate PAD4-mediated NETosis in the vicinity of implanted templates...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642953/impact-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-immunomodulation-on-the-osteogenic-effects-of-laponite
#16
Tao Li, Zhong Long Liu, Ming Xiao, Ze Zheng Yang, Ming Zheng Peng, Cui Di Li, Xiao Jun Zhou, Jin Wu Wang
BACKGROUND: With the development of osteoimmunology and bone tissue engineering (BTE), it has been recognized that the immunomodulatory properties of bone biomaterials have considerable impact in determining their fate after implantation. In this regard, the polarization of macrophages secondary to biomaterials is postulated to play a crucial role in modulating their osteogenesis; thus, strategies that may facilitate this process engender increasing levels of attention. Whereas a variety of reports highlight the immunomodulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in cell therapy or their osteogenesis in BTE, few have focused on the effect of BMSCs in promoting osteogenesis in BTE through regulating the phenotype of macrophages...
April 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630078/applications-of-zeolites-in-biotechnology-and-medicine-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Lucie Bacakova, Marta Vandrovcova, Ivana Kopova, Ivan Jirka
Zeolites are microporous tectosilicates of natural or synthetic origin, which have been extensively used in various technological applications, e.g. as catalysts and as molecular sieves, for separating and sorting various molecules, for water and air purification, including removal of radioactive contaminants, for harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy, for adsorption refrigeration, as detergents, etc. These applications of zeolites were typically related with their porous character, their high adsorption capacity, and their ion exchange properties...
April 9, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628923/evaluation-of-antigen-conjugated-fluorescent-beads-to-identify-antigen-specific-b-cells
#18
Isabel Correa, Kristina M Ilieva, Silvia Crescioli, Sara Lombardi, Mariangela Figini, Anthony Cheung, James F Spicer, Andrew N J Tutt, Frank O Nestle, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis
Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627062/immune-active-cells-with-4-1bb-signal-enhancement-inhibit-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-in-noncytolytic-manner
#19
Lili Wang, Yongxiang Yi, Wenxiu Jiang, Dandan Yin, Jing Fan, Wei Ye, Wei Zhao
Immune active cells (IACs) have been shown to be an alternative immunotherapy for CHB patients. However, there is a practical problem of different expansion rate and function of HBV inhibition as individual variability exists. Our previous studies have confirmed that the proliferation and cytolysis of IACs were significantly up-regulated by engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement (ECCE) delivering a 4-1BBζ activating signal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of ECCE to IACs from CHB patients...
April 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625194/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-stimulating-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-for-inhibited-cancer-metastasis
#20
Fenghui Zhao, Chengcheng Wang, Qiaolei Yang, Shuhong Han, Qinglian Hu, Zhengwei Fu
AIMS: The interaction of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with the immune system and the possibility of inflammation induction are of particularly interest. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are one of the most popular manufactured nanomaterials. In this study, we focused on the immune-modulatory effect of commercial P-25 TiO2 NPs in vivo and in vitro and their crucial role in cancer metastasis. MAIN METHODS: The female C57BL/6 mice were injected into abdominal cavity with PBS or P-25 TiO2 to investigate the immune-modulatory function of P-25...
April 3, 2018: Life Sciences
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