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Immune engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#1
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232015/constant-vigilance-plant-functions-guarded-by-resistance-proteins
#2
Jianbin Su, Benjamin J Spears, Sang Hee Kim, Walter Gassmann
Unlike animals, plants do not have an adaptive immune system and have instead evolved sophisticated and multi-layered innate immune mechanisms. To overcome plant immunity, pathogens secrete a diverse array of effectors into the apoplast and virtually all cellular compartments in order to dampen immune signaling and interfere with plant functions. Here we describe the scope of the arms race throughout the cell and summarize various strategies used by both plants and pathogens. Through studying the ongoing evolutionary battle between plants and key pathogens, we may yet uncover potential ways to achieve the ultimate goal of engineering broad-spectrum resistant crops without affecting food quality or productivity...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230567/cancer-nanomedicine-a-review-of-recent-success-in-drug-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Tran, Peter-Joseph DeGiovanni, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai
Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity...
December 11, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229698/laccase-ghlac1-modulates-broad-spectrum-biotic-stress-tolerance-via-damp-triggered-immunity
#4
Qin Hu, Ling Min, Xiyan Yang, Shuangxia Jin, Lin Zhang, Yaoyao Li, Yizan Ma, Xuewei Qi, Dongqin Li, Hongbo Liu, Keith Lindsey, Longfu Zhu, Xianlong Zhang
Plants are constantly challenged by a multitude of pathogens and pests, which causes massive yield and quality losses annually. A promising approach to reduce such losses is to enhance the immune system of plants through genetic engineering. Previous work has shown that laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) function as lignin polymerization enzymes. Here we demonstrate that transgenic manipulation of the expression of the laccase gene GhLac1 in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) can confer an enhanced defence response to both pathogens and pests...
December 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229600/genomic-and-epigenomic-signatures-in-ovarian-cancer-associated-with-re-sensitization-to-platinum-drugs
#5
Fang Fang, Horacio Cardenas, Hao Huang, Guanglong Jiang, Susan M Perkins, Chi Zhang, Harold N Keer, Yunlong Liu, Kenneth P Nephew, Daniela Matei
DNA methylation aberrations have been implicated in acquired resistance to platinum drugs in ovarian cancer (OC). In this study, we elucidated an epigenetic signature associated with platinum drug re-sensitization that may offer utility in predicting the outcomes of patients who are co-administered a DNA methyltransferase inhibitror. The OC specimens we analyzed were derived from a recent clinical trial that compared the responses of patients with recurrent platinum-resistant OC who received carboplatin plus the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor guadecitabine or a standard of care chemotherapy regimen selected by the treating physician...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229383/short-term-culture-with-il-2-is-beneficial-for-potent-memory-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-production
#6
Xuhua Zhang, Xiaodong Lv, Yongping Song
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been extensively used to boost the body's immune cells, especially T cells. IL-2 is a cytokine that for many years was used to activate and amplify T cells. Due to its potent T cell growth-inducing functions in vitro, for many years, IL-2 was used for the culture and expansion of various T cell products, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), T cell receptors T cells (TCRT), or genetically engineered cells with chimeric antigen receptors T cells (CAR T). Despite its positive effect on T cell production, the side-effect is not well studied...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227304/cell-based-immunotherapy-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#7
Bruce Schaar, Venkatesh Krishnan, Supreeti Tallapragada, Oliver Dorigo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the principles, safety and efficacy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in solid tumors particularly in gynecological cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts to target solid tumors using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and genetically modified T cells have shown promising efficacy in some patients. Two food and drug administration approvals for the treatment of leukemia are the first gene therapies available for cancer treatment in the United States...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226722/the-use-of-databases-data-mining-and-immunoinformatics-in-vaccinology-where-are-we
#8
Nagendra R Hegde, S Gauthami, H M Sampath Kumar, Jagadeesh Bayry
Vaccinology has evolved from a sub-discipline focussed on simplistic vaccine development based on antibody-mediated protection to a separate discipline involving epidemiology, host and pathogen biology, immunology, genomics, proteomics, structure biology, protein engineering, chemical biology, and delivery systems. Data mining in combination with bioinformatics has provided a scaffold linking all these disciplines to the design of vaccines and vaccine adjuvants. Areas covered: This review provides background knowledge on immunological aspects which have been exploited with informatics for the in silico analysis of immune responses and the design of vaccine antigens...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226089/oncolytic-adenoviruses-as-a-therapeutic-approach-for-osteosarcoma-a-new-hope
#9
REVIEW
Marc Garcia-Moure, Naiara Martinez-Vélez, Ana Patiño-García, Marta M Alonso
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer among those with non-hematological origin and affects mainly pediatric patients. In the last 50 years, refinements in surgical procedures, as well as the introduction of aggressive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapeutic cocktails, have increased to nearly 70% the survival rate of these patients. Despite the initial therapeutic progress the fight against osteosarcoma has not substantially improved during the last three decades, and almost 30% of the patients do not respond or recur after the standard treatment...
November 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225598/innovative-approaches-for-immune-tolerance-to-factor-viii-in-the-treatment-of-hemophilia-a
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra Sherman, Moanaro Biswas, Roland W Herzog
Hemophilia A (coagulation factor VIII deficiency) is a debilitating genetic disorder that is primarily treated with intravenous replacement therapy. Despite a variety of factor VIII protein formulations available, the risk of developing anti-dug antibodies ("inhibitors") remains. Overall, 20-30% of patients with severe disease develop inhibitors. Current clinical immune tolerance induction protocols to eliminate inhibitors are not effective in all patients, and there are no prophylactic protocols to prevent the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223537/rankl-signaling-sustains-primary-tumor-growth-in-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#11
Julien Faget, Caroline Contat, Nadine Zangger, Solange Peters, Etienne Meylan
HYPOTHESIS: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Recent retrospective clinical analyses suggest that blocking the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) signaling pathway inhibits the growth of NSCLC and might represent a new treatment strategy. METHODS: RANK and RANKL expression in human lung adenocarcinoma was interrogated from publicly available gene expression datasets. Several genetically engineered mouse models were used to evaluate treatment efficacy of RANK-Fc to block RANKL, with primary tumor growth measured longitudinally using micro-computed tomography...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223138/plant-expressed-fc-fusion-protein-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-with-inherent-adjuvant-properties
#12
Mi Young Kim, Alastair Copland, Kaustuv Nayak, Anmol Chandele, Muhammad Shamsher Ahmed, Qibo Zhang, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Matthew John Paul, Sven Hofmann, Moon-Sik Yang, Yong-Suk Jang, Julian K-C Ma, Rajko Reljic
Dengue is a major global disease requiring improved treatment and prevention strategies. The recently licensed Sanofi-Pasteur Denvaxia vaccine does not protect children under the age of nine and additional vaccine strategies are thus needed to halt this expanding global epidemic. Here, we employed a molecular engineering approach and plant-expression to produce a humanised and highly immunogenic Poly-Immunoglobulin G Scaffold (PIGS) fused to the consensus dengue envelope protein III domain (cEDIII). The immunogenicity of this IgG Fc receptor targeted vaccine candidate was demonstrated in transgenic mice expressing human FcγRI/CD64, by induction of neutralising antibodies and evidence of cell-mediated immunity...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222528/structure-and-dynamics-of-cas9-hnh-domain-catalytic-state
#13
Zhicheng Zuo, Jin Liu
The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 immune system has been harnessed as a powerful and versatile genome-editing tool and holds immense promise for future therapeutic applications. Despite recent advances in understanding Cas9 structures and its functional mechanism, little is known about the catalytic state of the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain, and identifying how the divalent metal ions affect the HNH domain conformational transition remains elusive. A deeper understanding of Cas9 activation and its cleavage mechanism can enable further optimization of Cas9-based genome-editing specificity and efficiency...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222334/cellular-flip-long-isoform-cflipl-ikk%C3%AE-interactions-inhibit-irf7-activation-representing-a-new-cellular-strategy-to-inhibit-ifn%C3%AE-expression
#14
Lauren T Gates-Tanzer, Joanna L Shisler
IFNα is important for anti-viral and anticancer defenses. However, over-production is associated with autoimmune disorders. Thus, the cell must precisely up- and down-regulate IFNα to achieve immune system homeostasis. The cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) is reported to inhibit IFNα production. However, the mechanism for this antagonism remained unknown. The goal here was to identify this mechanism. Here, we examined the signal transduction events that occur during TLR9- induced IRF7 activation...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222313/developing-t-cell-therapies-for-lymphoma-without-receptor-engineering
#15
REVIEW
Melanie Grant, Catherine M Bollard
T-cell therapy has emerged from the bench for the treatment of patients with lymphoma. Responses to T-cell therapeutics are regulated by multiple factors, including the patient's immune system status and disease stage. Outside of engineering of chimeric antigen receptors and artificial T-cell receptors, T-cell therapy can be mediated by ex vivo expansion of antigen-specific T cells targeting viral and/or nonviral tumor-associated antigens. These approaches are contributing to enhanced clinical responses and overall survival...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221962/drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering-to-promote-wound-healing-in-the-immunocompromised-host-current-challenges-and-future-directions
#16
Alexander M Tatara, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Antonios G Mikos
As regenerative medicine matures as a field, more promising technologies are being translated from the benchtop to the clinic. However, many of these strategies are designed with otherwise healthy hosts in mind and validated in animal models without other co-morbidities. In reality, many of the patient populations benefiting from drug delivery and tissue engineering-based devices to enhance wound healing also have significant underlying immunodeficiency. Specifically, patients suffering from diabetes, malignancy, human immunodeficiency virus, post organ transplantation, and other compromised states have significant pleotropic immune defects that affect wound healing...
December 5, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220492/hbv-derived-synthetic-long-peptide-can-boost-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-chronic-hbv-patients-ex-vivo
#17
Yingying Dou, Nadine van Montfoort, Aniek van den Bosch, Robert A de Man, Gijs G Zom, Willem-Jan Krebber, Cornelis J M Melief, Sonja I Buschow, Andrea M Woltman
Background: Vaccination with Synthetic Long Peptides (SLP ®) is a promising new treatment strategy for chronic HBV (CHB). SLP can induce broad T cell responses for all HLA types. Here we investigated the ability of a prototype HBV-core (HBc)-sequence-derived SLP to boost HBV-specific T cells in CHB patients ex vivo. Methods: HBc-SLP was used to assess cross-presentation by monocyte-derived DC(moDC) and BDCA1+ blood myeloid DC (mDC) to engineered HBV-specific CD8+ T cells...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219305/brucellosis-improved-diagnostics-and-vaccine-insights-from-synthetic-glycans
#18
David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is a serious zoonotic bacterial disease that is ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven "neglected zoonoses" that threaten human health and cause poverty. It is a costly, highly contagious disease that affects ruminants, cattle, sheep, goats, and other productive animals such as pigs. Symptoms include abortions, infertility, decreased milk production, weight loss, and lameness. Brucellosis is also the most common bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, with approximately 500 000 new human cases each year...
December 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#19
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218583/promising-antibacterial-effects-of-silver-nanoparticle-loaded-tea-tree-oil-nanoemulsion-a-synergistic-combination-against-resistance-threat
#20
Roqya Najafi-Taher, Behnaz Ghaemi, Sharmin Kharazi, Samira Rasoulikoohi, Amir Amani
Highly resistant pathogens may be developed in patients with immune disorders after prolonged exposure to antibiotics, a growing threat worldwide. In order to overcome these problems, this study introduces a new class of engineered nanosystems comprising of tea tree oil nanoemulsion (TTO NE) loaded with Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Silver shows a strong toxicity towards a wide range of microorganisms. Also, TTO NE could be employed as a promising and safe antimicrobial agent for local therapies of bacterial infections...
December 7, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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