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fitness for work

Quynh C Nguyen, Dapeng Li, Hsien-Wen Meng, Suraj Kath, Elaine Nsoesie, Feifei Li, Ming Wen
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors...
October 17, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Alexandre Fellous, Ryan L Earley, Frédéric Silvestre
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist, David Berger
Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing stronger selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions, and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Merlin L Robb, Jintanat Ananworanich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the characteristics of transmission during acute HIV infection (AHI) may inform targets for vaccine-induced immune interdiction. Individuals treated in AHI with a small HIV reservoir size may be ideal candidates for therapeutic HIV vaccines aiming for HIV remission (i.e. viremic control after treatment interruption). RECENT FINDINGS: The AHI period is brief and peak viremia predicts a viral set point that occurs 4-5 weeks following infection...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Michelle M Martel, Pedro M Pan, Maurício S Hoffmann, Ary Gadelha, Maria C do Rosário, Jair J Mari, Gisele G Manfro, Eurípedes C Miguel, Tomás Paus, Rodrigo A Bressan, Luis A Rohde, Giovanni A Salum
High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Nicolas Geades, Benjamin A E Hunt, Simon M Shah, Andrew Peters, Olivier E Mougin, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain. METHODS: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Paolo T Pianosi, Zhen Zhang, Paul Hernandez, Marianne Huebner
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. METHODS: Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obtained with both modified Borg CR-10 and Dalhousie scales during maximal cycle exercise were compared in 24 healthy adults and 17 with various pulmonary disorders...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Nicolas Rodrigue, Nicolas Lartillot
Codon substitution models have traditionally attempted to uncover signatures of adaptation within protein-coding genes by contrasting the rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Another modeling approach, known as the mutation-selection framework, attempts to explicitly account for selective patterns at the amino acid level, with some approaches allowing for heterogeneity in these patterns across codon sites. Under such a model, substitutions at a given position occur at the neutral or nearly-neutral rate when they are synonymous, or when they correspond to replacements between amino acids of similar fitness; substitutions from high to low (low to high) fitness amino acids have comparatively low (high) rates...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Nazende Günday Türeli, Akif Emre Türeli, Marc Schneider
Design of Experiments (DoE) is a powerful tool for systematic evaluation of process parameters' effect on nanoparticle (NP) quality with minimum number of experiments. DoE was employed for optimization of ciprofloxacin loaded PLGA NPs for pulmonary delivery against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Since the biofilm produced by bacteria was shown to be a complicated 3D barrier with heterogeneous meshes ranging from 100nm to 500 nm, nanoformulations small enough to travel through those channels were assigned as target quality...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Lilah Rinsky-Halivni, Miriam Klebanov, Yehuda Lerman, Ora Paltiel
OBJECTIVES: Referral to voice therapy and recommendations for voice rest and microphone use are common interventions in occupational medicine aimed at preserving the working capability of teachers with occupation-related voice problems. Research on the impact of such interventions in terms of employment is lacking. This study examined changes in fitness (ie, ability) to work of dysphonic teachers referred to an occupational clinic and evaluated employment outcomes following voice therapy, voice rest, and microphone use...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Simona Marzi, Francesca Piludu, Chiara Forina, Giuseppe Sanguineti, Renato Covello, Giuseppe Spriano, Antonello Vidiri
OBJECTIVE: To correlate intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Forty untreated patients with HNSCC were included retrospectively in the study. Perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D and perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D* were extracted by bi-exponential fitting of IVIM data. Semi-quantitative DCE-MRI parameters, including positive enhancement integral (PEI) and maximum slope of increase (MSI), were calculated...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
A Illés, B Nemes, L Zsom, S Kovács, A Bugán
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was the exploration of chronic renal insufficiency patients' attitudes toward treatment, various motifs underlying their acceptance or refusal of kidney therapy, and understanding of their psychologic content. Examinations were carried out of chronic renal insufficiency patients' attitudes toward renal treatments, and a questionnaire suitable for its assessment was developed. METHODS: Suppositions of patients before and after renal transplantation were explored by means of semistructured interviews...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Vicente Compañ, Marcel Aguilella-Arzo, Timothy B Edrington, Barry A Weissman
PURPOSE: The main goal of this current work is to use an updated calculation paradigm, and updated boundary conditions, to provide theoretical guidelines to assist the clinician whose goal is to improve his or her scleral gas permeable (GP) contact lens wearing patients' anterior corneal oxygen supply. METHODS: Our model uses a variable value of corneal oxygen consumption developed through Monod equations that disallows negative oxygen tensions within the stroma to predict oxygen tension at the anterior corneal surface of scleral GP contact lens wearing eyes, and to describe oxygen tension and flux profiles, for various boundary conditions, through the lens, tears, and cornea...
October 12, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Steffen Foerster, Mathias Franz, Carson M Murray, Ian C Gilby, Joseph T Feldblum, Kara K Walker, Anne E Pusey
Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Akimasa Fujihara, Naoto Maeda, Thuc N Doan, Shigeo Hayakawa
Chiral transmission between monosaccharides and amino acids via photodissociation in the gas phase was examined using a tandem mass spectrometer fitted with an electrospray ionization source and a cold ion trap in order to investigate the origin of the homochirality of biomolecules in molecular clouds. Ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectra of cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes of the monosaccharide enantiomers glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) with protonated L-tryptophan H(+)(L-Trp) were obtained by photoexcitation of the indole ring of L-Trp...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Sean Mendez, Louis Watanabe, Rachel Hill, Meredith Owens, Jason Moraczewski, Glenn C Rowe, Nicole C Riddle, Laura K Reed
Obesity is one of the dramatic health issues affecting developed and developing nations, and exercise is a well-established intervention strategy. While exercise-by-genotype interactions have been shown in humans, overall little is known. Using the natural negative geotaxis of Drosophila melanogaster, an important model organism for the study of genetic interactions, a novel exercise machine, the TreadWheel, can be used to shed light on this interaction. The mechanism for inducing exercise with the TreadWheel is inherently gentle, thus minimizing possible confounding effects of other stressors...
2016: PloS One
Sofya Kulikova, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cyril Poupon, Jessica Dubois
The volume fraction of water related to myelin (fmy) is a promising MRI index for in vivo assessment of brain myelination, that can be derived from multi-component analysis of T1 and T2 relaxometry signals. However, existing quantification methods require rather long acquisition and/or post-processing times, making implementation difficult both in research studies on healthy unsedated children and in clinical examinations. The goal of this work was to propose a novel strategy for fmy quantification within acceptable acquisition and post-processing times...
2016: PloS One
Simone Belluco, Federica Gallocchio, Carmen Losasso, Antonia Ricci
Background Nanotechnology is a promising area in industry with a broad range of applications including in the agri-food sector. Several studies have investigated the potential benefits deriving from use of nanomaterials in the context of the whole food chain drawing scenarios of benefits but also potential for concerns. Among the agri-food sector, animal production has potential for nanomaterial application but also for safety concerns due to the possibility of nanomaterial accumulation along the farm-to-fork path...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Cristina Mollica, Luca Tardella
The elicitation of an ordinal judgment on multiple alternatives is often required in many psychological and behavioral experiments to investigate preference/choice orientation of a specific population. The Plackett-Luce model is one of the most popular and frequently applied parametric distributions to analyze rankings of a finite set of items. The present work introduces a Bayesian finite mixture of Plackett-Luce models to account for unobserved sample heterogeneity of partially ranked data. We describe an efficient way to incorporate the latent group structure in the data augmentation approach and the derivation of existing maximum likelihood procedures as special instances of the proposed Bayesian method...
October 12, 2016: Psychometrika
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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