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Simon R Harris, Michelle J Cole, Gianfranco Spiteri, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Daniel Golparian, Susanne Jacobsson, Richard Goater, Khalil Abudahab, Corin A Yeats, Beatrice Bercot, Maria José Borrego, Brendan Crowley, Paola Stefanelli, Francesco Tripodo, Raquel Abad, David M Aanensen, Magnus Unemo
BACKGROUND: Traditional methods for molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are suboptimal. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers ideal resolution to describe population dynamics and to predict and infer transmission of antimicrobial resistance, and can enhance infection control through linkage with epidemiological data. We used WGS, in conjunction with linked epidemiological and phenotypic data, to describe the gonococcal population in 20 European countries. We aimed to detail changes in phenotypic antimicrobial resistance levels (and the reasons for these changes) and strain distribution (with a focus on antimicrobial resistance strains in risk groups), and to predict antimicrobial resistance from WGS data...
May 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Peter A Rice, Xiao-Hong Su
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Epshita A Islam, Varun C Anipindi, Ian Francis, Yazdan Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Stacey Xu, Nelly Leung, Anna Sintsova, Mohsen Amin, Charu Kaushic, Lee M Wetzler, Scott D Gray-Owen
The gonococcal Opa proteins are an antigenically variable family of surface adhesins that bind human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5 and/or CEACAM6, cell surface glycoproteins that are differentially expressed on a broad spectrum of human cells and tissues. While presumed to be important for infection, the significance of various Opa-CEACAM mediated cellular interactions in the context of the genital tract has remained unclear. Here, we observe that CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 are differentially expressed on epithelia lining the upper and lower portions of the human female genital tract, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Weiyan Zhu, Joshua Tomberg, Kayla J Knilans, James E Anderson, Karen P McKinnon, Gregory D Sempowski, Robert A Nicholas, Joseph A Duncan
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an exclusive human pathogen that evades the host immune system through multiple mechanisms. We have shown that N. gonorrhoeae  suppresses the capacity of antigen-presenting cells to induce CD4+ T cell proliferation. In this study, we sought to determine the gonococcal factors involved in this adaptive immune suppression. We show that suppression of the capacity of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells to induce T cell proliferation is recapitulated by administration of a high molecular weight fraction of conditioned medium from N...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Louise M Causer, Rebecca J Guy, Sepehr N Tabrizi, David M Whiley, David John Speers, James Ward, Annie Tangey, Steven G Badman, Belinda Hengel, Lisa Jane Natoli, David A Anderson, Handan Wand, David Wilson, David G Regan, Mark Shephard, Basil Donovan, Christopher K Fairley, John M Kaldor
OBJECTIVES: A new molecular test for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (GeneXpert CT/NG) has been demonstrated to be as accurate as conventional nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), but performance has not been evaluated in routine primary care, performed at the point of care by clinicians. We aimed to examine its diagnostic performance when used by clinicians in remote community health services in Australia with high prevalences of CT and NG infection. The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (#12613000808741) METHODS: At 12 health services, training was provided to 99 clinicians in the use of the GeneXpert CT/NG assay who tested specimens from all patients undergoing STI screening...
May 10, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Souleymane Diabaté, Annie Chamberland, Nassirou Geraldo, Cécile Tremblay, Michel Alary
Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to carry a heavy burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). For prevention purposes, there is a need to identify most-at-risk subgroups among them. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study conducted at Dispensaire IST, Cotonou, Benin, was to assess Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) / Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence and determinants; and HIV incidence among FSWs in presence of STI/HIV risk reduction activities. Overall, 319 adult FSWs were followed quarterly from September 2008 to March 2012...
2018: PloS One
Vincent J Cornelisse, Christopher K Fairley, Mark Stoove, Jason Asselin, Eric P F Chow, Brian Price, Norman J Roth, Jeff Willcox, B K Tee, Matthew Penn, Christina C Chang, Judith Armishaw, George Forgan-Smith, Edwina J Wright
Background: The PrEPX trial provided HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to 2600 people in Victoria, Australia. To determine participants' HIV risk, PrEPX used six eligibility criteria derived from the Australian PrEP guidelines, based on the CDC PrEP guidelines. Participants who fulfilled no eligibility criteria could be enrolled if clinically assessed to need PrEP. This study evaluated whether PREPX eligibility criteria correlated with biological HIV risk markers, namely syphilis, anorectal chlamydia or anorectal gonorrhoea (STIs)...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yuji Sun, Jianglin Zhang, Yuanbin Zhang, Jiyong Liu, Stijn van der Veen, Simon Duttwyler
The synthesis and application of icosahedral boron cluster compounds has been studied extensively since their discovery several decades ago; however, two aspects of their chemistry have received little attention: The possibility to form inorganic/organic fused boraheterocycles and their potential to act as antimicrobial agents. This work comprises the preparation of a class of three-dimensional diborabenzoxazole analogues with the closo-dodecaborate in place of the benzene moiety. The presented synthetic procedures provide access to a wide range of diboraheterocycles under mild conditions...
May 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Colin P Churchward, Raid G Alany, Lori A S Snyder
With the rising antibiotic resistance of many bacterial species, alternative treatments are necessary to combat infectious diseases. The World Health Organization and the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have warned that some infections, such as those from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may be untreatable within a few years. One avenue of exploration is the use of antimicrobial fatty acids and their derivatives for therapeutic prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. Several studies have explored the activity of fatty acids and their derivatives, including monoglycerides against a variety of bacterial species...
May 7, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Xiaoyong Zhang, Mingzhen He, Shuangxia Lei, Bei Wu, Ting Tan, Hui Ouyang, Wen Xu, Yulin Feng
Cervicitis is an extremely common gynecological disease and can be induced by diverse factors such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Long-term unhealed cervicitis may lead to a series of diseases including endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and chorioamnionitis. However, the pathogenesis of cervicitis remains unknown. Ainsliaea fragrans Champ. (AFC) has been widely used in clinical treatment of cervicitis. In the present study, we performed an integrative investigation involving histopathology analysis and non-target plasma metabolomics analysis in a cervicitis rat model induced by phenol mucilage, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Constance M John, Dongxiao Feng, Gary A Jarvis
Objectives: Inhibitors of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC), which catalyses the second step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, have been developed as potential antibiotics for Gram-negative infections. Our objectives were to determine the effect of LpxC inhibition on the in vitro survival and inflammatory potential of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Methods: Survival of four human challenge strains was determined after treatment with two LpxC inhibitors for 2 and 4 h...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jane L Goller, Alysha M De Livera, Rebecca J Guy, Nicola Low, Basil Donovan, Matthew Law, John M Kaldor, Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking
OBJECTIVE: To analyse yearly rates of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) diagnosed in hospital settings in Australia from 2009 to 2014. METHODS: We calculated yearly PID and EP diagnosis rates in three states (Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland) for women aged 15-44 years using hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) attendance data, with population and live birth denominators. We stratified PID diagnoses as chlamydial-related or gonorrhoeal-related ( Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)-related or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)-related), acute, unspecified and chronic, and analysed variations by year, age and residential area using Poisson regression models...
May 2, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Emile Jasek, Eric Pf Chow, Jason J Ong, Catriona S Bradshaw, Marcus Y Chen, Jane S Hocking, David Lee, Tiffany Phillips, Tiffany Phillips, Meredith Temple-Smith, Glenda Fehler, Christopher K Fairley
Introduction: Our aim was to describe trends in the number of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) diagnosed at Melbourne's sexual health clinic over a century. Methods: A retrospective analysis of STI diagnoses (gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis and chancroid) among individuals attending Melbourne's sexual health service over 99 years between 1918 and 2016. Results: Substantial increases in STI rates coincided with World War II, the 'Sexual Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s', and the last 10 years...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Alyson M Hockenberry, Deborah M B Post, Katherine A Rhodes, Michael Apicella, Magdalene So
Post-translational acetylation is a common protein modification in bacteria. It was recently reported that Neisseria gonorrhoeae acetylates the Type IV pilus retraction motor, PilT. Here, we show recombinant PilT can be acetylated in vitro and acetylation does not affect PilT ultrastructure. To investigate the function of PilT acetylation, we mutated an acetylated lysine, K117, to mimic its acetylated or unacetylated forms. These mutations were not tolerated by wild-type Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but they were tolerated by Neisseria gonorrhoeae carrying an inducible pilE when grown without inducer...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Ricardo Gianecini, Claudia Oviedo, Lucia Irazu, Marcelo Rodríguez, Patricia Galarza
Gentamicin is a promising antibiotic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability and reliably of disk diffusion to monitor the susceptibility to gentamicin. We studied 237 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in 2013 and 2015. Reference MICs were correlated with inhibition zone diameters (in millimeters) of gentamicin 10 µg disks manufactured by BBL and Oxoid. The Pearson correlation between disk diffusion and agar dilution was r = -.68 (P < 0...
March 29, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Tal Brosh-Nissimov, Ron Kedem, Nimrod Ophir, Omri Shental, Nathan Keller, Sharon Amit
Background: Data regarding sexually transmissible infections (STI) often originate from STI clinics, screening programs or laboratory-based studies, thus are biased for specific risk groups or lack clinical details. This real-life observational study presents sample data of most young adult Israeli population by exploiting the centralised diagnostic and documentation platforms resulting from a mandatory military service at the age of 18 years for both genders. Methods: All STI diagnoses of Israeli Defence Forces soldiers during a 6-month period were reviewed...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
Andrea Rocker, Madeleine Peschke, Tiia Kittilä, Roman Sakson, Clara Brieke, Anton Meinhart
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin complexes are emerging as key players modulating bacterial physiology as activation of toxins induces stasis or programmed cell death by interference with vital cellular processes. Zeta toxins, which are prevalent in many bacterial genomes, were shown to interfere with cell wall formation by perturbing peptidoglycan synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we characterize the epsilon/zeta toxin-antitoxin (TA) homologue from the Gram-negative pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae termed ng_ɛ1 / ng_ζ1...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Ana Cehovin, Odile B Harrison, Steven B Lewis, Philip N Ward, Caroline Ngetsa, Susan M Graham, Eduard J Sanders, Martin C J Maiden, Christoph M Tang
Background: Africa has the highest incidence of gonorrhoea in the world. However, little is known about gonococcal populations in this continent or mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: Whole genome sequence data were analysed from 103 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 73 patients, mainly men who have sex with men from coastal Kenya. We annotated loci, defined core genome and mechanisms of AMR, and performed phylogenetic analysis. For patients with multiple episodes of gonorrhoea, we determined whether infections occurred with related strains...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Katy Town, Hikaru Bolt, Sara Croxford, Michelle Cole, Simon Harris, Nigel Field, Gwenda Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a significant global public health concern due to rising diagnoses rates and antimicrobial resistance. Molecular combined with epidemiological data have been used to understand the distribution and spread of NG, as well as relationships between cases in sexual networks, but the public health value gained from these studies is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine how molecular epidemiological studies have informed understanding of sexual networks and NG transmission, and subsequent public health interventions...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Infection
Agnès Libois, Marie Hallin, Tania Crucitti, Marc Delforge, Stéphane De Wit
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a cause of urethritis. While resistance to azithromycin is increasing, routine detection of MG is not performed in Belgium, where its prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of MG in men with urethritis. METHOD AND FINDINGS: An "in-house" amplification assay detecting MG was performed on urine of men with complaints of urethritis who consulted the emergency unit or the Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic of our public hospital in Brussels...
2018: PloS One
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