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Resistence and antibiotic and pediatric

Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Eric Nuermberger, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The regimen of linezolid and moxifloxacin was found to be efficacious in the hollow fiber system model of pediatric intracellular tuberculosis. However, its kill rate was slower than the standard 3-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. We wanted to examine the effect of adding a third oral agent, faropenem, to this dual combination. METHODS:  We performed a series of studies in the hollow fiber system model of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by mimicking pediatric pharmacokinetics of each antibiotic...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Heidrun Boztug, Nora Mühlegger, Ulrike Pötschger, Andishe Attarbaschi, Christina Peters, Georg Mann, Michael Dworzak
Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Hematology
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Xiaoming Sheng, Peter Jones, Whitney R Buckel, James F Lloyd, Stephen Howe, R Scott Evans, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
BACKGROUND:  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS:  We used Intermountain Healthcare's monthly antibiotic use reports for 19 hospitals from 2011 to 2013...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shaoli Li, Hongmei Sun, Fei Liu, Yanling Feng, Hanqing Zhao, Guanhua Xue, Chao Yan
BACKGROUND: Cases of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae have increased rapidly since 2000, especially in Asia. Patients infected with macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae usually present with severe M pneumoniae pneumonia. The aim of this study was to identify indicators for whether children at an early stage of M pneumoniae infection develop mild or severe pneumonia. CASE SUMMARY: Herein, we retrospectively reviewed 2 pediatric cases caused by macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae, but with markedly different severity of pneumonia...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Diana Yu, Leslie Stach, Jason G Newland, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Jennifer Goldman
A rapid test to detect methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus through the PBP2a antigen was introduced for pediatric patients hospitalized for purulent skin and soft tissue infections. Integration of this test with physician education and stewardship guidance improved targeted antibiotic use for infections caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (44% to 80%, p<0.001), including when final culture results were not available.
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tesfahun Lamboro, Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
C Cotteret, E Vallières, H Roy, P Ovetchkine, J Longtin, J-F Bussières
INTRODUCTION: To reduce risks of antibiotic resistance, governmental and learned societies decreed the optimal use of antibiotics. The relation between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance increase has been clearly demonstrated over the last several years. Antibiotic consumption data and bacterial sensitivity data are regularly published, but very few publications have searched for a correlation between these two variables. This study focused on antibiotic use and consumption as well as bacterial sensitivity to these antibiotics...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Romain Guilhaumou, Amélie Marsot, Julien Dupouey, Claire Galambrun, Audrey Boulamery, Carole Coze, Nicolas Simon, Nicolas André
BACKGROUND: In pediatric cancer patients, determination of optimal vancomycin dosage is essential because of high risk of inadequate concentrations and bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to determine vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters in this population and propose dosage optimization to achieve optimal concentration. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the use of vancomycin in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (hematological or solid tumor disease)...
October 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Rong Yang, Vishakha Sabharwal, Obiajulu S Okonkwo, Nadya Shlykova, Rong Tong, Lily Yun Lin, Weiping Wang, Shutao Guo, John J Rosowski, Stephen I Pelton, Daniel S Kohane
Otitis media is the most common reason U.S. children receive antibiotics. The requisite 7- to 10-day course of oral antibiotics can be challenging to deliver in children, entails potential systemic toxicity, and encourages selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. We developed a drug delivery system that, when applied once to the tympanic membrane through the external auditory canal, delivers an entire course of antimicrobial therapy to the middle ear. A pentablock copolymer poloxamer 407-polybutylphosphoester (P407-PBP) was designed to flow easily during application and then to form a mechanically strong hydrogel on the tympanic membrane...
September 14, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Maneli Amin Shahidi, Gholam Reza Pouladfar, Mohammad Ali Dehyadegari, Jalal Mardaneh
INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Vita Boyar
BACKGROUND: Wound healing is a dynamic process that normally follows a predictable cascade of events. A common cause of delayed wound healing or wound dehiscence is increased colonization with microbes, often leading to infection. Infection may impede the healing process by inducing an undesirable inflammatory response. Systemic antibiotics and topical antiseptics are mainstays of treatment, but their adverse side effects and the potential for emergence of resistant microbial strains have led to a search for alternative approaches for control of bioburden...
September 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Svjetlana Loga Zec, Kenan Selmanovic, Natasa Loga Andrijic, Azra Kadic, Lamija Zecevic, Lejla Zunic
INTRODUCTION: Bronchopneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation of pneumonia in pediatric population and leading infectious cause of mortality in children under 5 years. Evaluation of treatment involves diagnostic procedures, assessment of disease severity and treatment for disease with an emphasis on vulnerability of the population. AIM: To determine the most commonly used antibiotics at the Pediatric Clinic in Sarajevo and concomitant therapy in the treatment of bronchopneumonia...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Amin Saeidinia, Fatemeh Keihanian, Sadegh Fallah Delavar, Fereshteh Keihanian, Arash Ranjbar, Morteza Fallah Karkan
Enterococcus fecalis is responsible for majority of enterococci infections and can cause clinical disorders in adult and pediatrics. In order to adverse effects of synthetic drugs, it has made a positive attitude toward alternative and complementary medicine. Ruta graveolens has a wide therapeutic application for various diseases. Aim of this study was to see the effect of this herb on Enterococcus fecalis growth. In this investigation we used standard Enterococcus fecalis. Effect of hydro-alcoholic, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens on growth of bacteria has been evaluated by disc diffusion and serial dilution method and compared with eight prevalent antibiotics...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Johanna M Vanegas, O Lorena Parra, J Natalia Jiménez
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacilli are a cause of serious infections in the pediatric population. Carbapenem are the treatment of choice for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but the emergence of carbapenem resistance has substantially reduced access to effective antimicrobial regimens. Children are a population vulnerable to bacterial infections and the emergence of resistance can worsen prognosis. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in pediatric patients from five tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
J Sharifi-Rad, F Fallah, W N Setzer, R Entezari Heravi, M Sharifi-Rad
Antimicrobial herbal compounds are one of the important medical resources, and in order to help alleviate the spread of the pediatric infectious diseases, identification of additional bioactive phytochemicals and herbal extracts will be practical in treating illnesses. In the present work, antimicrobial activities various extracts of Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn aerial parts were determined against five Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, two fungi, and Echinococcus granulosus. Antimicrobial activities were assayed using both disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Mary C Machado, Thomas J Webster
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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