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Resistence and antibiotic and pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#1
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#2
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319843/prediction-of-vancomycin-dose-for-recommended-trough-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Raid W Amin, Rodney P Guttmann, Quianna R Harris, Janesha W Thomas
Vancomycin is a key antibiotic used in the treatment of multiple conditions including infections associated with cystic fibrosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study sought to develop a model based on empirical evidence of optimal vancomycin dose as judged by clinical observations that could accelerate the achievement of desired trough level in children with cystic fibrosis. Transformations of dose and trough were used to arrive at regression models with excellent fit for dose based on weight or age for a target trough...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319523/temperature-ph-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-are-potent-inhibitors-of-biofilm-formation-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-clinical-isolates
#4
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298246/improving-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-and-urgent-care-settings
#5
Nicole M Poole, Matthew P Kronman, Lori Rutman, Scott J Weissman, Russell T Migita, Derya Caglar, Danielle M Zerr
OBJECTIVES: Children with urinary tract infection (UTI) are often diagnosed in emergency and urgent care settings and increasingly are unnecessarily treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This study evaluated the effect of a quality improvement intervention on empiric antibiotic prescribing for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI in children. METHODS: A local clinical pathway for uncomplicated UTI, introduced in June 2010, recommended empiric treatment with cephalexin, a narrow-spectrum (first-generation) cephalosporin antibiotic...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290748/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-prolonged-infusion-aztreonam-for-multi-drug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-case-report
#6
Jeffrey J Cies, Richard J LaCoursiere, Wayne S Moore, Arun Chopra
Aztreonam, a broad-spectrum monobactam, is typically reserved for multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or nonintensive care unit (ICU) patients. Impaired antibiotic delivery into tissue remains a major concern and may explain the high morbidity and mortality associated with MDR infections. Therefore, evaluating the PK changes in pediatric ICU patients is necessary to elucidate the most appropriate antimicrobial regimen...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290744/antimicrobial-stewardship-program-using-plan-do-study-act-cycles-to-reduce-unjustified-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children-admitted-with-an-asthma-exacerbation
#7
Sasha E Dorzin, Claudia Halaby, Maria Lyn Quintos, Asif Noor, Gladys El-Chaar
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) ensure appropriate antibiotic use, reduce health care costs, and minimize antibiotic resistance. National asthma guidelines do not recommend antibiotics during an exacerbation unless the child has an infection or comorbidities. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) established a benchmark for unjustified antibiotic use at 6.6%.9 A retrospective study at our institution showed that 7.8% of antibiotics were prescribed without justification in children admitted for asthma...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290234/bacterial-meningitis-antibiotic-treatment
#8
R Cohen, J Raymond, L Hees, D Pinquier, E Grimprel, C Levy
The implementation of pneumococal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) 7 then 13 valent (Prevenar13®) in 2010-2011 has significantly changed the profile of pneumococcal meningitis. Since 3 years, the National Pediatric Meningitis Network of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the National Reference Centre of Pneumococci have reported no cases of meningitis due to pneumococcus resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC): cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. In the light of these new data, vancomycin should no longer be prescribed at the initial phase of pneumococcal meningitis treatment (confirmed or only suspected) and this antibiotic should only be added when 3GC minimum inhibitory concentration of the strain isolated is greater than 0...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290232/antibiotic-treatment-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Y Gillet, M Lorrot, R Cohena, I Hau, E Grimprel, C Gras-Le Guen
Bacterial skin and soft tissues infections are common in children and frequently do not require systemic antibiotics, especially if lesions are superficial. Careful washing is always indicated in superficial lesions and is often sufficient. Careful evaluation of symptoms (which may be difficult despite the accessibility of the lesions) should be performed before prescription. Therefore, the need for drainage (spontaneous or surgical) should be assessed considering that antibiotics are mostly useless if purulent lesions are drained...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290230/antimicrobial-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-children
#10
R Cohen, J Raymond, E Launay, Y Gillet, P Minodier, F Dubos, E Grimprel
Urinary tract infections are the most frequent documented bacterial infections in children. The antibiotic choices proposed in this manuscript are based on the guidelines published by the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group (GPIP) and the French-Language Infectious Disease Society (SPILF). Dipstick positive for leukocytes and/or nitrites must precede in most circumstances (excluding the newborns, neutropenic patients and those with sepsis), urine culture and antibiotic prescription. The proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli strains has increased steadily in recent years, and the situations in which oral antibiotic switch is frequently not available are increasing...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290228/principles-of-curative-antibiotic-treatment
#11
R Cohen, E Grimprel, I Hau, F Madhi, J Gaudelus, J Raymond
Infectious diseases are constantly evolving for many reasons. New infectious agents are regularly discovered, mainly because of the development of identification methods, including the molecular tools and mass spectrometry. Changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases are not always understood, but several factors undoubtedly play an important role, notably the impact of vaccination implementations, the ecological consequences of antibiotic treatments and their excessive use, and the secular epidemiological trends of pathogenic agents...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285951/seifem-2017-from-real-life-to-an-agreement-on-the-use-of-granulocyte-transfusions-and-colony-stimulating-factors-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-infectious-complications-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignant-disorders
#12
Alessandro Busca, Simone Cesaro, Luciana Teofili, Mario Delia, Chiara Cattaneo, Marianna Criscuolo, Francesco Marchesi, Nicola Stefano Fracchiolla, Caterina Giovanna Valentini, Francesca Farina, Roberta Di Blasi, Lucia Prezioso, Angelica Spolzino, Anna Candoni, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Luisa Verga, Annamaria Nosari, Franco Aversa, Livio Pagano
The rapid spread of severe infections mainly due to resistant pathogens, justifies the search for therapies aiming to restore immune functions severely compromised in patients with hematologic malignancies. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of granulocyte transfusions and colony-stimulating factors as treatment strategy for hematologic patients with serious infectious complications. In addition, a survey among 21 hematologic centers, to evaluate the clinical practice for the use of G-CSF originator and biosimilars was performed...
January 3, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242803/as-a-definitive-choice-of-treatment-joint-and-defect-spanning-multiplanar-tubular-external-fixation-in-the-management-of-pediatric-open-defective-supracondylar-humerus-fracture-a-case-report
#13
Mehmet Demirel, Onur Tunali, Ismail Turkmen, Yavuz Saglam
Introduction: Although supracondylar fractures of the humerus are common in children, open fractures of are extremely rare injuries. Gustilo- Anderson Type-III fractures in the upper extremity are primarily associated with considerable bone loss resulting from high energy trauma. In this study, a case of open pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture treated by a joint and defect spanning multiplanar tubular external fixation is presented. Case Report: A boy aged 3 years suffered from a Gustilo-Anderson Type-IIIA supracondylar humerus fractures...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235736/primary-and-secondary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-israeli-children-and-adolescents
#14
Michal Kori, Jacob Yahav, Rita Berdinstein, Haim Shmuely
BACKGROUND: Empiric treatment for Helicobacter pylori is influenced by antibiotic susceptibility of infecting strains. A rise in the resistance rate to clarithromycin and metronidazole has been reported in pediatric populations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the primary and secondary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori isolates in Israeli children and adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective review of H. pylori isolates cultured from antral biopsies of consecutive children aged 1 to 18 years, who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, over a 2...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229640/adverse-effects-of-intravenous-vancomycin-based-prophylaxis-during-therapy-for-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Yilun Sun, Rachael L Huskey, Li Tang, Hiroto Inaba, Aditya H Gaur, Raul Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Joshua Wolf
Background Children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at risk of life-threatening bacterial infection, especially with viridans group streptococci. Primary antibacterial prophylaxis with vancomycin-based regimens reduces this risk, but might increase risk of renal or liver toxicity, or Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).Methods A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for newly diagnosed AML at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital from 2002 to 2008. Nephrotoxicity was classified according to pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria, and hepatotoxicity according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211821/elizabethkingia-in-children-a-comprehensive-review-of-symptomatic-cases-reported-from-1944-2017
#16
Eric J Dziuban, Jessica Franks, Marvin So, Georgina Peacock, David D Blaney
Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance and result in high morbidity and mortality, yet no systematic reviews exist that thoroughly characterize and quantify concerns for infected infants and children. We performed a review of literature and identified an initial 902 articles; 96 articles reporting 283 pediatric cases met our inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Case reports spanned 28 countries and ranged from 1944 to 2017. Neonatal meningitis remains the most common presentation of this organism in children, along with a range of other clinical manifestations...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185854/molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-from-argentina
#17
Paula Pena Amaya, Maria S Haim, Silvina Fernández, Sabrina Di Gregorio, Alejandro Teper, Miryam Vázquez, Silvina Lubovich, Laura Galanternik, Marta Mollerach
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is an increasing problem in many countries. In our Respiratory Center at the Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez", Buenos Aires, Argentina, the prevalence has climbed from 23% in 1995 up to 32% in 2011. Our objective was to analyze the diversity of MRSA isolates recovered from respiratory samples of CF patients attending our center, characterizing their phenotypes and clonal distribution. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted on all CF patients attending the pediatric Respiratory Center between June 2012 and May 2013 to collect MRSA isolates...
November 29, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181890/acute-kidney-injury-induced-by-concomitant-use-of-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-pediatrics
#18
Manal Abouelkheir, Sarah Alsubaie
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is very commonly used in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) as an initial empiric therapy for moderate to severe infections, whenever coverage for both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required. The combination of vancomycin and PTZ in adults has recently been reported to significantly increase the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) relative to vancomycin monotherapy; such reports in pediatrics are sparse...
November 27, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174734/rpob-gene-sequencing-highlights-the-prevalence-of-an-e-miricola-cluster-over-other-elizabethkingia-species-among-uk-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#19
Dervla T D Kenna, Alice Fuller, Kate Martin, Claire Perry, Rachel Pike, Phillipa J Burns, Omendra Narayan, Stuart Wilkinson, Robert Hill, Neil Woodford, Julie M J Logan, Jane F Turton
Difficulties in distinguishing species of the Elizabethkingia genus by MALDI-TOF prompted use of rpoB sequencing to investigate species distribution among 44 isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Forty-three isolates from 38 patients formed a cluster comprising E. miricola and proposed novel species E. bruuniana sp. nov., the exception clustering with proposed species E. ursingii sp. nov., also part of this wider cluster. All 44 isolates were PCR-positive for urease gene ureG, whereas only one of 23 E...
October 26, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149875/prevalence-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-pediatric-outpatients-in-italy-the-role-of-local-health-districts-and-primary-care-physicians-in-determining-variation-a-multilevel-design-for-healthcare-decision-support
#20
Mirko Di Martino, Adele Lallo, Ursula Kirchmayer, Marina Davoli, Danilo Fusco
BACKGROUND: According to scientific literature, antibacterials are prescribed for common pediatric conditions that do not benefit from antibiotic therapy. The link between antibiotic use and bacterial resistance is well known. Antibiotic overprescribing generates high social costs and severe consequences for children. Our objectives were to analyze antibiotic prescription patterns in pediatric outpatients residing in the Lazio region (Italy), to identify physicians' characteristics associated with increased propensity for prescription, to identify the priority axes for action to improve the rational use of antibiotics...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
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