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Resistence and antibiotic and pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210352/risk-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-among-children-found-to-be-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-usa300-carriers
#1
Lilly Cheng Immergluck, Shabnam Jain, Susan M Ray, Robert Mayberry, Sarah Satola, Trisha Chan Parker, Keming Yuan, Anaam Mohammed, Robert C Jerris
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. METHODS: We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI)...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209468/characteristics-of-nontyphoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-taiwanese-children-a-9-year-period-retrospective-medical-record-review
#2
Yeh-Ting Hung, Chorng-Jang Lay, Chun-Lung Wang, Malcolm Koo
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is among the most common causes of acute pediatric gastroenteritis in Taiwan. It is important to study antibiotic resistance patterns in nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of serogroups and susceptibility to antimicrobial nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from Taiwanese children with gastroenteritis. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis at a regional hospital located in southern Taiwan from August 2000 to August 2009 was conducted...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197223/a-multifaceted-approach-to-decrease-inappropriate-antibiotic-use-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-clinic
#3
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Amel H Alawami
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents is the major cause for the development of resistance. Thus, it is important to include outpatient clinics in the development of antibiotic stewardship program. METHODS: We report a multifaceted approach to decrease inappropriate antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in an outpatient pediatric clinic. The interventions included educational grand round, academic detailing, and prospective audit and feedback and peer comparison...
January 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185802/infection-in-burn-patients-in-a-referral-center-in-colombia
#4
Carlos Enrique Ramirez-Blanco, Carlos Enrique Ramirez-Rivero, Luis Alfonso Diaz-Martinez, Luis Miguel Sosa-Avila
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, burns are responsible for more than 300,000 deaths annually; infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Early identification and treatment of infection improves outcome. Toward this end it's necessary to identify the institutions flora and organisms that most frequently produces infection. OBJECTIVES: To characterize infections developed by burn patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Santander (HUS)...
February 6, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151005/allograft-heart-valves-current-aspects-and-future-applications
#5
Milan Lisy, Guenay Kalender, Katja Schenke-Layland, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Anna Biermann, Ulrich Alfred Stock
Human heart valve allografts continue to represent almost perfect substitutes for heart valves. They have optimal hemodynamic characteristics and are highly resistant to infections. The first clinical use of allograft heart valves was as homovitals being transplanted after antibiotic incubation without any preservation. Since 1968, relatively standardized frozen cryopreservation (SFC) has been employed, including storage in vapor-phase liquid nitrogen. Disadvantages, particularly in pediatric patients, are limited availability due to organ scarcity, inability to grow, degeneration, immune response, and long-term failure...
February 2, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149146/antifungal-susceptibility-and-risk-factors-in-patients-with-candidemia
#6
Cigdem Mermutluoglu, Ozcan Deveci, Saim Dayan, Emel Aslan, Fatma Bozkurt, Recep Tekin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antifungal susceptibility, typology, and risk factors of candidemia among adult and pediatric inpatients at a university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was designed, and data collected between December 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. The case group consisted of patients with candidemia. The control group was selected from the inpatients that did not develop candidemia but were admitted in the same clinic and during the same period as the candidemia group...
October 2016: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146185/-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-paraguayan-children-clinical-phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization
#7
Rosa Guillén, Letizia Carpinelli, Fátima Rodríguez, Héctor Castro, Beatriz Quíñónez, Ana Campuzano, María Macchi, Juana Ortellado, Patricia Almada, Lorena Grau, Mónica Rodríguez, Gladys Velázquez, Carmen Espínola, Gloría Samudio, Gloria Gómez, Wilma Basualdo
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the community has increased, being the pediatric population the most affected. This fact highlights the need for epidemiological surveillance. AIM: To characterize clinical, phenotypic and genotypic isolates of S. aureus children's samples with community-acquired infections, collected in hospitals of Asuncion and the Central Department, between November 2009 and December 2010. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive and transverse analysis with analytical component...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131557/-profile-of-bacterial-resistance-in-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections-in-2014
#8
A Flammang, R Morello, M Vergnaud, J Brouard, P Eckart
In pediatric units, bacteria-producing extended-spectrum-betalactamase (ESBL) have an increasing prevalence among bacteria causing febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bacteria resistance patterns observed in UTIs, in order to assess the current antibiotic treatment protocols. This study is based upon a single-center retrospective chart review of the cytobacteriological urine cultures performed in UTIs between 1 January and 31 December 2014, in the medical pediatric unit of the Caen University Hospital...
January 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127166/antimicrobial-activity-of-endodontic-medicaments-and-vehicles-using-agar-well-diffusion-method-on-facultative-and-obligate-anaerobes
#9
Triveni M Nalawade, Kishore G Bhat, Suma Sogi
AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the relative antimicrobial effectiveness of these endodontic medicaments and various vehicles using an agar well diffusion assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Double Antibiotic Paste(DAP), modified DAP, 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate and their combination with four vehicles namely Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG), Propylene glycol (PG), combinations of PG with PEG and lastly Glycerine were tested using agar well diffusion assay. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms ie Streptococcus mutans ATCC( American Type Culture Collection) 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550 and Eschericia coli ATCC 25922...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107301/implementation-of-a-pediatric-orthopaedic-bundle-to-reduce-surgical-site-infections
#10
Jan Schriefer, James Sanders, Julie Michels, Kori Wolcott, Connor Ruddy, Jenna Hanson
Surgical site infections (SSIs) cost an estimated $27,288 per case. An analysis of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data at the University of Rochester Medical Center suggested that rates of SSIs could be lowered in comparison with both peers and baseline. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of SSIs to zero through the implementation of a "bundle" or a combination of practices. Meetings were held with the multidisciplinary care team that includes surgeons and staff from pediatric pharmacy, pediatric infectious diseases, anesthesia, and nursing to create a care bundle for all pediatric orthopaedic surgery patients...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multi-center-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#11
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplant related mortality (TRM) in children following alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age 9.4 years) with at least one BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods (GNR) were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096977/high-rates-of-multidrug-resistance-among-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-analyses-of-esbl-producers-from-nepal
#12
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Pooja Maharjan, Hridaya Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Deliya Paudel, Sujan Sayami, Puspa Raj Khanal
BACKGROUND: Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI) among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095119/fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-strains-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-patients-hospitalized-in-the-pediatric-oncology-unit-of-beni-messous-hospital-in-algiers-algeria
#13
Chafiaa Medboua-Benbalagh, Abdelaziz Touati, Rachida Kermas, Alima Gharout-Sait, Lucien Brasme, Halima Mezhoud, Djamila Touati, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) fecal carriage in children with different cancers admitted in the pediatric oncology unit of Beni-Messous Hospital (Algiers, Algeria). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectal swabs from children with cancer were sampled from February 2012 to May 2013 within 48 hours following their admission. After species identification and detection of ESBL production by double-disk synergy test (DD test), antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the standard disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089138/bloodstream-infections-in-children-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-versus-carbapenem-susceptible-gram-negative-microorganisms-risk-factors-and-outcome
#14
Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Banu Sancak, Sevilay Karahan, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
Carbapenems are often considered the last resort agents reserved for treatment of infections due to highly antimicrobial resistant organisms such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. However, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative (CRGN) pathogens have become much more prevalent in the last decade. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for and outcome of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative microorganisms in a pediatric tertiary-care hospital. Among 97 patients with hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia, 66 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (CSGN) were compared with the remaining 31 with CRGN isolates...
January 3, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#15
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050392/paediatric-prescription-analysis-in-a-primary-health-care-institution
#16
Jinish Jose, Denny Devassykutty
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric prescription analysis was done by vari-ous studies in tertiary care centers but not much published data, at primary care level. The Medical Council of India introduced new prescription format and also antibiotic stewardship program was launched by Government of Kerala in the year 2015. So in these contexts this study was conducted. AIM: To analyse the patterns of prescriptions and drug dis-pensing in pediatric patients using WHO core drug use indicators and parameters in the prescription format prescribed by Medical Council of India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#17
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999477/detection-ribotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-the-cases-of-diarrhea
#18
Samaneh Kouzegaran, Mahmood Ganjifard, Amir Saber Tanha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics hospitalized due to the diseases other than diarrhea...
October 2016: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994915/intravenous-colistin-use-for-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#19
Ayşe Karaaslan, Eren Çağan, Eda Kepenekli Kadayifci, Serkan Atıcı, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Sevliya Öcal Demir, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: The emergence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) has led to the resurrection of colistin use. The data on colistin use and drug-related adverse effects in children are scarce. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of colistin use in critically ill pediatric patients. STUDY DESIGN: This study has a retrospective study design. METHODS: Sixty-one critically ill children were identified through the department's patient files archive during the period from January 2011 to November 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974258/parental-preference-assessment-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-management-in-children
#20
Geraldine N Tran, Anand V Bodapati, Jonathan C Routh, Christopher S Saigal, Hillary L Copp
PURPOSE: Parents of children with vesicoureteral reflux are presented with a variety of management options, which in many cases offer a similar risk-benefit ratio. To facilitate shared decision making, parental preferences regarding vesicoureteral reflux treatment options need to be acknowledged. We aimed to characterize the clinical experience of parents and elicit core themes affecting decision making in regard to managing vesicoureteral reflux in their child. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A semistructured, qualitative interview script was developed and vetted by 25 pediatric urologists to discuss treatment options for vesicoureteral reflux...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Urology
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