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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441372/assessing-response-of-high-grade-gliomas-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#1
Solmaz Sahebjam, Dexter G Stallworth, Sepideh Mokhtari, Nam D Tran, John A Arrington
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapeutic agents, especially checkpoint inhibitors, have emerged as the mainstay of therapy for several solid and hematological malignancies. These therapies are under investigation for the treatment of high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. METHODS: This article reviews the unique challenges encountered when evaluating changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of glioblastomas seen in response to immunotherapy and checkpoint inhibitors and how to effectively incorporate MRI findings into the response assessment of high-grade gliomas to these emerging therapies...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441369/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-oncology
#2
Daniel Jeong, Aarti Patel, Christopher J Francois, Kenneth L Gage, Michael G Fradley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an important diagnostic modality in the management of cardiovascular-related dysfunction in oncological diseases. Advances in imaging techniques have enhanced the detection and evaluation of cardiac masses; meanwhile, innovative applications have created a growing role for cardiac MRI for the management of cardiotoxicity caused by cancer therapies. METHODS: An overview is provided of the clinical indications and technical considerations of cardiac MRI...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441368/skeletal-scintigraphy
#3
Jaime L Montilla-Soler, Rikesh Makanji
BACKGROUND: Skeletal scintigraphy remains a valuable tool in the initial and subsequent evaluation of the skeletal system in patients with a diagnosis of primary or metastatic neoplasms. METHODS: We discuss radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine imaging techniques, and current as well as future oncological applications in the adult population. Pertinent literature was reviewed to describe the advantages and limitations of available technologies for the evaluation of skeletal metastatic disease...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439843/effective-dose-estimation-for-oncological-and-neurological-pet-ct-procedures
#4
Josep M Martí-Climent, Elena Prieto, Verónica Morán, Lidia Sancho, Macarena Rodríguez-Fraile, Javier Arbizu, María J García-Velloso, José A Richter
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the patient effective dose (ED) for different PET/CT procedures performed with a variety of PET radiopharmaceutical compounds. PET/CT studies of 210 patients were reviewed including Torso (n = 123), Whole body (WB) (n = 36), Head and Neck Tumor (HNT) (n = 10), and Brain (n = 41) protocols with (18)FDG (n = 170), (11)C-CHOL (n = 10), (18)FDOPA (n = 10), (11)C-MET (n = 10), and (18)F-florbetapir (n = 10)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439616/-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-hifu-importance-in-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#5
R Ganzer
BACKGROUND: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used since the beginning of the 1990s as an alternative treatment for prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: Overview of the current status and critical review of the different indications for HIFU in the treatment of prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of the current literature on the indications, side effects, oncologic results and current guideline recommendations. RESULTS: The principle of HIFU is based on high energy sound waves, which lead to coagulation necrosis at the focal point...
April 24, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438082/radioimmunoconjugates-for-treating-cancer-recent-advances-and-current-opportunities
#6
Mickaël Bourgeois, Clément Bailly, Mathieu Frindel, François Guerard, Michel Chérel, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Bodet-Milin
Radioimmunoconjugates have been used for 30 years to diagnose and treat cancer. For many years, the use of these therapeutic tools has been limited to haematological disorders, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, given that they have only had a moderate effect on solid tumours. Areas covered: Recently, several strategies have revived the potential therapeutic application for radioimmunoconjugates. In this review, the authors review the advances in immunological engineering to develop new tools like monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437395/global-survey-of-the-immunomodulatory-potential-of-common-drugs
#7
Gregory I Vladimer, Berend Snijder, Nikolaus Krall, Johannes W Bigenzahn, Kilian V M Huber, Charles-Hugues Lardeau, Kumar Sanjiv, Anna Ringler, Ulrika Warpman Berglund, Monika Sabler, Oscar Lopez de la Fuente, Paul Knöbl, Stefan Kubicek, Thomas Helleday, Ulrich Jäger, Giulio Superti-Furga
Small-molecule drugs may complement antibody-based therapies in an immune-oncology setting, yet systematic methods for the identification and characterization of the immunomodulatory properties of these entities are lacking. We surveyed the immumomodulatory potential of 1,402 small chemical molecules, as defined by their ability to alter the cell-cell interactions among peripheral mononuclear leukocytes ex vivo, using automated microscopy and population-wide single-cell image analysis. Unexpectedly, ∼10% of the agents tested affected these cell-cell interactions differentially...
April 24, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434844/quality-and-value-of-subspecialty-reinterpretation-of-thoracic-ct-scans-of-patients-referred-to-a-tertiary-cancer%C3%A2-center
#8
Brett W Carter, Jeremy J Erasmus, Mylene T Truong, Jo-Anne O Shepard, Wayne Hofstetter, Ryan Clarke, Reginald F Munden, Joseph R Steele
INTRODUCTION: Patients referred to tertiary cancer centers often present with imaging studies performed and interpreted at other health care institutions. Although reinterpretation of imaging performed at another health care institution can reduce repeat imaging, unnecessary radiation dose, and cost, the benefit is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of initial imaging studies of patients seeking a second opinion at a tertiary cancer center, to compare the accuracy of initial interpretations to reinterpretations performed by subspecialty trained radiologists at a tertiary oncologic center, and to determine the potential impact on patient management...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434797/patterns-of-care-survey-radiotherapy-for-women-with-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#9
Peter de Boer, Ina M Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Henrike Westerveld, Astrid A C de Leeuw, Raquel Dávila-Fajardo, Coen R N Rasch, Bradley R Pieters, Lukas J A Stalpers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regarding latest developments, the need of a radiotherapy 'Patterns of Care' survey was expressed by the Dutch National Platform Radiotherapy for Gynaecological Cancer (LPRGT). Therefore, this study investigated current practice for cervical cancer in all 16 radiation oncology centres in the Netherlands specialised in gynaecological oncology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A structured 'patterns of care' questionnaire was completed and followed by an in-depth interview with radiation oncologists from all radiotherapy centres specialised in gynaecological oncology...
April 20, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433640/partial-gland-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-utilizing-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-in-the-primary-and-salvage-setting-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ron Golan, Adrien N Bernstein, Timothy D McClure, Art Sedrakyan, Neal A Patel, Dipen J Parekh, Leonard S Marks, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE: Advances in prostate imaging, biopsy and ablative technologies have been accompanied by growing enthusiasm for partial gland ablation, particularly using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for treating prostate cancer. The preservation of non-cancerous prostate tissue and minimizing damage to the neurovascular bundles and external urethral sphincter may improve functional outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed following the PRISMA guidelines using a combination of MeSH terms, free-text search, and review of relevant bibliographies using Medline and Embase from the inception of each database through October 10, 2016...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428090/preparation-and-characterization-of-lipid-nanoparticle-pdna-complexes-for-stat3-downregulation-and-overcoming-chemotherapy-resistance-in-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Mustafa Kotmakçı, Vildan Bozok Çetintaş, A Gülten Kantarcı
Developments in the field of molecular oncology have revealed that resistance to chemotherapeutics is acqured through several mechanisms including overexpression of common oncogenic proteins. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is one of these oncogenes that is overexpressed in many cancer types. RNA interference (RNAi) is proven powerful tool for downregulating STAT3, allowing re-sensitization of resistant cancer cells. However, delivery of RNA interference-mediating molecules for STAT3 downregulation in lung cancer cells is limited to a small number of studies most of which employ commercially available transfection kits...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427517/interim-18-fdg-pet-ct-during-radiochemotherapy-in-the-management-of-pelvic-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mahila Ferrari, Laura Lavinia Travaini, Delia Ciardo, Cristina Garibaldi, Laura Gilardi, Robert Glynne-Jones, Chiara Maria Grana, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Sara Ronchi, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Roberto Orecchia, Marta Cremonesi
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) is widely applied in oncology for disease staging, assessment of therapy response, relapse diagnosis, follow-up and target volume delineation. In particular, it can detect early response during chemoradiotherapy (interim) because functional modifications usually precede morphological ones. This ability is crucial to the radiation oncologist for the management of patients, to avoid persisting with ineffective therapy - often leading toxicity - and to shift to potentially more effective alternatives...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426162/motion-corrected-simultaneous-cardiac-positron-emission-tomography-and-coronary-mr-angiography-with-high-acquisition-efficiency
#13
Camila Munoz, Radhouene Neji, Gastão Cruz, Andrew Mallia, Sami Jeljeli, Andrew J Reader, Rene M Botnar, Claudia Prieto
PURPOSE: Develop a framework for efficient free-breathing simultaneous whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) and cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) on a 3 Tesla PET-MR system. METHODS: An acquisition that enables nonrigid motion correction of both CMRA and PET has been developed. The proposed method estimates translational motion from low-resolution 2D MR image navigators acquired at each heartbeat and 3D nonrigid respiratory motion between different respiratory bins from the CMRA data itself...
April 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423406/the-rise-of-radiomics-and-implications-for-oncologic-management
#14
Vivek Verma, Charles B Simone, Sunil Krishnan, Steven H Lin, Jinzhong Yang, Stephen M Hahn
Clinical medicine, particularly oncology, is progressing toward personalized care. Whereas the terms genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have dominated personalized medicine for the past couple decades, the concept of radiomics was first described in 2012. This nascent concept has major implications for personalized cancer care and involves extracting hundreds of standardized and quantifiable imaging characteristics from diagnostic computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging images. The central hypothesis of radiomics is that these libraries of quantitative individual voxel-based variables are more sensitively associated with various clinical endpoints compared with the more qualitative radiologic, histopathologic, and clinical data more commonly utilized today...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418819/cancer-genomics-and-important-oncologic-mutations-a-contemporary-guide-for-body-imagers
#15
REVIEW
Veronica L Cox, Priya Bhosale, Gauri R Varadhachary, Nicolaus Wagner-Bartak, Isabella C Glitza, Kathryn A Gold, Johnique T Atkins, Pamela T Soliman, David S Hong, Aliya Qayyum
The field of cancer genomics is rapidly evolving and has led to the development of new therapies. Knowledge of commonly involved cellular pathways and genetic mutations is now essential for radiologists reading oncology cases. Radiogenomics is an emerging area of research that seeks to correlate imaging features with cancer genotypes. Such knowledge may extend the utility of multiparametric imaging to yield information regarding cancer prognosis and likelihood of therapeutic response. To date, only a handful of radiogenomics studies have been performed to evaluate solid tumors of the body, and there is much to explore...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417980/is-active-surveillance-a-suitable-option-for-african-american-men-with-prostate-cancer-a-systemic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
M I Gökce, D Sundi, E Schaeffer, C Pettaway
BACKGROUND: Certain patients presenting with either low or very-low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can represent a therapeutic dilemma for physicians. The oncologic outcomes of active surveillance (AS) for men with very-low-risk PCa are overall excellent. However, there are concerns about AS related to the potential for upgrading or upstaging. The African American (AA) population is under-represented in studies evaluating AS outcomes and this is particularly important because of the unique epidemiology of PCa in AA men...
April 18, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417933/radiogenomic-analysis-of-oncological-data-a-technical-survey
#17
REVIEW
Mariarosaria Incoronato, Marco Aiello, Teresa Infante, Carlo Cavaliere, Anna Maria Grimaldi, Peppino Mirabelli, Serena Monti, Marco Salvatore
In the last few years, biomedical research has been boosted by the technological development of analytical instrumentation generating a large volume of data. Such information has increased in complexity from basic (i.e., blood samples) to extensive sets encompassing many aspects of a subject phenotype, and now rapidly extending into genetic and, more recently, radiomic information. Radiogenomics integrates both aspects, investigating the relationship between imaging features and gene expression. From a methodological point of view, radiogenomics takes advantage of non-conventional data analysis techniques that reveal meaningful information for decision-support in cancer diagnosis and treatment...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417855/optimization-of-pediatric-pet-ct
#18
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Mohammed S Bermo, Adam M Alessio, Susan E Sharp, Michael J Gelfand, Barry L Shulkin
PET/CT, the most common form of hybrid imaging, has transformed oncologic imaging and is increasingly being used for nononcologic applications as well. Performing PET/CT in children poses unique challenges. Not only are children more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults but, following radiation exposure, children have a longer postexposure life expectancy in which to exhibit adverse radiation effects. Both the PET and CT components of the study contribute to the total patient radiation dose, which is one of the most important risks of the study in this population...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417333/immediate-tissue-expander-or-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-does-not-compromise-the-oncologic-delivery-of-post-mastectomy-radiotherapy-pmrt
#19
Krishan R Jethwa, Mohamed M Kahila, Thomas J Whitaker, William S Harmsen, Kimberly S Corbin, Sean S Park, Elizabeth S Yan, Valerie Lemaine, Judy C Boughey, Robert W Mutter
PURPOSE: Increasingly, women are choosing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following mastectomy. Reports have indicated IBR may compromise post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). We investigated the impact of IBR on timing of PMRT, target coverage, and doses to organs at risk in a modern radiotherapy practice using advanced planning techniques. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, PMRT was delivered to 116 patients (66 mastectomy alone, 50 IBR). PMRT was delivered with a median dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions...
April 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417170/reduced-dose-ct-with-model-based-iterative-reconstruction-compared-to-standard-dose-ct-of-the-chest-abdomen-and-pelvis-in-oncology-patients-intra-individual-comparison-study-on-image-quality-and-lesion-conspicuity
#20
Linda Nayeli Morimoto, Aya Kamaya, Isabelle Boulay-Coletta, Dominik Fleischmann, Lior Molvin, Lu Tian, George Fisher, Jia Wang, Jürgen K Willmann
PURPOSE: To compare image quality and lesion conspicuity of reduced dose (RD) CT with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared to standard dose (SD) CT in patients undergoing oncological follow-up imaging. METHODS: Forty-four cancer patients who had a staging SD CT within 12 months were prospectively included to undergo a weight-based RD CT with MBIR. Radiation dose was recorded and tissue attenuation and image noise of four tissue types were measured...
April 17, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
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