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Blood brain barrier and antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#1
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#2
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450047/signaling-pathways-regulating-blood-tissue-barriers-lesson-from-the-testis
#3
REVIEW
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Ying Gao, Tito T Jesus, Darren S Chu, Will M Lee, Chris K C Wong, Yi-Xun Liu, Xiang Xiao, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
Signaling pathways that regulate blood-tissue barriers are important for studying the biology of various blood-tissue barriers. This information, if deciphered and better understood, will provide better therapeutic management of diseases particularly in organs that are sealed by the corresponding blood-tissue barriers from systemic circulation, such as the brain and the testis. These barriers block the access of antibiotics and/or chemotherapeutical agents across the corresponding barriers. Studies in the last decade using the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in rats have demonstrated the presence of several signaling pathways that are crucial to modulate BTB function...
April 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442909/tat-functionalized-liposomes-for-the-treatment-of-meningitis-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Caterina Bartomeu Garcia, Di Shi, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial meningitis has become a global concern, because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It has been demonstrated that liposomes can enter bacteria, thus providing a possible treatment for numerous infections, including meningitis. Fusogenic liposomes are pH-sensitive with a high capacity to fuse with the bacteria membrane and promote intracellular drug release. Moreover, this ability can be improved by using cell-penetrating peptides (such as Tat47-57, which is a peptide derived from the Tat protein of HIV)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375200/low-dose-penicillin-in-early-life-induces-long-term-changes-in-murine-gut-microbiota-brain-cytokines-and-behavior
#5
Sophie Leclercq, Firoz M Mian, Andrew M Stanisz, Laure B Bindels, Emmanuel Cambier, Hila Ben-Amram, Omry Koren, Paul Forsythe, John Bienenstock
There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice...
April 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287461/alkoxy-and-enediyne-derivatives-containing-1-4-benzoquinone-subunits-synthesis-and-antitumor-activity
#7
Monika Kadela-Tomanek, Ewa Bębenek, Elwira Chrobak, Małgorzata Latocha, Stanisław Boryczka
The compounds produced by a living organism are most commonly as medicinal agents and starting materials for the preparation of new semi-synthetic derivatives. One of the largest groups of natural compounds consists of products containing a 1,4-benzoquinone subunit. This fragment occurs in three enediyne antibiotics, dynemicin A, deoxydynemicin A, and uncilamicin, which exhibit high biological activity. A series of alkoxy derivatives containing 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-quinolinedione, and 2-methyl-5,8-quinolinedione moieties was synthesized...
March 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270812/borrelia-burgdorferi-keeps-moving-and-carries-on-a-review-of-borrelial-dissemination-and-invasion
#8
REVIEW
Jenny A Hyde
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic, multistage, inflammatory infection resulting in patients experiencing cardiac, neurological, and arthritic complications when not treated with antibiotics shortly after exposure. The spirochetal bacterium transmits through the Ixodes vector colonizing the dermis of a mammalian host prior to hematogenous dissemination and invasion of distal tissues all the while combating the immune response as it traverses through its pathogenic lifecycle...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192085/influence-of-peptide-transporter-2-pept2-on-the-distribution-of-cefadroxil-in-mouse-brain-a-microdialysis-study
#9
Xiaomei Chen, Richard F Keep, Yan Liang, Hao-Jie Zhu, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Yongjun Hu, David E Smith
Peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) is a high-affinity low-capacity transporter belonging to the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter family. Although many aspects of PEPT2 structure-function are known, including its localization in choroid plexus and neurons, its regional activity in brain, especially extracellular fluid (ECF), is uncertain. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and regional brain distribution of cefadroxil, a β-lactam antibiotic and PEPT2 substrate, were investigated in wildtype and Pept2 null mice using in vivo intracerebral microdialysis...
May 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036021/monitoring-the-response-of-hyperbilirubinemia-in-the-mouse-brain-by-in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging
#10
Isabella Manni, Giuliana Di Rocco, Salvatore Fusco, Lucia Leone, Saviana Antonella Barbati, Carmine Maria Carapella, Claudio Grassi, Giulia Piaggio, Gabriele Toietta
Increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic, but the mechanism leading to neurological damage has not been completely elucidated. Innovative strategies of investigation are needed to more precisely define this pathological process. By longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging, we noninvasively visualized the brain response to hyperbilirubinemia in the MITO-Luc mouse, in which light emission is restricted to the regions of active cell proliferation. We assessed that acute hyperbilirubinemia promotes bioluminescence in the brain region, indicating an increment in the cell proliferation rate...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034813/is-first-line-vancomycin-still-the-best-option-to-treat-staphylococcus-health-care-associated-meningitis
#11
Roman Mounier, David Lobo, Anne Hulin, Biba Nebbad, Fabrice Cook, Gilles Dhonneur
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration of vancomycin through the blood-brain barrier is poor but important inflammation improved it. Hence, vancomycin is recommended for the treatment of community meningitis. However, what about mild inflammatory health care-associated meningitis? The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of vancomycin diffusion on CSF in Staphylococcus epidermidis health care-associated meningitis. CASE DESCRIPTION: This was a retrospective study of all consecutive patients with S...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774592/rifampicin-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-inhibiting-pathogenic-th17-cells-responses
#12
Ke Ma, Xi Chen, Jia-Cheng Chen, Ying Wang, Xi-Meng Zhang, Fan Huang, Jun-Jiong Zheng, Xiong Chen, Wei Yu, Ke-Ling Cheng, Yan-Qing Feng, Huai-Yu Gu
Rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of rifampicin on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether rifampicin was beneficial to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG33-35 )-induced female C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis. Rifampicin treatment (daily from the first day after EAE immunization) remarkably attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight, which are associated with suppression of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords of EAE mice...
December 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711202/sphingosine-1-phosphate-activation-of-egfr-as-a-novel-target-for-meningitic-escherichia-coli-penetration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#13
Xiangru Wang, Ravi Maruvada, Andrew J Morris, Jun O Liu, Michael J Wolfgang, Dong Jae Baek, Robert Bittman, Kwang Sik Kim
Central nervous system (CNS) infection continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity, necessitating new approaches for investigating its pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis, which develops following penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). By chemical library screening, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a contributor to E. coli invasion of the BBB in vitro. Here, we obtained the direct evidence that CNS-infecting E...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680224/a-case-of-cefepime-encephalopathy-being-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-during-the-treatment-of-bacterial-meningitis
#14
REVIEW
Yusuke Toda, Mineo Yamazaki, Tomohiro Ota, Yosuke Fujisawa, Kazumi Kimura
A 64-year-old man with fever, appetite loss, and pain in the back of the neck visited our hospital. We diagnosed him as having bacterial meningitis because of pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and started treatment with antibiotics. Multiple cerebral infarcts were found on brain MRI. We suspected that the origin of the bacterial meningitis was infective endocarditis, and administered Cefepime and Gentamicin according to the guidelines for treatment of infective endocarditis. Three days later, he became drowsy and had myoclonus and flapping of the extremities...
October 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633784/merging-transport-data-for-choroid-plexus-with-blood-brain-barrier-to-model-cns-homeostasis-and-diseases-more-effectively
#15
Conrad Johanson, Nancy Johanson
Robust modeling of CNS transport integrates molecular fluxes at the microvascular blood-brain barrier and epithelial choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. Normal activity of solute transporters, channels and aquaporins, in the cerebral endothelium and choroidal epithelium, sets the microenvironment composition for neurons and glia. Conversely, perturbed transport/permeability at the barrier interfaces causes interstitial fluid dyshomeostasis (e.g. edema) arising in neural disorders. Critically-important transependymal solute/water distribution between brain and CSF needs more attention...
September 15, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566465/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota
#16
REVIEW
Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Feng Jin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain barrier induced by gut microbiota disturbance will increase the incidence of neurodegeneration disorders...
October 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539598/the-anti-inflammatory-role-of-minocycline-in-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
J Budni, M L Garcez, J de Medeiros, E Cassaro, T Bellettini-Santos, F Mina, J Quevedo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder where the main risk factor is age, since its incidence increases dramatically after the age of 60. It is the most common form of dementia, and is accompanied by memory loss and cognitive impairment. Although AD was discovered over a century ago, the only drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in its treatment are four cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine. However, these drugs are not fully effective in the treatment of AD. Therefore, the incessant search for new methods of treating AD continues, with the hope of improving both the effectiveness of therapies and the quality of life for patients suffering with AD...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133445/interactions-of-gfap-with-ceftriaxone-and-phenytoin-srcd-and-molecular-docking-and-dynamic-simulation
#18
Paolo Ruzza, Rosa Maria Vitale, Rohanah Hussain, Barbara Biondi, Pietro Amodeo, GianPietro Sechi, Giuliano Siligardi
BACKGROUND: GFAP is the major intermediate filament protein in mature astrocytes. Its increased expression and aggregation was firstly associated to Alexander's disease, and successively in different neurological diseases including scrapie, Alzheimer's and Creutzfeld-Jacob diseases. Recently, ceftriaxone a multi-potent β-lactam antibiotic able to overcome the blood-brain barrier, successfully eliminated the cellular toxic effects of misfolded mutated GFAP, similarly to phenytoin sodium, in a cellular model of Alexander's disease and inhibited α-synuclein aggregation protecting PC12 cells from the exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118305/imipenem-cilastatin-induced-psychosis-a-case-report
#19
Jacob Ninan, Gemy Maria George
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients, in particular, have been reported to develop psychiatric side effects from antibiotics. Clarithromycin, quinolones, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, isoniazid, penicillin, and cephalosporins have been reported to cause psychosis. This case report bridges a void in the medical literature with regards to the psychiatric adverse effects of imipenem-cilastatin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Hispanic man in septic shock due to urinary tract infection was initiated on imipenem-cilastatin and mechanically ventilated, following admission to hospital...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978276/cerebral-aspergillosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-eight-cases
#20
Ruo-Xi Wang, Jia-Tang Zhang, Yu Chen, Xu-Sheng Huang, Wei-Quan Jia, Sheng-Yuan Yu
PURPOSE: Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is very rare. However with recent increases in the use of immunosuppressive agents and antibiotics, its incidence is increasing. We evaluated the demographics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, diagnosis, underlying conditions, treatment regimens and outcomes of patients with cerebral aspergillosis (CA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from eight patients with CA hospitalized at a Chinese general hospital from 1 January 2005 to 30 September 2015...
April 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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