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Blood brain barrier and antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745864/modulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-the-system-of-amyloid-beta-metabolism-in-the-brain-as-a-novel-mechanism-of-ceftriaxone-neuroprotective-properties
#1
Maria A Tikhonova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Victor M Belichenko, Larisa A Fedoseeva, Sergey P Kovalenko, Ekaterina E Pisareva, Alla S Avdeeva, Nataliya G Kolosova, Nikolai D Belyaev, Lyubomir I Aftanas
BACKGROUND: The dominant hypothesis about the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the "amyloid cascade" concept and modulating the expression of proteins involved in the metabolism of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is proposed as an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of AD. Recently, we found that an antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF), which possesses neuroprotective activity, reduced cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative changes in OXYS rats, a model of sporadic AD...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732967/polysorbate-surfactants-as-drug-carriers-tween-20-amphotericin-b-conjugates-as-anti-fungal-and-anti-leishmanial-agents
#2
Vasanthan Ravichandran, Venkitasamy Kesavan, Sandrine Cojean, Philippe M Loiseau, Athipettah Jayakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic used for the treatment of fungal and leishmanial infections is virtually insoluble in water and exhibits severe toxicity. AmB has been conjugated to various soluble polymers for improving its solubility and reducing its toxicity. Conjugating AmB to a polysorbate surfactant such as polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20), was examined to improve its solubility and reduce its toxicity. METHODS: AmB was coupled to Tween 20 via carbamate linkage at 15 and 30 wt% concentrations in high yield by activating the hydroxyl groups of the surfactant using p- nitrophenyl chloroformate...
May 3, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701809/receptor-blockade-a-novel-approach-to-protect-the-brain-from-pneumococcal-invasion
#3
Federico Iovino, Sigrun Thorsdottir, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Pneumococci are the major cause of bacterial meningitis globally. To cause meningitis pneumococci interact with the 2 endothelial receptors, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invade the brain. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with bioluminescent pneumococci, and treated with ceftriaxone (1 hour postinfection) and anti-pIgR and PECAM-1 antibodies (1 or 5 hours postinfection), then monitored for 5 and 10 days...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#4
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661872/treating-anthrax-induced-meningitis-in-rabbits
#5
Amir Ben-Shmuel, Itai Glinert, Assa Sittner, Elad Bar-David, Josef Schlomovitz, Tal Brosh, David Kobiler, Shay Weiss, Haim Levy
Treatment of Anthrax is challenging, especially during the advanced stages of the disease. Recently the CDC updated its recommendations for post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment of exposed populations (pre and post symptoms onset). These recommendations distinguished, for the first time, between the systemic disease with and without meningitis, a common and serious complication of anthrax. The CDC considers all systemic patients as meningeal unless positively proven otherwise. The treatment of patients suffering from systemic Anthrax with suspected or confirmed meningitis includes the combination of three antibiotics -- a fluoroquinolone (Levofloxacin or Ciprofloxacin), a β-lactam (Meropenem or Imipenem) and a protein-synthesis inhibitor (Linezolid or Clindamycin)...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611482/potential-use-of-nanomedicine-for-the-anti-inflammatory-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Maria Dolores Cayero-Otero, Ana M Espinosa-Oliva, Antonio J Herrera, Irene Garcia-Dominguez, Mercedes Fernandez-Arevalo, Lucia Martin-Banderas, Rocio M de Pablos
Neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s disease, are a group of disorders that have in common their increasingly high prevalence along with the shortage of effective treatments. In addition, the scientific community faces the challenge of getting the drugs used in these treatments to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reach the brain in sufficient concentration to be able to exert its effect. Hence, researchers across multiple disciplines are working together in order to improve the ability of therapeutics to penetrate the BBB...
April 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587458/towards-an-integrative-understanding-of-trna-aminoacylation-diet-host-gut-microbiome-interactions-in-neurodegeneration
#7
Elena L Paley, George Perry
Transgenic mice used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) preclinical experiments do not recapitulate the human disease. In our models, the dietary tryptophan metabolite tryptamine produced by human gut microbiome induces tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) deficiency with consequent neurodegeneration in cells and mice. Dietary supplements, antibiotics and certain drugs increase tryptamine content in vivo. TrpRS catalyzes tryptophan attachment to tRNAtrp at initial step of protein biosynthesis. Tryptamine that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier induces vasculopathies, neurodegeneration and cell death via TrpRS competitive inhibition...
March 26, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524538/chaperone-like-effect-of-ceftriaxone-on-hewl-aggregation-a-spectroscopic-and-computational-study
#8
Paolo Ruzza, Rosa Maria Vitale, Rohanah Hussain, Alessia Montini, Claudia Honisch, Alice Pozzebon, Charlotte S Hughes, Barbara Biondi, Pietro Amodeo, GianPietro Sechi, Giuliano Siligardi
BACKGROUND: Lysozyme is a widely distributed enzyme present in a variety of tissue and body fluids. Human and hen egg white lysozyme are used as validated model to study protein folding and stability and to understand protein misfolding and aggregation. We recently found that ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic able to overcome the blood-brain barrier, successfully eliminated the cellular toxic effects of misfolded proteins as Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and α-synuclein. To further understand the anti-amyloidogenic properties of ceftriaxone, we studied its activity towards lysozyme aggregation with the aim to investigate a possible chaperone-like activity of this molecule...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#9
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390599/-antibiotic-diffusion-to-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
J M Cabrera-Maqueda, L Fuentes Rumí, G Valero López, A E Baidez Guerrero, E García Molina, J Díaz Pérez, E García-Vázquez
Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by pathogens with a reduced sensitivity to drugs are a therapeutic challenge. Transport of fluid and solutes is tightly controlled within CNS, where vasculature exhibits a blood-brain barrier (BBB).The entry of drugs, including antibiotics, into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) is governed by molecular size, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and their affinity to transport systems at the BBB. The ratio of the AUCCSF (Area under the curve in CSF)/AUCS (Area under the curve in serum) is the most accurate parameter to characterize drug penetration into the CSF...
February 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380303/gut-microbiota-and-the-neuroendocrine-system
#11
REVIEW
Aitak Farzi, Esther E Fröhlich, Peter Holzer
The microbial ecosystem that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of all mammals-the gut microbiota-has been in a symbiotic relationship with its hosts over many millennia. Thanks to modern technology, the myriad of functions that are controlled or modulated by the gut microbiota are beginning to unfold. One of the systems that is emerging to closely interact with the gut microbiota is the body's major neuroendocrine system that controls various body processes in response to stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
January 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377708/a-critical-review-of-analytical-methods-for-determination-of-ceftriaxone-sodium
#12
REVIEW
Mariana Teixeira da Trindade, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Ceftriaxone sodium is a third-generation semi-synthetic antibiotic belonging to the class of cephalosporins. Is administered only by parenteral route and has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. It has bactericidal action; its main activity is related to the Gram-negative bacteria, being also able to act against Gram-negative bacilli resistant to the first- and second-generation cephalosporins. The present study presents a survey of the characteristics, properties and analytical methods used for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium, for the gathering of data searches were carried out in scientific articles in the world literature, as well as in the official compendia...
March 4, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301010/diminished-capsule-exacerbates-virulence-blood-brain-barrier-penetration-intracellular-persistence-and-antibiotic-evasion-of-hyperhemolytic-group-b-streptococci
#13
Claire Gendrin, Sean Merillat, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Blair Armistead, Lisa Ngo, Anjali Aggarwal, Phoenicia Quach, Jacob Berrigan, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococci (GBS) are encapsulated, β-hemolytic bacteria that are a common cause of infections in human newborns and certain adults. Two factors important for GBS virulence are the sialic acid capsular polysaccharide that promotes immune evasion and the hemolytic pigment that induces host cell cytotoxcity. These virulence factors are often oppositely regulated by the CovR/CovS two-component system. Clinical GBS strains exhibiting hyperhemolysis and low capsule due to pathoadaptive covR/S mutations have been isolated from patients...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241812/exploiting-the-therapeutic-potential-of-ready-to-use-drugs-repurposing-antibiotics-against-amyloid-aggregation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Sergio B Socias, Florencia González-Lizárraga, Cesar L Avila, Cecilia Vera, Leonardo Acuña, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rosana N Chehin
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and progressive disorders that affect specific regions of the brain, causing gradual disability and suffering that results in a complete inability of patients to perform daily functions. Amyloid aggregation of specific proteins is the most common biological event that is responsible for neuronal death and neurodegeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic agents capable of interfering with the abnormal aggregation are required, but traditional drug discovery has fallen short...
March 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216848/anterior-sacral-meningocele-infected-with-fusobacterium-in-a-patient-with-recently-diagnosed-colorectal-carcinoma-a-case-report
#15
Anne K Braczynski, Marc A Brockmann, Torben Scholz, Jan-Philipp Bach, Jörg B Schulz, Simone C Tauber
BACKGROUND: Anterior sacral meningoceles are rare, and usually occur with other malformations of the posterior lower spine. While these are more frequently reported in pediatric cohorts, we report a case in an elderly woman. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 71 year-old woman with a recently diagnosed colorectal adenocarcinoma who presented with a severe bacterial meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid cell count revealed a pleocytosis of 80,000 cells/μl and a severe disturbance of the blood-brain-barrier...
December 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180765/the-inhibitory-effect-of-minocycline-on-radiation-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-via-ampk%C3%AE-1-signaling-mediated-autophagy
#16
Liyuan Zhang, Ping Huang, Hui Chen, Wen Tan, Jiawei Lu, Wei Liu, Jingdong Wang, Shuyu Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jianping Cao, Ye Tian, Hongying Yang
Due to an increasing concern about radiation-induced cognitive deficits for brain tumor patients receiving radiation therapy, developing and evaluating countermeasures has become inevitable. Our previous study has found that minocycline, a clinical available antibiotics that can easily cross the blood brain barrier, mitigates radiation-induced long-term memory loss in rats, accompanied by decreased hippocampal neuron apoptosis. Thus, in the present study, we report an unknown mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of minocycline...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#17
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064811/-the-risk-of-epileptic-seizures-during-antibiotic-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Ewa Czapińska-Ciepiela
Numerous antibiotics may trigger epileptic seizures or status epilepticus by decreasing inhibitory transmission in the brain, thus lowering the seizure threshold. The most potent seizurogenic effect is exerted by penicillins, cephalosporins, fluorochinolons and carbapenems. Predisposing factors that facilitate development of epileptic seizures in the course of antibiotic therapy comprise all conditions accompanied by damage to the blood-brain barrier (including cerebral trauma and encephalitis), a high dose of an antibiotic or lack of adequate dose adjustment in patients with renal failure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884751/tuberculous-meningitis
#19
REVIEW
Robert J Wilkinson, Ursula Rohlwink, Usha Kant Misra, Reinout van Crevel, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Kelly E Dooley, Maxine Caws, Anthony Figaji, Rada Savic, Regan Solomons, Guy E Thwaites
Tuberculosis remains a global health problem, with an estimated 10.4 million cases and 1.8 million deaths resulting from the disease in 2015. The most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis is tuberculous meningitis (TBM), for which more than 100,000 new cases are estimated to occur per year. In patients who are co-infected with HIV-1, TBM has a mortality approaching 50%. Study of TBM pathogenesis is hampered by a lack of experimental models that recapitulate all the features of the human disease. Diagnosis of TBM is often delayed by the insensitive and lengthy culture technique required for disease confirmation...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843822/clofazimine-protects-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dissemination-in-the-central-nervous-system-following-aerosol-challenge-in-a-murine-model
#20
Sooraj Baijnath, Chivonne Moodley, Bongani Ngcobo, Sanil D Singh, Hendrik G Kruger, Per I Arvidsson, Tricia Naicker, Alexander Pym, Thavendran Govender
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the scourge of the human race for many decades, claiming countless number of lives. This is further complicated by the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to infect extrapulmonary sites, specifically the brain. These extrapulmonary forms of TB are difficult to treat owing to problems associated with drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Linezolid (LIN) and clofazimine (CFZ) are two of the more promising anti-TB drugs in recent times. In this study, BALB/c mice were aerosol-infected with M...
January 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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