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Blood brain barrier and antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774592/rifampicin-attenuates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-inhibiting-pathogenic-th17-cells-responses
#1
Ke Ma, Xi Chen, Jia-Cheng Chen, Ying Wang, Xi-Meng Zhang, Fan Huang, Jun-Jiong Zheng, Xiong Chen, Wei Yu, Ke-Ling Cheng, Yan-Qing Feng, Huai-Yu Gu
Rifampicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of rifampicin on autoimmune disorders of the nervous system is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether rifampicin was beneficial to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG33-35 )-induced female C57BL/6 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the well-established animal model of multiple sclerosis. Rifampicin treatment (daily from the first day after EAE immunization) remarkably attenuated clinical signs and loss of body weight, which are associated with suppression of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in spinal cords of EAE mice...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711202/sphingosine-1-phosphate-activation-of-egfr-as-a-novel-target-for-meningitic-escherichia-coli-penetration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Xiangru Wang, Ravi Maruvada, Andrew J Morris, Jun O Liu, Michael J Wolfgang, Dong Jae Baek, Robert Bittman, Kwang Sik Kim
Central nervous system (CNS) infection continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity, necessitating new approaches for investigating its pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis, which develops following penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). By chemical library screening, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a contributor to E. coli invasion of the BBB in vitro. Here, we obtained the direct evidence that CNS-infecting E...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680224/a-case-of-cefepime-encephalopathy-being-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-during-the-treatment-of-bacterial-meningitis
#3
Yusuke Toda, Mineo Yamazaki, Tomohiro Ota, Yosuke Fujisawa, Kazumi Kimura
A 64-year-old man with fever, appetite loss, and pain in the back of the neck visited our hospital. We diagnosed him as having bacterial meningitis because of pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and started treatment with antibiotics. Multiple cerebral infarcts were found on brain MRI. We suspected that the origin of the bacterial meningitis was infective endocarditis, and administered Cefepime and Gentamicin according to the guidelines for treatment of infective endocarditis. Three days later, he became drowsy and had myoclonus and flapping of the extremities...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633784/merging-transport-data-for-choroid-plexus-with-blood-brain-barrier-to-model-cns-homeostasis-and-diseases-more-effectively
#4
Conrad Johanson, Nancy Johanson
Robust modeling of CNS transport integrates molecular fluxes at the microvascular blood-brain barrier and epithelial choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. Normal activity of solute transporters, channels and aquaporins, in the cerebral endothelium and choroidal epithelium, sets the microenvironment composition for neurons and glia. Conversely, perturbed transport/permeability at the barrier interfaces causes interstitial fluid dyshomeostasis (e.g. edema) arising in neural disorders. Critically-important transependymal solute/water distribution between brain and CSF needs more attention...
September 15, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566465/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota
#5
Xu Hu, Tao Wang, Feng Jin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder, which associates with impaired cognition. Gut microbiota can modulate host brain function and behavior via microbiota-gut-brain axis, including cognitive behavior. Germ-free animals, antibiotics, probiotics intervention and diet can induce alterations of gut microbiota and gut physiology and also host cognitive behavior, increasing or decreasing risks of AD. The increased permeability of intestine and blood-brain barrier induced by gut microbiota disturbance will increase the incidence of neurodegeneration disorders...
October 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539598/the-anti-inflammatory-role-of-minocycline-in-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#6
J Budni, M L Garcez, J de Medeiros, E Cassaro, T Santos-Bellettini, F Mina, J Quevedo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, the most common form of dementia in elderly. Although, AD has been discovered over a century ago, the drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration are not yet fully effective in the AD treatment. Current evidence suggests that the antibiotic minocycline could be a potential therapeutic drug for use in the AD treatment due to its anti-neuroinflammatory effects. Here, we provide a review of the pre-clinical and clinical studies about minocycline and we discussed the treatment timing and its dosage, as well as effect of minocycline on brain markers and its possible mechanism in AD...
August 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133445/interactions-of-gfap-with-ceftriaxone-and-phenytoin-srcd-and-molecular-docking-and-dynamic-simulation
#7
Paolo Ruzza, Rosa Maria Vitale, Rohanah Hussain, Barbara Biondi, Pietro Amodeo, GianPietro Sechi, Giuliano Siligardi
BACKGROUND: GFAP is the major intermediate filament protein in mature astrocytes. Its increased expression and aggregation was firstly associated to Alexander's disease, and successively in different neurological diseases including scrapie, Alzheimer's and Creutzfeld-Jacob diseases. Recently, ceftriaxone a multi-potent β-lactam antibiotic able to overcome the blood-brain barrier, successfully eliminated the cellular toxic effects of misfolded mutated GFAP, similarly to phenytoin sodium, in a cellular model of Alexander's disease and inhibited α-synuclein aggregation protecting PC12 cells from the exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118305/imipenem-cilastatin-induced-psychosis-a-case-report
#8
Jacob Ninan, Gemy Maria George
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients, in particular, have been reported to develop psychiatric side effects from antibiotics. Clarithromycin, quinolones, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, isoniazid, penicillin, and cephalosporins have been reported to cause psychosis. This case report bridges a void in the medical literature with regards to the psychiatric adverse effects of imipenem-cilastatin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old Hispanic man in septic shock due to urinary tract infection was initiated on imipenem-cilastatin and mechanically ventilated, following admission to hospital...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978276/cerebral-aspergillosis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-eight-cases
#9
Ruo-Xi Wang, Jia-Tang Zhang, Yu Chen, Xu-Sheng Huang, Wei-Quan Jia, Sheng-Yuan Yu
PURPOSE: Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is very rare. However with recent increases in the use of immunosuppressive agents and antibiotics, its incidence is increasing. We evaluated the demographics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, diagnosis, underlying conditions, treatment regimens and outcomes of patients with cerebral aspergillosis (CA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from eight patients with CA hospitalized at a Chinese general hospital from 1 January 2005 to 30 September 2015...
March 15, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925035/pathogenic-triad-in-bacterial-meningitis-pathogen-invasion-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-leukocyte-transmigration-that-occur-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#10
REVIEW
Shifu Wang, Liang Peng, Zhongtao Gai, Lehai Zhang, Ambrose Jong, Hong Cao, Sheng-He Huang
Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923630/cognitive-impairment-by-antibiotic-induced-gut-dysbiosis-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-brain-communication
#11
Esther E Fröhlich, Aitak Farzi, Raphaela Mayerhofer, Florian Reichmann, Angela Jačan, Bernhard Wagner, Erwin Zinser, Natalie Bordag, Christoph Magnes, Eleonore Fröhlich, Karl Kashofer, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Peter Holzer
Emerging evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbial community (dysbiosis) impairs mental health. Germ-free mice and antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis are two approaches to establish causality in gut microbiota-brain relationships. However, both models have limitations, as germ-free mice display alterations in blood-brain barrier and brain ultrastructure and antibiotics may act directly on the brain. We hypothesized that the concerns related to antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis can only adequately be addressed if the effect of intragastric treatment of adult mice with multiple antibiotics on (i) gut microbial community, (ii) metabolite profile in the colon, (iii) circulating metabolites, (iv) expression of neuronal signaling molecules in distinct brain areas and (v) cognitive behavior is systematically investigated...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831263/the-co-metabolism-within-the-gut-brain-metabolic-interaction-potential-targets-for-drug-treatment-and-design
#12
Mark Obrenovich, Rudolf Flückiger, Lorraine Sykes, Curtis Donskey
We know that within the complex mammalian gut is any number of metabolic biomes. The gut has been sometimes called the "second brain" within the "gut-brain axis". A more informative term would be the gut-brain metabolic interactome, which is coined here to underscore the relationship between the digestive system and cognitive function or dysfunction as the case may be. Co-metabolism between the host and the intestinal microbiota is essential for life's processes. How diet, lifestyle, antibiotics and other factors shape the gut microbiome constitutes a rapidly growing area of research...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686952/encephalitis-with-prolonged-but-reversible-splenial-lesion
#13
Alena Meleková, Leona Andrlová, Pavel Král, Leoš Ungermann, Edvard Ehler
INTRODUCTION: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever...
2015: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635971/designing-novel-nanoformulations-targeting-glutamate-transporter-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-2-implications-in-treating-drug-addiction
#14
Pss Rao, Murali M Yallapu, Youssef Sari, Paul B Fisher, Santosh Kumar
Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models...
2015: Journal of Personalized Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26518285/azithromycin-protects-mice-against-ischemic-stroke-injury-by-promoting-macrophage-transition-towards-m2-phenotype
#15
Diana Amantea, Michelangelo Certo, Francesco Petrelli, Cristina Tassorelli, Giuseppe Micieli, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Paolo Puccetti, Francesca Fallarino, Giacinto Bagetta
To develop novel and effective treatments for ischemic stroke, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin in a mouse model system of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Intraperitoneal administration of azithromycin significantly reduced blood-brain barrier damage and cerebral infiltration of myeloid cells, including neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages. These effects resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of cerebral ischemic damage, and in a remarkable amelioration of neurological deficits up to 7 days after the insult...
January 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26483993/a-case-of-recurrent-meningitis-caused-by-rhodococcus-species-successfully-treated-with-antibiotic-treatment-and-intrathecal-injection-of-vancomycin-through-an-ommaya-reservoir
#16
Kanglok Lee, Min Rho, Miyeon Yu, Joohee Kwak, Seungpyo Hong, Jisoong Kim, Yeonjae Kim, Hyunjoo Pai
Human infection by Rhodococcus species is rare and mostly limited to immunocompromised hosts such as patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or organ transplant recipients. The most common strain is R. equi, and the most common clinical presentation is pulmonary infection, reported in 80% of Rhodococcus spp. infections. The central nervous system is an uncommon infection site. We report a case of a patient with pneumonia, brain abscess, and recurrent meningitis caused by Rhodococcus spp...
September 2015: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26401998/herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-and-other-pathogens-are-key-causative-factors-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Steven A Harris, Elizabeth A Harris
This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382199/maldi-msi-and-lc-ms-ms-towards-preclinical-determination-of-the-neurotoxic-potential-of-fluoroquinolones
#18
Adeola Shobo, Sooraj Baijnath, Dominika Bratkowska, Suhashni Naiker, Anou M Somboro, Linda A Bester, Sanil D Singh, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics with efficacy against a wide range of pathogenic microbes associated with respiratory and meningeal infections. The potential toxicity of this class of chemical agents is a source of major concern and is becoming a global issue. The aim of this study was to develop a method for the brain distribution and the pharmacokinetic profile of gatifloxacin in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, via Multicenter matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26371853/doxycycline-as-an-inhibitor-of-p-glycoprotein-in-the-alpaca-for-the-purpose-of-maintaining-avermectins-in-the-cns-during-treatment-for-parelaphostrongylosis
#19
Prince N Agbedanu, Kristi L Anderson, Matthew T Brewer, Steve A Carlson
Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS)...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318443/isolation-characterization-and-tissue-specific-expression-of-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-1-subunit-gene-of-carassius-auratus-gibelio-after-avermectin-treatment
#20
Yini Zhao, Qi Sun, Kun Hu, Jiming Ruan, Xianle Yang
Carassius auratus gibelio has been widely cultivated in fish farms in China, with avermectin (AVM) being used to prevent parasite infection. Recently, AVM was found to pass through the Carassius auratus gibelio blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although AVM acts mainly through a GABA receptor and specifically the α1 subunit gene, the most common isoform of the GABA A receptor, which is widely expressed in brain neurons and has been studied in other fish, Carassius auratus gibelio GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene cloning, and whether AVM passes through the BBB to induce Carassius auratus gibelio GABA A receptor α1 subunit gene expression have not been studied...
February 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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