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"innate memory"

John J Seeley, Sankar Ghosh
LPS is a potent trigger of macrophage-mediated inflammation. However, prolonged exposure to LPS induces a state of tolerance that reprograms the inflammatory response, resulting in reduced inflammatory cytokine production in vitro and in vivo. Recent evidence suggests that LPS tolerance also increases the expression of a subset of genes that may protect animals from systemic infection while they are in the tolerized state. However, a molecular basis for these selective changes in inflammatory gene expression during LPS tolerance has remained elusive...
January 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Hitendra S Chand, Yohannes A Mebratu, Marena Montera, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Mina O Seedhom, Heather D Hickman, Jiajie Wei, Alexandre David, Jonathan W Yewdell
We describe the in vivo ribopuromycylation (RPM) method, which uses a puromycin-specific Ab to fluorescently label ribosome-bound puromycylated nascent chains, enabling measurement of translational activity via immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. Tissue staining provides a unique view of virus-induced activation of adaptive, innate, and stromal immune cells. RPM flow precisely quantitates virus-induced activation of lymphocytes and innate immune cells, and it provides a unique measure of immune cell deactivation and quiescence...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Vijaykumar Chennupati, Ute Koch, Manuel Coutaz, Leonardo Scarpellino, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Sanjiv A Luther, Freddy Radtke, Dietmar Zehn, H Robson MacDonald
Although Notch signaling plays important roles in lineage commitment and differentiation of multiple cell types including conventional T cells, nothing is currently known concerning Notch function in innate-like T cells. We have found that the homeostasis of several well-characterized populations of innate-like T cells including invariant NKT cells (iNKT), CD8ααTCRαβ small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, and innate memory phenotype CD8 T cells is controlled by Notch. Notch selectively regulates hepatic iNKT cell survival via tissue-restricted control of B cell lymphoma 2 and IL-7Rα expression...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Kristin R Renkema, June-Yong Lee, You Jeong Lee, Sara E Hamilton, Kristin A Hogquist, Stephen C Jameson
Previous studies have revealed that a population of innate memory CD8(+) T cells is generated in response to IL-4, first appearing in the thymus and bearing high expression levels of Eomesodermin (Eomes) but not T-bet. However, the antigen specificity and functional properties of these cells is poorly defined. In this study, we show that IL-4 regulates not only the frequency and function of innate memory CD8(+) T cells, but also regulates Eomes expression levels and functional reactivity of naive CD8(+) T cells...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Silvain Pinaud, Julien Portela, David Duval, Fanny C Nowacki, Marie-Aude Olive, Jean-François Allienne, Richard Galinier, Nolwenn M Dheilly, Sylvie Kieffer-Jaquinod, Guillaume Mitta, André Théron, Benjamin Gourbal
Discoveries made over the past ten years have provided evidence that invertebrate antiparasitic responses may be primed in a sustainable manner, leading to the failure of a secondary encounter with the same pathogen. This phenomenon called "immune priming" or "innate immune memory" was mainly phenomenological. The demonstration of this process remains to be obtained and the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered and exhaustively tested with rigorous functional and molecular methods, to eliminate all alternative explanations...
January 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Elfi Töpfer, Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani
Recent findings in the field of immune memory have demonstrated that B and T cell mediated immunity following infections are enhanced by the so-called trained immunity. This effect has been most extensively investigated for the tuberculosis vaccine strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Epidemiological studies suggest that this vaccine is associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality that cannot be solely explained by prevention of the target disease but that it seems to rely on inducing resistance to other infections...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Tom Hartwig, Stanislav Pantelyushin, Andrew L Croxford, Paulina Kulig, Burkhard Becher
Conventional αβ T cells have the ability to form a long-lasting resident memory T-cell (TRM ) population in nonlymphoid tissues after encountering foreign antigen. Conversely, the concept of 'innate memory', where the ability of nonadaptive branches of the immune system to deliver a rapid, strengthened immune response upon reinfection or rechallenge, is just emerging. Using the αβ T-cell-independent Aldara psoriasis mouse model in combination with genetic fate-mapping and reporter systems, we identified a subset of γδ T cells in mice that is capable of establishing a long-lived memory population in the skin...
November 2015: European Journal of Immunology
Wenhao Chen, Rafik M Ghobrial, Xian C Li
Memory cells are the products of immune responses but also exert significant impact on subsequent immunity and immune tolerance, thus placing them in a unique position in transplant research. Memory cells are heterogeneous, including not only memory T cells but also memory B cells and innate memory cells. Memory cells are a critical component of protective immunity against invading pathogens, especially in immunosuppressed patients, but they also mediate graft loss and tolerance resistance. Recent studies suggest that some memory cells unexpectedly act as regulatory cells, promoting rather than hindering transplant survival...
October 2015: Transplantation
Luc Van Kaer
A hallmark of the antigen-specific B and T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system is their capacity to "remember" pathogens long after they are first encountered, a property that forms the basis for effective vaccine development. However, studies in mice have provided strong evidence that some naive T cells can develop characteristics of memory T cells in the absence of foreign antigen encounters. Such innate memory T cells may develop in response to lymphopenia or the presence of high levels of the cytokine IL-4, and have also been identified in unmanipulated animals, a phenomenal referred to as "virtual memory...
July 2015: European Journal of Immunology
Florence Jacomet, Emilie Cayssials, Sara Basbous, Anaïs Levescot, Nathalie Piccirilli, Deborah Desmier, Aurélie Robin, Anne Barra, Christine Giraud, François Guilhot, Lydia Roy, André Herbelin, Jean-Marc Gombert
Polyclonal CD8(+) T cells, with a marked innate/memory phenotype, high eomesodermin (Eomes) expression, and the capacity to generate IFN-γ rapidly without prior exposure to antigen, have been described in mice. However, even though a pool of human CD8(+) T cells expressing killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) was recently documented, the existence of a human equivalent of murine innate/memory CD8(+) T cells remains to be established. Here, we provide evidence for a population of KIR/NKG2A(+) CD8(+) T cells in healthy human adults sharing the same features, namely increased Eomes expression, prompt IFN-γ production in response to innate-like stimulation by IL-12+IL-18, and a potent antigen-independent cytotoxic activity along with a preferential terminally differentiated effector memory phenotype...
July 2015: European Journal of Immunology
Stephen C Jameson, You Jeong Lee, Kristin A Hogquist
Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells...
2015: Advances in Immunology
Amlan Kanti Ghosh, Debolina Sinha, Subhadeep Mukherjee, Ratna Biswas, Tapas Biswas
Nonconventional innate memory CD8(+) T cells characteristically expressing CD44, CD122, eomesodermin (Eomes) and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) were derived in culture from CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes of normal BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These culture-differentiated cells constitutively express toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and release interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10. We show the TLR4-ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate the TLR and up-regulate IFN-γ skewing the cells towards type 1 polarization...
May 2015: Cytokine
Weishan Huang, Avery August
T cell development, differentiation, and maintenance are orchestrated by 2 key signaling axes: the antigen-specific TCR and cytokine-mediated signals. The TCR signals the recognition of self- and foreign antigens to control T cell homeostasis for immune tolerance and immunity, which is regulated by a variety of cytokines to determine T cell subset homeostasis and differentiation. TCR signaling can synergize with or antagonize cytokine-mediated signaling to fine tune T cell fate; however, the latter is less investigated...
March 2015: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Weishan Huang, Fei Huang, Arun Kumar Kannan, Jianfang Hu, Avery August
True memory CD8(+) T cells develop post antigenic exposure and can provide life-long immune protection. More recently, other types of memory CD8(+) T cells have been described, such as the memory-like CD8(+) T cells (IMP; CD44(hi)CD122(+)) that arise spontaneously in Itk(-/-) mice, which are suggested to develop as a result of IL-4 secreted by NKT-like γδ T or PLZF(+) NKT cells found in Itk(-/-) mice. However, we report here that whereas IMP CD8(+) T cell development in Itk(-/-) mice is dependent on IL-4/STAT6 signaling, it is not dependent on any γδ T or iNKT cells...
July 2014: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Weishan Huang, Qian Qi, Jianfang Hu, Fei Huang, Terri M Laufer, Avery August
MHC class II (MHCII)-influenced CD4(+) T cell differentiation and function play critical roles in regulating the development of autoimmunity. The lack of hematopoietic MHCII causes autoimmune disease that leads to severe wasting in syngeneic recipients. Using murine models of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we find that MHCII(-/-)→wild-type BMT developed disease, with defective development of innate memory phenotype (IMP, CD44(hi)/CD62L(lo)) CD4(+) T cells. Whereas conventional regulatory T cells are unable to suppress pathogenesis, IMP CD4(+) T cells, which include conventional regulatory T cells, can suppress pathogenesis in MHCII(-/-)→wild-type chimeras...
April 1, 2014: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Stephen T Smale, Alexander Tarakhovsky, Gioacchino Natoli
A fundamental property of cells of the innate immune system is their ability to elicit a transcriptional response to a microbial stimulus or danger signal with a high degree of cell type and stimulus specificity. The selective response activates effector pathways to control the insult and plays a central role in regulating adaptive immunity through the differential regulation of cytokine genes. Selectivity is dictated by signaling pathways and their transcription factor targets. However, a growing body of evidence supports models in which different subsets of genes exhibit distinct chromatin features that play active roles in shaping the response...
2014: Annual Review of Immunology
Jeffrey W Leong, Julie M Chase, Rizwan Romee, Stephanie E Schneider, Ryan P Sullivan, Megan A Cooper, Todd A Fehniger
Natural killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes that are under clinical investigation for the adoptive immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies, especially acute myeloid leukemia. Recent work in mice has identified innate memory-like properties of NK cells. Human NK cells also exhibit memory-like properties, and cytokine-induced memory-like (CIML) NK cells are generated via brief preactivation with IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18, which later exhibit enhanced functionality upon restimulation. However, the optimal cytokine receptors and signals for maintenance of enhanced function and homeostasis after preactivation remain unclear...
April 2014: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Ratna Biswas, Subhadeep Mukherjee, Debolina Sinha, Amlan Kanti Ghosh, Tapas Biswas
Selection of conventional CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells is usually driven by the interaction of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes with epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate preferential selection of CD8(+) thymocytes from in vitro differentiation of CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive thymocytes exhibiting the characteristics of nonconventional innate memory CD8(+) cells. In contrast to conventional CD8(+) thymocytes, these culture-differentiated CD8(+) cells are eomesodermin positive and robustly express CXCR3, CD44, CD122 and TLR2...
April 2014: Immunology and Cell Biology
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