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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454022/quantitative-analysis-of-adsorptive-interactions-of-ionic-and-neutral-pharmaceuticals-and-other-chemicals-with-the-surface-of-escherichia-coli-cells-in-aquatic-environment
#1
Chul-Woong Cho, Jeong-Soo Park, Yufeng Zhao, Yeoung-Sang Yun
Since Escherichia coli is ubiquitous in nature and has been applied to biological, chemical, and environmental processes, molecular-level understanding of adsorptive interactions between chemicals and the bacterial surface is of great importance. To characterise the adsorption properties of the surface of E. coli cells in aquatic environment, the binding affinities (log Kd) of calibration compounds were experimentally measured, and then based on the values and numerically well-defined molecular interaction forces, i...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454001/bacterial-community-shift-and-improved-performance-induced-by-in-situ-preparing-dual-graphene-modified-bioelectrode-in-microbial-fuel-cell
#2
Junfeng Chen, Yongyou Hu, Lihua Zhang, Wantang Huang, Jian Sun
Dual graphene modified bioelectrode (D-GM-BE) was prepared by in situ microbial-induced reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Next Generation Sequencing technology was used to elucidate bacterial community shift in response to improved performance in D-GM-BE MFC. The results indicated an increase in the relative ratio of Proteobacteria, but a decrease of Firmicutes was observed in graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA); increase of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were observed in graphene modified biocathode (GM-BC)...
April 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453805/pathological-investigation-of-graft-related-oesophageal-fistula
#3
Masaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Nishimori, Mitsuko Iguchi, Kazumasa Orihashi
Oesophageal fistulae after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) for thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) have been reported, although the causes are unknown. One hypothesis is that the structural configuration of the aortic aneurysm, as it protrudes towards the oesophagus, may affect oesophageal fistula formation. The pathological findings of an oesophageal fistula following TEVAR are reviewed here. This report presents the case of a 68-year-old man with a stent graft-related oesophageal fistula after TEVAR for TAA...
May 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453770/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-and-a-novel-rna-editing-system-in-deep-branching-heteroloboseids
#4
Jiwon Yang, Tommy Harding, Ryoma Kamikawa, Alastair G B Simpson, Andrew J Roger
Discoba (Excavata) is an evolutionarily important group of eukaryotes that includes Jakobida, with the most bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes known, and Euglenozoa, many of which have extensively fragmented mitochondrial genomes. However, little is known about the mitochondrial genomes of Heterolobosea, the third main group of Discoba. Here, we studied two heteroloboseids - an undescribed amoeba 'BB2' and Pharyngomonas kirbyi. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that they form a clade that is a sister group to all other Heterolobosea...
April 26, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453760/long-term-inflammation-transforms-intestinal-epithelial-cells-of-colonic-organoids
#5
Shuji Hibiya, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Ryohei Hayashi, Keita Fukushima, Nobukatsu Horita, Sho Watanabe, Tomoaki Shirasaki, Ryu Nishimura, Natsuko Kimura, Tatsunori Nishimura, Noriko Gotoh, Shigeru Oshima, Ryuichi Okamoto, Tetsuya Nakamura, Mamoru Watanabe
Background and Aims: Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] are at an increased risk of developing colitis-associated cancer [CAC], suggesting that continuous inflammation in the colon promotes the transformation of colonic epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying cell transformation in UC remain unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of long-term inflammation on intestinal epithelial cells [IECs] using organoid culture. Methods: IECs were isolated from mouse colon, and were cultured according to a method for a three-dimensional [3D] organoid culture...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453710/prescription-of-antibiotics-to-pre-school-children-from-2005-to-2014-in-japan-a-retrospective-claims-database-study
#6
Satomi Yoshida, Masato Takeuchi, Koji Kawakami
Background: Antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications for children but inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is prevalent. The purpose of our study was to access the nationwide trend in antibiotic prescriptions, and to ascertain inappropriate prescribing for upper respiratory infections (URIs) in pre-school children in Japan. Methods: Data from the administrative claims database from 2005 January to 2014 September in Japan were examined. We identified outpatient antibiotic prescription claims and described prescription patterns of subjects who were followed from birth to 6 years of age...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453654/genomic-evidence-that-methanotrophic-endosymbionts-likely-provide-deep-sea-bathymodiolus-mussels-with-a-sterol-intermediate-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#7
Kiyotaka Takishita, Yoshihiro Takaki, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Tetsuro Ikuta, Genki Ozawa, Takao Yoshida, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Katsunori Fujikura
Sterols are key cyclic triterpenoid lipid components of eukaryotic cellular membranes, which are synthesized through complex multi-enzyme pathways. Similar to most animals, Bathymodiolus mussels, which inhabit deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems and harbor methanotrophic and/or thiotrophic bacterial endosymbionts, possess cholesterol as their main sterol. On the basis of stable carbon isotope analyses, it has been suggested that host Bathymodiolus mussels synthesize cholesterol using a sterol intermediate derived from the methanotrophic endosymbionts...
April 26, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453579/studies-on-bacterial-community-composition-are-affected-by-the-time-and-storage-method-of-the-rumen-content
#8
Yury Tatiana Granja-Salcedo, Ricardo Andrés Ramirez-Uscategui, Elwi Guillermo Machado, Juliana Duarte Messana, Luciano Takeshi Kishi, Ana Veronica Lino Dias, Telma Teresinha Berchielli
The objective of this study was to investigate three storage methods and four storage times for rumen sampling in terms of quality and yield of extracted metagenomic DNA as well as the composition of the rumen bacterial community. One Nellore steer fitted with a ruminal silicone-type cannula was used as a donor of ruminal contents. The experiment comprised 11 experimental groups: pellet control (PC), lyophilized control (LC), P-20: pellet stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, P-80: pellet stored frozen at -80°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months, and L-20: lyophilized sample stored frozen at -20°C for a period of 3, 6, and 12 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453568/baicalin-inhibits-biofilm-formation-attenuates-the-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-and-enhances-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clearance-in-a-mouse-peritoneal-implant-infection-model
#9
Jing Luo, Biying Dong, Ke Wang, Shuangqi Cai, Tangjuan Liu, Xiaojing Cheng, Danqing Lei, Yanling Chen, Yanan Li, Jinliang Kong, Yiqiang Chen
The quorum sensing (QS) circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453531/structural-diversity-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-lipopolysaccharides-affects-innate-immune-signaling
#10
Michael H Norris, Herbert P Schweizer, Apichai Tuanyok
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes the disease melioidosis. The main cause of mortality in this disease is septic shock triggered by the host responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) components of the Gram-negative outer membrane. Bp LPS is thought to be a weak inducer of the host immune system. LPS from several strains of Bp were purified and their ability to induce the inflammatory mediators TNF-α and iNOS in murine macrophages at low concentrations was investigated. Innate and adaptive immunity qPCR arrays were used to profile expression patterns of 84 gene targets in response to the different LPS types...
April 28, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453405/a-meta-analysis-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-for-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Ayebo E Sadoh, Stephen K Obaro
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. AIM: To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. METHODS: Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified...
April 28, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453340/prospective-randomized-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-of-surgical-preparation-solutions-in-hand-surgery
#13
Peter Z Xu, John R Fowler, Robert J Goitz
BACKGROUND: Decontamination of the skin prior to incision is part of the standard of care for any surgical procedure. Previous studies have demonstrated variable efficacy of different surgical preparation solutions based on anatomic location. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of 3 commonly used surgical preparation solutions in eliminating bacteria from the skin prior to incision for common elective soft tissue hand procedures. METHODS: A total of 240 patients undergoing clean, elective, soft tissue hand surgery were prospectively randomized to 1 of 3 groups (ChloraPrep, DuraPrep, or Betadine)...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453272/bacterial-iron-uptake-pathways-gates-for-the-import-of-bactericide-compounds
#14
Isabelle J Schalk, Gaëtan L A Mislin
Bacterial resistance to most antibiotics in clinical use has reached alarming proportions. A challenge for modern medicine will be to discover new antibiotics or strategies to combat multidrug resistant bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria for which the situation is particularly critical. Vectorization of bactericide compounds by siderophores (iron chelators produced by bacteria) is a promising strategy able to considerably increase the efficacy of drugs. Such a Trojan horse strategy can also extend activity of specific Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453251/influence-of-manure-application-on-the-environmental-resistome-under-finnish-agricultural-practice-with-restricted-antibiotic-use
#15
Johanna Muurinen, Robert D Stedtfeld, Antti Karkman, Katariina Pärnänen, James M Tiedje, Marko P J Virta
The co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in farm environments can potentially foster the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. We studied the resistome of Finnish dairy and swine farms where use of antibiotics is limited to treating bacterial infections and manure is only applied April to September. The resistome of manure, soil and tile drainage water from ditch was investigated from the beginning of the growing season until forage harvest. The relative ARG and MGE abundance was measured using a qPCR array with 363 primer pairs...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449345/proton-pump-inhibitors-do-not-increase-the-risk-for-recurrent-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#16
Jung Hee Kim, Kyung Sook Lim, Yang Won Min, Hyuk Lee, Byung-Hoon Min, Poong-Lyul Rhee, Jae J Kim, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study aimed to assess the real impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use on incidence of recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in a homogenous population composed of cirrhotic patients with a previous SBP where differences related with SBP incidence between PPI users and non-users are less likely to exist. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 307 cirrhotic patients taking diuretics for ascites control and had a previous SBP...
May 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449322/a-bacterium-with-close-genetic-identity-to-pseudomonas-mandelii-associated-with-spring-fish-kills-in-wild-bluegill-lepomis-macrochirus-rafinesque-and-pumpkinseed-sunfish-lepomis-gibbosus-linnaeus
#17
J Lovy, D Dicarlo-Emery, J M Hutcheson
Pseudomonas fluorescens are known bacterial pathogens in fish. The P. fluorescens group contains at least nine different bacterial species, although species from fish have rarely been differentiated. Two isolated fish kills affecting wild bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), occurred in the spring of 2015 during cool water temperatures (12.5°C-15.5°C). Disease signs included severe bacteraemia with rare gross external signs. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from kidneys of all affected fish were identified as P...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449237/the-environmental-and-host-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-arctic-seawater-farmed-atlantic-salmon-with-ulcerative-disorders
#18
C Karlsen, K F Ottem, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, M Davey, H Sørum, H C Winther-Larsen
The Norwegian aquaculture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is hampered by ulcerative disorders associated with bacterial infections. Chronic ulceration may provide microenvironments that disturb the normal microbial biodiversity of external surfaces. Studying the composition of microbial communities in skin ulcers will enhance our understanding of ulcer aetiology. To achieve this, we tested marine farmed Atlantic salmon and sampled the base and edge of ulcers at the end of winter (April) and end of summer (September), in addition to skin mucus of healthy individuals...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449226/an-integrated-network-analysis-identifies-how-arcab-enables-metabolic-oscillations-in-the-nitric-oxide-detoxification-network-of-escherichia-coli
#19
Sarah A Sacco, Kristin J Adolfsen, Mark P Brynildsen
The virulences of many pathogens depend on their abilities to detoxify the immune antimicrobial nitric oxide (NO•). The functions of bacterial NO• detoxification machinery depend on oxygen (O2 ), with O2 inhibiting some enzymes, whereas others use it as a substrate. Previously, Escherichia coli NO• detoxification was found to be highly attenuated under microaerobic conditions and metabolic oscillations were observed. The oscillations in [NO•] and [O2 ] were found to result from the inhibitory action of NO• on aerobic respiration, the catalytic inactivation of NO• by Hmp (an NO• dioxygenase), and an imbalanced competition for O2 between Hmp and cytochrome terminal oxidase activity...
April 27, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#20
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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