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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780833/the-growing-genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#1
REVIEW
Sadeeq Ur Rahman, Tariq Ali, Ijaz Ali, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Bo Han, Jian Gao
The β -lactams-a large class of diverse compounds-due to their excellent safety profile and broad antimicrobial spectrum are considered to be the most widely used therapeutic class of antibacterials prescribed in human and veterinary clinical practices. This, unfortunately, has also given rise to a continuous increased resistance globally in health care settings as well as in the community due to their permanent selective force driving diversification of the resistance mechanism. Resistance against β -lactams is increasing rapidly as novel β -lactamases, enzymes that degrade β -lactams, are being discovered each day such as recent emergence of extended spectrum β -lactamases (ESBL) that have the ability to inactivate most of the cephalosporins...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778191/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genetic-relatedness-of-respiratory-tract-pathogens-in-weaner-pigs-over-a-12-month-period
#2
Lisa Niemann, Petra Müller, Jasmin Brauns, Rolf Nathaus, Franziska Schäkel, Kerstin Kipschull, Doris Höltig, Michael Wendt, Stefan Schwarz, Kristina Kadlec
The collaboration project VASIB aims at reducing the antibiotic consumption in pig production by integrating information from consulting expertise in clinical inspection, hygiene, epidemiology, microbiology and pharmacology. In this VASIB subproject, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and relatedness of porcine respiratory tract pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica (n = 47), Pasteurella multocida (n = 18) and Streptococcus suis (n = 58) were obtained from weaner pigs at two farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution according to CLSI standards...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778183/high-genetic-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-in-feces-of-horses
#3
Syndia Sadikalay, Yann Reynaud, Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Mélanie Falord, Célia Ducat, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Antoine Talarmin, Séverine Ferdinand
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), especially those of the CTX-M type, represent a major public health problem throughout the world. Although the carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in feces of horses is now well recognized, little is known about the diversity of EPE after treatment of horses with antibiotics. We undertook this study to assess and follow the diversity of EP Escherichia coli isolated from horses after antibiotic treatment for an infection. Fecal samples from two horses treated and two that were untreated were tested for the presence of EPE on different days...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774212/alkaline-peptone-water-based-enrichment-method-for-mcr-3-from-acute-diarrheic-outpatient-gut-samples
#4
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772394/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-lineages-of-faecal-enterococci-of-wild-birds-emergence-of-vana-and-vanb2-harboring-enterococcus-faecalis
#5
Houssem Ben Yahia, Sarra Chairat, Nabil Hamdi, Haythem Gharsa, Rym Ben Sallem, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Karim Ben Slama
Migrating birds have been implicated in pathogen dissemination over long-distances. The lack of data on birds' intestinal microbiota makes these animals a promising path to understand their potential role in the transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This work aims to study the diversity of enterococci species and to analyze the antimicrobial resistant phenotypes/genotypes, as well as the genetic lineages of isolates obtained from faecal and pellet samples of colonial wild birds in Tunisia. Seventy-nine enterococci were recovered of 150 wild bird, after inoculation of samples in Slanetz-Bartley agar, and were identified as E...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766820/salient-aspects-of-pbp2a-inhibition-a-qsar-study
#6
Adewale J Ogunleye, Gabriel O Eniafe, Olumide K Inyang, Benjamin Adewumi, Olaposi I Omotuyi
Backgound: Inhibition of penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A) represents a sound drug design strategy in combatting Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Considering the urgent need for effective antimicrobials in combatting MRSA infections, we have developed a statistically robust ensemble of molecular descriptors (1, 2, & 3-D) from compounds targeting PBP2A in vivo. METHODS: 37 (training set: 26, test set: 11) PBP2A-inhibitors were submitted for descriptor generation after which an unsupervised, non-exhaustive genetic algorithm (GA) was deployed for fishing out the best descriptor subset...
May 15, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765237/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#7
Fen Pan, Hong Zhang, Xiaoyan Dong, Weixing Ye, Ping He, Shulin Zhang, Jeff Xianchao Zhu, Nanbert Zhong
Introduction: Multidrug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as a serious problem to public health. A further understanding of the genetic diversity in antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates is needed. Methods: We conducted whole-genome resequencing for 25 pneumococcal strains isolated from children with different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Comparative analysis focus on detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (indels) was conducted...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762682/molecular-detection-of-mutations-involved-in-helicobacter-pylori-antibiotic-resistance-in-algeria
#8
Meryem Bachir, Rachida Allem, Lucie Benejat, Abedelkarim Tifrit, Meriem Medjekane, Amine El-Mokhtar Drici, Francis Megraud, Kara Turki Douidi
Objectives: In Algeria, there are limited data regarding the pattern of Helicobacter pylori primary antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance. Methods: Two hundred and seventy Algerian adults who had never received H. pylori treatment were enrolled in this study. Human biopsies were obtained for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Etest for clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760148/bacterial-silver-resistance-gained-by-cooperative-interspecies-redox-behavior
#9
Michael Muller
Silver has emerged as an important therapeutic option for wound infections in recent years due to its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The silver cation (Ag+ ), but not the bulk metal (Ag0 ), is highly toxic for most microorganisms although resistance due to genetic modification or horizontal gene transfer does occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , however, achieves silver resistance by producing the redox active metabolite pyocyanin that reduces Ag+ to non-toxic Ag0 Pyocyanin also possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758533/antimicrobial-resistance-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-reveal-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-strains-pathogenicity-complexity
#10
Monalessa Fábia Pereira, Ciro César Rossi, Larissa Eler Seide, Sebastião Martins Filho, Cláudia de Melo Dolinski, Denise Mara Soares Bazzolli
Porcine pleuropneumonia is an important cause of lowered productivity and economic loss in the pig industry worldwide, associated primarily with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection. Its colonization and persistence within the upper respiratory tract of affected pigs depends upon interactions between a number of genetically controlled virulence factors, such as pore-forming repeats-in-toxin exoproteins, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance. This study investigated correlations between biofilm-forming capacity, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of A...
May 7, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755416/complete-genomic-analysis-of-a-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-isolate-cultured-from-ready-to-eat-pork-in-china-carrying-one-large-plasmid-containing-mcr-1
#11
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Mingyuan Zou, Yinping Dong, Zixin Peng, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Nafeesa Yasmeen, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning
One mcr-1 -carrying ST34-type Salmonella Typhimurium WW012 was cultured from 3,200 ready-to-eat (RTE) pork samples in 2014 in China. Broth dilution method was applied to obtain the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhimurium WW012. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect transferability of this phenotype and whole-genome sequencing was performed to analyze its genomic characteristic. Thirty out of 3,200 RTE samples were positive for Salmonella and the three most frequent serotypes were identified as S ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747442/safety-evaluations-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-bgn4-and-bifidobacterium-longum-bori
#12
Min Jeong Kim, Seockmo Ku, Sun Young Kim, Hyun Ha Lee, Hui Jin, Sini Kang, Rui Li, Tony V Johnston, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747038/emerging-high-level-ciprofloxacin-resistance-and-molecular-basis-of-resistance-in-salmonella-enterica-from-humans-food-and-animals
#13
Dai Kuang, Jianmin Zhang, Xuebin Xu, Weimin Shi, Sheng Chen, Xiaowei Yang, Xudong Su, Xianming Shi, Jianghong Meng
Disease caused by nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Many serotypes have also developed resistance to antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of salmonellosis. Here we analyze 179 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates identified among 3680 Salmonella isolated from humans, food, animals, and water collected in Shanghai, China. They were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, and mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions (QRDRs); genetic relatedness was examined using PFGE...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743642/genomic-epidemiology-of-shigella-in-the-united-kingdom-shows-transmission-of-pathogen-sublineages-and-determinants-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nigel Field, Tristan Childs, Holly Mitchell, Martin Day, François-Xavier Weill, Sophie Lefèvre, Mathieu Tourdjman, Gwenda Hughes, Claire Jenkins, Nicholas Thomson
Shigella are globally important diarrhoeal pathogens that are endemic in low-to-middle income nations and also occur in high income nations, typically in travellers or community-based risk-groups. Shigella phylogenetics reveals population structures that are more reliable than those built with traditional typing methods, and has identified sublineages associated with specific geographical regions or patient groups. Genomic analyses reveal temporal increases in Shigella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene content, which is frequently encoded on mobile genetic elements...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743625/acquisition-and-dissemination-of-cephalosporin-resistant-e-coli-in-migratory-birds-sampled-at-an-alaska-landfill-as-inferred-through-genomic-analysis
#15
Christina A Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Hanna Woksepp, Jorge Hernandez, Björn Olsen, Andrew M Ramey
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens threatens global health, though the spread of AMR bacteria and AMR genes between humans, animals, and the environment is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AMR Escherichia coli. Using next-generation sequencing, we characterized cephalosporin-resistant E. coli cultured from sympatric gulls and bald eagles inhabiting a landfill habitat in Alaska to identify genetic determinants conferring AMR, explore potential transmission pathways of AMR bacteria and genes at this site, and investigate how their genetic diversity compares to isolates reported in other taxa...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737262/design-of-bactericidal-peptides-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Jenniffer Cruz, Paola Rondon, Rodrigo Torres, Mauricio Urquiza, Fanny Guzman, Claudio Alvarez, Maria Angeles Abengozar, Daniel A Sierra, Luis Rivas, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Claudia Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides are on the first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms of many living beings. These compounds are considered natural antibiotics that can overcome bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Due to this characteristic, new peptides with improved properties are quite appealing for designing new strategies for fighting pathogenic bacteria Methods: Sixteen designed peptides were synthesized using Fmoc chemistry; five of them are new cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) designed using a genetic algorithm that optimizes the antibacterial activity based on selected physicochemical descriptors and 11 analog peptides derived from these five peptides were designed and constructed by single amino acid substitutions...
May 8, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736984/estimation-of-the-bacteriocin-cole7-conjugation-based-kill-anti-kill-antimicrobial-system-by-real-time-pcr-fluorescence-staining-and-bioluminescence-assays
#17
I L Maslennikova, M V Kuznetsova, N Toplak, I V Nekrasova, D Žgur Bertok, M Starčič Erjavec
The efficiency of the bacteriocin, colicin ColE7, bacterial conjugation-based "kill" - "anti-kill" antimicrobial system, was assessed using real-time PCR, flow cytometry and bioluminescence. The ColE7 antimicrobial system consists of the genetically modified Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 harbouring a conjugative plasmid (derivative of the F-plasmid) encoding the "kill" gene (ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene)...
May 7, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736607/engineering-microbes-for-targeted-strikes-against-human-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
In Young Hwang, Hui Ling Lee, James Guoxian Huang, Yvonne Yijuan Lim, Wen Shan Yew, Yung Seng Lee, Matthew Wook Chang
Lack of pathogen specificity in antimicrobial therapy causes non-discriminant microbial cell killing that disrupts the microflora present. As a result, potentially helpful microbial cells are killed along with the pathogen, altering the biodiversity and dynamic interactions within the population. Moreover, the unwarranted exposure of antibiotics to microbes increases the likelihood of developing resistance and perpetuates the emergence of multidrug resistance. Synthetic biology offers an alternative solution where specificity can be conferred to reduce the non-specific, non-targeted activity of currently available antibiotics, and instead provides targeted therapy against specific pathogens and minimising collateral damage to the host's inherent microbiota...
May 7, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735827/molecular-characterisation-for-clonality-and-transmission-dynamics-of-an-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-amongst-neonates-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#19
Chaitra Shankar, Manish Kumar, Ashtawarthani Baskaran, Miracle Magdelene Paul, Nithya Ponmudi, Sridhar Santhanam, Joy Sarojini Michael, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Purpose: Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial outbreaks causing bacteraemia and having potential of acquiring plasmids enhancing antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we investigate K. pneumoniae outbreak causing bacteraemia amongst neonates over a span of 2 months. Isolates were characterised for antimicrobial resistance, virulence, molecular typing for clonality and plasmid typing for transmission dynamics, and patient outcome was investigated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735560/the-novel-phage-derived-antimicrobial-agent-hy-133-is-active-against-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-la-mrsa
#20
Ursula Kaspar, Jorge A de Haro Sautto, Sonja Molinaro, Georg Peters, Evgeny A Idelevich, Karsten Becker
Livestock-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) are increasingly migrating from livestock into human and animal health care settings. Alternative substances are wanted to overcome the drawbacks of currently available drugs applied for MRSA eradication. The recombinant bacteriophage endolysin HY-133 has been proven as an active agent against S. aureus Here, the in vitro activity of HY-133 was studied against a large collection of genetically diverse LA-MRSA revealing its high activity against mecA, mecB and mecC LA-MRSA...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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