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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318778/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-healthcare-associated-infections-identification-of-two-main-pathogenic-genetic-backgrounds
#1
C Corlouer, B Lamy, M Desroches, J Ramos-Vivas, E Mehiri-Zghal, O Lemenand, J-M Delarbre, J-W Decousser
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic multi-drug-resistant bacterium responsible for healthcare-associated infections. Strategies for in-hospital infection control and management of carriers and environmental reservoirs remain controversial. AIM: To determine the population structure of S. maltophilia strains in hospitalized infected patients and to identify putative highly pathogenic subpopulations that require upgraded infection control measures...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317028/mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-gene-regulator-clgr-is-a-substrate-of-caseinolytic-protease
#2
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Thomas Dick
The mycobacterial caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 is a degradative protease that recently gained interest as a genetically and pharmacologically validated drug target for tuberculosis. The first whole-cell active ClpP1P2 inhibitor, the human proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is currently undergoing lead optimization to introduce selectivity for the bacterial target. How inhibition of ClpP1P2 translates into whole-cell antimicrobial activity is little understood. Previous work has shown that the caseinolytic protease gene regulator ClgR is an activator of the clpP1P2 genes and also suggested that this transcription factor may be a substrate of the protease...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304109/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-a-controversial-food-borne-pathogen
#3
REVIEW
Daniil Sergelidis, Apostolos S Angelidis
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303819/prevalence-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-staphylococcus-species-a-multicentre-report-of-the-indian-council-of-medical-research-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network
#4
Sunanda Rajkumar, Sujatha Sistla, Meerabai Manoharan, Madhan Sugumar, Niveditha Nagasundaram, Subhash Chandra Parija, Pallab Ray, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Arti Kapil, Kamini Walia, V C Ohri
PURPOSE: Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291698/detection-and-analysis-of-different-interactions-between-resistance-mechanisms-and-carbapenems-in-clinical-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Tanise Vendruscolo Dalmolin, Bianca Vendruscolo Bianchini, Grazielle Guidolin Rossi, Ana Carolina Ramos, Ana Cristina Gales, Priscila de Arruda Trindade, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos
Carbapenems are considered last-line agents for the treatment of serious infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, and this microorganism may exhibit resistance to β-lactam antibiotics due to different mechanisms of resistance. We evaluated 27 isolates of K. pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems recovered from inpatients at the University Hospital of Santa Maria-RS from July 2013 to August 2014. We carried out antimicrobial susceptibility, carbapenemase detection, testing for the presence of efflux pump by broth microdilution and loss of porin by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
February 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289031/downregulation-of-autolysin-encoding-genes-by-phage-derived-lytic-proteins-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
Phage-derived lytic proteins are a promising alternative to conventional antimicrobials. One of their most interesting properties is that they do not readily select for resistant strains, which is likely due to the fact that their targets are essential for the viability of the bacterial cell. Moreover, genetic engineering allows the design of new "tailor-made" proteins that may exhibit improved antibacterial properties. One example of this is the chimeric protein CHAPSH3b, which consists of a catalytic domain from the virion-associated peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolase of phage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (HydH5) and the cell wall binding domain of lysostaphin...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284599/the-oral-microbiota-of-domestic-cats-harbors-a-wide-variety-of-staphylococcus-species-with-zoonotic-potential
#7
Ciro César Rossi, Ingrid da Silva Dias, Igor Mansur Muniz, Walter Lilenbaum, Marcia Giambiagi-deMarval
This study aimed to characterize the species, antimicrobial resistance and dispersion of CRISPR systems in staphylococci isolated from the oropharynx of domestic cats in Brazil. Staphylococcus strains (n=75) were identified by MALDI-TOF and sequencing of rpoB and tuf genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion method and PCR to investigate the presence of antimicrobial-resistance genes usually present in mobile genetic elements (plasmids), in addition to plasmid extraction. CRISPR - genetic arrangements that give the bacteria the ability to resist the entry of exogenous DNA - were investigated by the presence of the essential protein Cas1 gene...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263906/characterization-of-genetic-determinants-involved-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-aeromonas-spp-and-fecal-coliforms-isolated-from-different-aquatic-environments
#8
Alessandro Carnelli, Federica Mauri, Antonella Demarta
Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms, two abundant and cultivable bacterial populations that can be found in water ecosystems, might substantially contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. We investigated the presence and spread of transposons (elements that can move from one location to another in the genome), integrons (structures able to capture and incorporate gene cassettes) and resistance plasmids in strains isolated from polluted and unpolluted water. We recovered 231 Aeromonas and 250 fecal coliforms from water samplings with different degrees of pollution (hospital sewage, activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant, river water before and after treatment and water from an alpine lake)...
March 2, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261193/epistasis-and-the-evolution-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Alex Wong
The fitness effects of a mutation can depend, sometimes dramatically, on genetic background; this phenomenon is often referred to as "epistasis." Epistasis can have important practical consequences in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). For example, genetic background plays an important role in determining the costs of resistance, and hence in whether resistance will persist in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Furthermore, interactions between resistance mutations can have important implications for the evolution of multi-drug resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261187/detection-and-genetic-environment-of-pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin-a-resistance-genes-in-staphylococci-isolated-from-pets
#10
Fengru Deng, Huiwen Wang, Yifei Liao, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Geovana B Michael, Stefan Schwarz, Yang Wang
Increasing emergence of staphylococci resistant to pleuromutilins, lincosamides, and streptogramin A (PLSA) and isolated from humans and pets is a growing public health concern worldwide. Currently, there was only one published study regarding one of the PLSA genes, vga(A) detected in staphylococci isolated from cat. In this study, eleven pleuromutilin-resistant staphylococci from pets and two from their owners were isolated and further characterized for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, plasmid profiles, genotypes, and genetic context of the PLSA resistance genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260537/characterisation-of-invasive-clinical-haemophilus-influenzae-isolates-in-queensland-australia-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#11
M Staples, R M A Graham, A V Jennison
Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity...
March 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259411/genetic-and-functional-analysis-of-the-bovine-uterine-microbiota-part-ii-purulent-vaginal-discharge-versus-healthy-cows
#12
M L S Bicalho, S Lima, C H Higgins, V S Machado, F S Lima, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to characterize, using metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing, the intrauterine microbial population and its predicted functional diversity within healthy cows and cows presenting purulent vaginal discharge (PVD). Twenty Holstein dairy cows from a single farm were enrolled in the study at 25 to 35 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was diagnosed by retrieving and scoring vaginal discharge using the Metricheck device (Simcro, Hamilton, New Zealand). Intrauterine samples for metagenomic analysis were collected by the cytobrush technique from 8 cows diagnosed with PVD and 12 healthy cows...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256474/long-term-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-third-generation-cephalosporin-use-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-north-india
#13
Tuhina Banerjee, Amitabha Bhattacharjee, Supriya Upadhyay, Shweta Mishra, Karuna Tiwari, Shampa Anupurba, Malay Ranjan Sen, Sriparna Basu, Ashok Kumar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of ESBL - producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253831/an-update-on-emerging-therapies-for-urinary-tract-infections
#14
Aneela Majeed, Sumaiah Alarfaj, Rabih Darouiche, Mayar Mohajer
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired infections, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Worldwide use of antibiotics has led to a significant rise in resistant uropathogens emanating from both hospitals and communities. The huge concern of multidrug resistance (MDR) has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to encourage drug companies to invest in the development of new antibiotics. Area covered: In this review we summarized data on already approved antibiotics, and selected emerging therapies that are currently in phase II and III trials with emphasis on complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs)...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253356/resistance-to-antimicrobial-drugs-in-different-surface-waters-and-wastewaters-of-guadeloupe
#15
Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Celia Dartron, Mélanie Falord, Syndia Sadikalay, Célia Ducat, Vincent Richard, Sébastien Breurec, Olivier Gros, Antoine Talarmin
OBJECTIVE: The first aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in different water environments of Guadeloupe and especially those impacted by waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. The second objective was to characterize the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates (ESBLE and AmpCE). METHODS: We have collected 70 surface waters (river and sea samples) impacted or not by WWTP and 18 waste waters from 2 WWTPs in 2012 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249570/survival-capabilities-of-escherichia-coli-o26-isolated-from-cattle-and-clinical-sources-in-australia-to-disinfectants-acids-and-antimicrobials
#16
Salma A Lajhar, Jeremy Brownlie, Robert Barlow
BACKGROUND: After E. coli O157, E. coli O26 is the second most prevalent enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype identified in cases of foodborne illness in Australia and throughout the world. E. coli O26 associated foodborne outbreaks have drawn attention to the survival capabilities of this organism in a range of environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the ability of E. coli O26 to survive the effects of disinfectants, acids and antimicrobials and investigate the possible influence of virulence genes in survival and persistence of E...
March 1, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246439/the-interplay-between-defensins-and-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Lorena Coretti, Alessandro Natale, Mariella Cuomo, Ermanno Florio, Simona Keller, Francesca Lembo, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Raffaela Pero
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, characterized by periods of acute recurrence and remission. Depending on the specific region affected, CD is classified as ileal CD or colonic CD. It is largely accepted that the intestinal microbiota is involved in the onset of the pathology. Indeed, a reduced immune tolerance to components of the intestinal commensal microbiota and inflammation of the intestinal barrier typifies patients with CD. Several studies have shown defective expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in patients with CD compared to controls, particularly defensins...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245965/prevalence-serotyping-and-antimicrobials-resistance-mechanism-of-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-samples-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Mohamed A El-Tayeb, Abdelnasser S S Ibrahim, Ali A Al-Salamah, Khalid S Almaary, Yahya B Elbadawi
Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39...
February 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245154/crispr-cas-technologies-and-applications-in-food-bacteria
#19
Emily Stout, Todd Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form adaptive immune systems that occur in many bacteria and most archaea. In addition to protecting bacteria from phages and other invasive mobile genetic elements, CRISPR-Cas molecular machines can be repurposed as tool kits for applications relevant to the food industry. A primary concern of the food industry has long been the proper management of food-related bacteria, with a focus on both enhancing the outcomes of beneficial microorganisms such as starter cultures and probiotics and limiting the presence of detrimental organisms such as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242664/the-two-component-system-chtrs-contributes-to-chlorhexidine-tolerance-in-enterococcus-faecium
#20
Ana M Guzmán Prieto, Jessica Wijngaarden, Johanna C Braat, Malbert R C Rogers, Eline Majoor, Ellen C Brouwer, Xinglin Zhang, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Marc J M Bonten, Rob J L Willems, Willem van Schaik
Enterococcus faecium is one of the primary causes of nosocomial infections. Dinsinfectants are commonly used to prevent infections with multidrug-resistant E. faecium in hospitals. Worryingly, E. faecium strains that exhibit tolerance to disinfectants have already been described. We aimed to identify and characterize E. faecium genes that contribute to tolerance to the disinfectant chlorhexidine (CHX).We used a transposon mutant library, constructed in a multi-drug resistant E. faecium bloodstream isolate, to perform a genome-wide screen to identify genetic determinants involved in tolerance to CHX...
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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