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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231617/characterization-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-strains-isolated-from-industrial-cleanrooms-under-regular-routine-disinfection
#1
U Ribič, A Klančnik, B Jeršek
AIMS: The purpose of this study was the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 57 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from cleanroom environments, based on their biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biofilm formation was investigated using real-time PCR (icaA, aap, bhp genes), the Congo red agar method, and the crystal violet assay. The majority of the strains (59.7%; 34/57) did not form biofilms according to the crystal violet assay, although the biofilm-associated genes were present in 94...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229018/-genomic-data-mining-of-the-marine-actinobacteria-streptomyces-sp-h-kf8-unveils-insights-into-multi-stress-related-genes-and-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-antimicrobial-synthesis
#2
Agustina Undabarrena, Juan A Ugalde, Michael Seeger, Beatriz Cámara
Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is an actinobacterial strain isolated from marine sediments of a Chilean Patagonian fjord. Morphological characterization together with antibacterial activity was assessed in various culture media, revealing a carbon-source dependent activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and L. monocytogenes). Genome mining of this antibacterial-producing bacterium revealed the presence of 26 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, where among them, 81% have low similarities with known BGCs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228089/genotypic-characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-in-tertiary-center-iran
#3
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Matin Rouhani, Mahdiyeh Ghasemnejad
BACKGROUND: Enterococci infection rate, mortality and morbidity has been increased in recent decades accompanied by progressive emerging antimicrobial resistance. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), important pathogen in hospitalized patients, have distinct antibiotic susceptibility to glycopeptides that varied genetically and can influence in choosing therapeutic agents. In this study, we aimed to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance according to the genotypic variations in VREs...
February 10, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224028/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integron-carriage-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-patients
#4
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohsen Heidary, Mehdi Azad, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of integron in H. pylori isolates collected from patients referred to private health care centers in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for failure of Helicobacter pylori therapy. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play main roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance gene. METHODS: During a 12-month cross-sectional study period, 65 H...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223459/evolution-and-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#5
Danesh Moradigaravand, Veronique Martin, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221925/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-different-leafy-green-production-systems
#6
Mosimanegape Jongman, Lise Korsten
Foodborne disease outbreaks linked to contaminated irrigation water and fresh produce are a public health concern. The presence of Escherichia coli isolates from irrigation water and leafy green vegetables in different food production systems (large commercial farms, small-scale farms, and homestead gardens) was investigated. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence in these isolates was further assessed, and links between water source and irrigated crops were identified using antimicrobial and genotypic analyses...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221916/characterization-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-typhimurium-isolates-from-clinically-diseased-pigs-in-korea
#7
Sang-Ik Oh, Jong Wan Kim, Myeongju Chae, Ji-A Jung, Byungjae So, Bumseok Kim, Ha-Young Kim
This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from clinically diseased pigs collected from 2008 to 2014 in Korea. Isolates were also characterized according to the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Among 94 Salmonella isolates, 81 (86.2%) were identified as being of the Salmonella Typhimurium serotype, followed by Salmonella Derby (6 of 94, 6.4%), Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- (4 of 94, 4...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221879/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-typing-of-salmonella-senftenberg-isolated-from-humans-and-other-sources-in-shanghai-china-2005-to-2011
#8
Zeqiang Zhan, Dai Kuang, Ming Liao, Hongxia Zhang, Jingzhang Lu, Xueming Hu, Yulong Ye, Jianghong Meng, Xuebin Xu, Jianmin Zhang
Salmonella Senftenberg is an important nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar that causes gastrointestinal disease worldwide. In total, 130 Salmonella Senftenberg strains obtained from humans, food, and the environment in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility and subjected to molecular typing. Our findings indicated that most (96 of 130, 73.8%) of the strains were susceptible to all 13 antimicrobial compounds tested, whereas only two strains (1.5%) were resistant to two antimicrobial compounds...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217442/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-campylobacter-coli-yh502-from-retail-chicken-reveals-a-plasmid-borne-type-vi-secretion-system
#9
Sandeep Ghatak, Yiping He, Sue Reed, Terence Strobaugh, Peter Irwin
Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215920/antimicrobial-drug-resistance-and-genetic-properties-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-circulating-in-chicken-farms-in-tunisia
#10
Rakia Ben Salem, Mohamed S Abbassi, Vanesa García, Raquel García-Fierro, Javier Fernández, Hajer Kilani, Imen Jaouani, Monia Khayeche, Lilia Messadi, María Rosario Rodicio
This study focused on 77 isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis collected during 2009 to 2013 from healthy and sick chickens and environmental farm samples in Tunisia. Resistance to 14 antimicrobials and the encoding genes were analyzed. 66, 26, 6.5, 3.9 and 1.3% were pan-susceptible or showed resistance to nalidixic acid (Asp87 to Tyr and Asp87 to Asn substitutions in GyrA), ampicillin (blaTEM-1-like and blaSHV), sulfonamides (sul1and sul3) and streptomycin (strB), respectively. A single isolate with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was positive for qnrB, whereas qnrA, qnrS or aac(6')-Ib-cr were not detected...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213022/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-fresh-and-smoked-fish-in-poland
#11
Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek
A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210248/coexistence-of-blaoxa-48-and-truncated-blandm-1-on-different-plasmids-in-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate-in-china
#12
Lianyan Xie, Yi Dou, Kaixin Zhou, Yue Chen, Lizhong Han, Xiaokui Guo, Jingyong Sun
Objectives: To describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 on different plasmids from a Chinese hospital. Methods: The isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using Etest and PCR. The plasmids harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with specific probes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210246/prospects-of-in-vivo-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-the-chemical-diversification-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#13
Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, Maike Bartholomae, Andrius Buivydas, Oscar P Kuipers, Nediljko Budisa
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) is an elegant way for the chemical diversification of recombinantly produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Residue- and site-specific installation methods in several bacterial production hosts hold great promise for the generation of new-to-nature AMPs, and can contribute to tackle the ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Especially from a pharmacological point of view, desirable improvements span pH and protease resistance, solubility, oral availability and circulation half-life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207789/carbapenem-resistance-and-pathogenicity-of-bovine-acinetobacter-indicus-like-isolates
#14
Peter Klotz, Stephan Göttig, Ursula Leidner, Torsten Semmler, Sandra Scheufen, Christa Ewers
The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45) from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198682/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-phenotypes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-patients-in-three-hospitals-in-southern-vietnam
#15
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Huynh Minh Tuan, Nguyen Si Tuan, Dao Minh Y, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Stephen Baker, Ho Huynh Thuy Duong
Multidrug resistance in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii limits therapeutic options and impacts on clinical care. Resistance against carbapenems, a group of last-resort antimicrobials for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii infections, is associated with the expression (and over-expression) of carbapenemases encoded by the blaOXA genes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant A. baumannii associated with infection in three hospitals in southern Vietnam and to characterize the genetic determinants associated with resistance against carbapenems...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194914/genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-broiler-chicken-in-farms-and-at-slaughter-in-central-italy
#16
S Pergola, M P Franciosini, F Comitini, M Ciani, S De Luca, S Bellucci, L Menchetti, P Casagrande Proietti
AIMS: Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of C. coli and C. jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Campylobacter spp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterisation by s-AFLP revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193670/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-ciprofloxacin-enhance-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-of-enterococcus-faecium
#17
Clara Sinel, Margherita Cacaci, Pierrick Meignen, François Guérin, Bryan W Davies, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Jean-Christophe Giard, Vincent Cattoir
Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen for two decades, with the spread of hospital-adapted multidrug-resistant clones. Members of the intestinal microbiota, they are subjected to numerous bacterial stresses, including antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations (SICs). Since fluoroquinolones are extensively prescribed, SICs are very likely to occur in vivo with potential effects on bacterial metabolism with subsequent modulation of opportunistic traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate globally the impact of subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of ciprofloxacin on antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity of E...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191309/co-existence-of-blaoxa-23-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-significance
#18
Prabhu Raj Joshi, Mahesh Acharya, Trishna Kakshapati, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Sutthirat Sitthisak
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. METHODS: A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified based on Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR amplification of organism specific 16S rRNA and blaOXA-51 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187198/two-stable-variants-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-strain-mshr5848-express-broadly-divergent-in-vitro-phenotypes-associated-with-their-virulence-differences
#19
A A Shea, R C Bernhards, C K Cote, C J Chase, J W Koehler, C P Klimko, J T Ladner, D A Rozak, M J Wolcott, D P Fetterer, S J Kern, G I Koroleva, S P Lovett, G F Palacios, R G Toothman, J A Bozue, P L Worsham, S L Welkos
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the agent of melioidosis, causes disease ranging from acute and rapidly fatal to protracted and chronic. Bp is highly infectious by aerosol, can cause severe disease with nonspecific symptoms, and is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics. However, no vaccine exists. Unlike many Bp strains, which exhibit random variability in traits such as colony morphology, Bp strain MSHR5848 exhibited two distinct and relatively stable colony morphologies on sheep blood agar plates: a smooth, glossy, pale yellow colony and a flat, rough, white colony...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179118/genetic-diversity-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-iran-st239-sccmec-iii-t037-emerges-as-the-major-clone
#20
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mahnaz Bahramian, Mahboobeh Satarzadeh Tabrizi, Edet E Udo, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major cause of infection in health care, hospital and community settings is a global health concern. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in a burn hospital in Tehran, the capital of Iran. During a 10-month study period, 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were assessed. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detection of mecA, fem and nuc genes...
February 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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