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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729124/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-molecular-characteristics-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-ceftriaxone-in-shandong-china-2007-to-2014
#1
Lihong Zhao, Aihua Liu, Ruiying Li, Shuping Zhao
In this study, the trends of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae were analyzed in Shandong Province of China during 2007-2014. Moreover, the ceftriaxone genetic resistance determinants including penA, mtrR, penB, ponA, and pilQ genes were sequenced, and the molecular mechanisms of decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone in N. gonorrhoeae were elucidated. Overall, the increasing trends of resistance to PEN, TET, and CIP, and decreasing trends of susceptibility to CRO and AZM were observed in Shandong Province of China between 2007 and 2014...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725045/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli
#2
N Stoesser, A E Sheppard, G Peirano, L W Anson, L Pankhurst, R Sebra, H T T Phan, A Kasarskis, A J Mathers, T E A Peto, P Bradford, M R Motyl, A S Walker, D W Crook, J D Pitout
The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli has major implications for the management of common infections. bla KPC, encoding a transmissible carbapenemase (KPC), has historically largely been associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant plasmid (pKpQIL), and a specific transposable element (Tn4401, ~10 kb). Here we characterize the genetic features of bla KPC emergence in global E. coli, 2008-2013, using both long- and short-read whole-genome sequencing. Amongst 43/45 successfully sequenced bla KPC-E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717051/detection-of-markers-predictive-of-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycoplasma-genitalium-from-patients-attending-sexual-health-services-in-england
#3
Rachel Pitt, Helen Fifer, Neil Woodford, Sarah Alexander
OBJECTIVES: Resistance to both macrolides and fluoroquinolones has been reported in Mycoplasma genitalium; however, due to limited diagnostics, studies are often small and confined to specific geographical areas. This study sought to determine the rate of predicted resistance in M. genitalium-positive specimens referred for diagnostic testing. METHODS: Seventy-four M. genitalium-positive specimens, referred to the national reference laboratory (2010-2013) from 19 centres across England, were blinded and anonymised...
July 17, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717050/which-azithromycin-regimen-should-be-used-for-treating-mycoplasma-genitalium-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Patrick Horner, Suzanne M Ingle, Frederick Garrett, Karla Blee, Fabian Kong, Peter Muir, Harald Moi
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that azithromycin 1 g is driving the emergence of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium worldwide. We undertook a meta-analysis of M. genitalium treatment studies using azithromycin 1 g single dose and azithromycin 500 mg on day 1 then 250 mg daily for 4 days (5-day regimen) to determine rates of treatment failure and resistance in both regimens. METHODS: The online databases PubMed and Medline were searched using terms "Mycoplasma genitalium", "macrolide" or "azithromycin" and "resistance" up to April 2016...
July 17, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708426/phenotypic-characteristics-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-derby-isolated-from-human-patients-and-foods-of-animal-origin
#5
Chenggang Xu, Xingxing Ren, Zhou Feng, Ying Fu, Yanfen Hong, Zujie Shen, Lina Zhang, Ming Liao, Xuebin Xu, Jianmin Zhang
Salmonella enterica serotype Derby is among the three most common serotypes of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from patients with diarrhea in China. In this study, 133 Salmonella Derby isolates from human patients (n = 74) and foods of animal origin (n = 59) in Shanghai, China, between September 2013 and December 2014, were selected to study its phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid replicon typing, virulence profile determination, and molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
July 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705201/genotypic-diversity-among-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-species-at-mulago-hospital-in-kampala-uganda
#6
David P Kateete, Ritah Nakanjako, Moses Okee, Moses L Joloba, Christine F Najjuka
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are common causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently we reported the occurrence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, but the isolates were not analyzed for genetic relatedness. Herein we report the intra-species genotypic diversity among P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients and the environment at Mulago Hospital, using repetitive elements-based PCR (Rep-PCR) genotyping...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700048/distribution-of-the-bla-oxa-bla-veb-1-and-bla-ges-1-genes-and-resistance-patterns-of-esbl-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-hospitals-in-tehran-and-qazvin-iran
#7
Sahar Amirkamali, Taghi Naserpour-Farivar, Khadijeh Azarhoosh, Amir Peymani
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens. The emergence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has been increasingly reported as a major clinical concern worldwide. The main aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of bla OXA, bla PER-1, bla VEB-1, and bla GES-1 genes among ESBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolated from two distinct provinces in Iran. METHODS: In this study, a total of 75 (27.5%) ESBL-producing isolates were identified from 273 P...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693504/prevalence-of-multi-drug-resistant-enteropathogenic-and-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-children-with-and-without-diarrhea-in-northeast-indian-population
#8
Karuppasamy Chellapandi, Tapan Kumar Dutta, Indu Sharma, Surajit De Mandal, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Lalsanglura Ralte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are associated with infantile diarrhea in the developing countries. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli associated with diarrhoea among the paediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 262 stool samples were collected from children with and without diarrhea from Mizoram, Northeast India. E. coli were isolated and subjected to multiplex PCR to detect virulent genes of EPEC (eaeA and bfpA) and EIEC (ial)...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692823/high-hiv-infection-prevalence-in-a-group-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#9
Raquel Maria Cardoso Torres, Marly Marques da Cruz, André Reynaldo Santos Périssé, Denise Ribeiro Franqueira Pires
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, by phenotypic and genotypic parameters, the presence of virulence and resistance factors in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains and verify the correlation between these variables. SETTINGS: Observational study conducted in an Universitary Hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The confirmation of A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex was performed by blaOXA51 detection, through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex, as well as to investigate the presence of other oxacillinases (blaOXA23, 24, 58)...
July 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691011/diversity-of-antimicrobial-resistance-phenotypes-in-salmonella-isolated-from-commercial-poultry-farms
#10
Karen A Liljebjelke, Charles L Hofacre, David G White, Sherry Ayers, Margie D Lee, John J Maurer
Salmonella remains the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and the dissemination of drug-resistant Salmonellae through the food chain has important implications for treatment failure of salmonellosis. We investigated the ecology of Salmonella in integrated broiler production in order to understand the flow of antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains within this system. Data were analyzed from a retrospective study focused on antimicrobial resistant Salmonella recovered from commercial broiler chicken farms conducted during the initial years of the US FDA's foray into retail meat surveillance by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS)...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687280/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-clostridium-perfringens-and-clostridium-difficile-in-dogs-and-cats-attended-in-diverse-veterinary-clinics-from-the-madrid-region
#11
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Marta E García
Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates...
July 5, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674541/key-components-of-different-plant-defense-pathways-are-dispensable-for-powdery-mildew-resistance-of-the-arabidopsis-mlo2-mlo6-mlo12-triple-mutant
#12
Hannah Kuhn, Justine Lorek, Mark Kwaaitaal, Chiara Consonni, Katia Becker, Cristina Micali, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Paweł Bednarek, Tom M Raaymakers, Michela Appiano, Yuling Bai, Dorothea Meldau, Stephani Baum, Uwe Conrath, Ivo Feussner, Ralph Panstruga
Loss of function mutations of particular plant MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) genes confer durable and broad-spectrum penetration resistance against powdery mildew fungi. Here, we combined genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the defense mechanisms in the fully resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant. We found that this genotype unexpectedly overcomes the requirement for indolic antimicrobials and defense-related secretion, which are critical for incomplete resistance of mlo2 single mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674312/molecular-subtyping-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-by-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-and-multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-in-india-their-association-with-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles
#13
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Indranil Roy, Sathish Sankar, Rajni Gaind, Monorama Deb, Raghavendra Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar Paul, Shanta Dutta
Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672861/free-and-nanoencapsulated-tobramycin-effects-on-planktonic-and-biofilm-forms-of-pseudomonas
#14
Eulalia Sans-Serramitjana, Marta Jorba, Ester Fusté, José Luis Pedraz, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which frequent pulmonary infections develop secondarily. One of the major pulmonary pathogens colonizing the respiratory tract of CF patients and causing chronic airway infections is Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Although tobramycin was initially effective against P. aeruginosa, tobramycin-resistant strains have emerged. Among the strategies for overcoming resistance to tobramycin and other antibiotics is encapsulation of the drugs in nanoparticles. In this study, we explored the antimicrobial activity of nanoencapsulated tobramycin, both in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), against clinical isolates of P...
June 26, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672173/prevalence-of-verocytotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-raw-beef-in-southern-italy
#15
Gaia Nobili, Ilenia Franconieri, Gianfranco La Bella, Maria Grazia Basanisi, Giovanna La Salandra
Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a significant foodborne public health hazard, where most human infections are associated with six serogroups (O157, O26, O103, O145, O111 and O104). VTEC was the fourth most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU in 2015, with 5901 confirmed human cases. Ruminant animals, including cattle, are a major reservoir of VTEC. The consumption of VTEC-contaminated animal-derived foodstuffs, especially undercooked ground beef, is an important transmission route...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670642/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-patients-presenting-at-port-elizabeth-hospitals-south-africa
#16
D Annear, J Black, S Govender
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits multiple drug resistance with increasing frequency, especially to carbapenems making patient treatment difficult. Carbapenem-resistance may be caused by porin gene mutations, active drug efflux, and carbapenemase production. This study evaluated the incidence of genes responsible for carbapenemase production in carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and assessed the genetic relatedness of the isolates by multi locus sequence typing (MLST)...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670302/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-mineral-water-and-spring-water-in-china
#17
Lei Wei, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo, Moutong Chen, Liang Xue, Juan Wang, Lianying Ma
Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3%) were contaminated E. faecalis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669844/prospective-multicenter-clinical-study-on-inter-and-intra-patient-genetic-variability-for-antimicrobial-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori
#18
Ceren Bilgilier, Alexander Stadlmann, Athanasios Makristathis, Jakob Thannesberger, Marie-Theres Kastner, Peter Knoflach, Pius Steiner, Maximilian Schöniger-Hekele, Christoph Högenauer, Andreas Blesl, Christian Datz, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, Rainer Schöfl, Friedrich Wewalka, Andreas Püspök, Nina Mitrovits, Judith Leiner, Herbert Tilg, Maria Effenberger, Manfred Moser, Franz Siebert, Isolde Hinterberger, Herbert Wurzer, Thaddäus Stupnicki, Norbert Watzinger, Gottfried Gombotz, Rainer Hubmann, Siegfried Klimpel, Susanne Biowski-Frotz, Christiane Schrutka-Kölbl, Ivo Graziadei, Othmar Ludwiczek, Michael Kundi, Alexander M Hirschl, Christoph Steininger
OBJECTIVES: We report on a large prospective, multicenter clinical investigation on inter- and intra-patient genetic variability for antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori. METHODS: Therapy-naïve patients (n=2004) with routine diagnostic gastroscopy were included prospectively from all geographic regions of Austria. Gastric biopsy samples were collected separately from antrum and corpus. Samples were analyzed by histopathology and real-time PCR for genotypic resistance to clarithromycin and quinolones...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669681/factors-contributing-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-spp-horizontal-transmission-events-exploration-of-the-role-of-antibacterial-consumption
#19
Elise M Gilbert, Teresa R Zembower, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Chao Qi, Sandra Reiner, Michael Malczynski, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: The relationship between antibiotic consumption and resistance is relatively well defined at the population/ecologic level. Increases in antimicrobial consumption correlate with increased antibiotic resistance for clinical and surveillance isolates. However, the impact of antimicrobial consumption on nosocomial transmission of resistant bacteria is less well defined. This study explores the association between antimicrobial consumption, hand hygiene, and horizontal resistant organism transmission...
June 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668675/effect-of-residual-doxycycline-concentrations-on-resistance-selection-and-transfer-in-porcine-commensal-escherichia-coli
#20
Laura E J Peeters, Siska Croubels, Geertrui Rasschaert, Hein Imberechts, Els Daeseleire, Jeroen Dewulf, Marc Heyndrickx, Patrick Butaye, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemieke Smet
Pig feed may contain various levels of antimicrobial residues due to cross-contamination. A previous study showed that a 3% carry-over level of doxycycline (DOX) in the feed results in porcine faecal concentrations of approximately 4 mg/L. This study aimed to determine the effect of residual DOX concentrations (1 and 4 mg/L) in vitro on selection of DOX resistant porcine commensal E. coli and transfer of their resistance plasmids. Three different DOX resistant porcine commensal E. coli strains and their plasmids were characterized...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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