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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924475/pandemics-public-health-emergencies-and-antimicrobial-resistance-putting-the-threat-in-an-epidemiologic-and-risk-analysis-context
#1
C Raina MacIntyre, Chau Minh Bui
Public health messaging about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) sometimes conveys the problem as an epidemic. We outline why AMR is a serious endemic problem manifested in hospital and community-acquired infections. AMR is not an epidemic condition, but may complicate epidemics, which are characterised by sudden societal impact due to rapid rise in cases over a short timescale. Influenza, which causes direct viral effects, or secondary bacterial complications is the most likely cause of an epidemic or pandemic where AMR may be a problem...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923608/molecular-characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-highly-pathogenic-vibrio-alginolyticus-strains-isolated-during-mortality-outbreaks-in-cultured-ruditapes-decussatus-juvenile
#2
Badreddine Mechri, Monastiri Abir, Amel Medhioub, Mohamed Nejib Medhioub, Mahjoub Aouni
In the summer of 2008 and 2009, a series of mortalities in growing out seeds of R. decussatus juveniles were occurred in the eastern Tunisian littoral. Nine predominant bacterial strains were isolated from dead and moribund juveniles and characterized as Vibrio alginolyticus. These isolates were subjected to biochemical and molecular characterization. All the Vibrio strains were tested for their susceptibility against the most widely used antibiotic in aquaculture as well as, the assessment of the presence of erythromycin (emrB) and tetracycline (tetS) resistance genes among the tested bacteria...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923605/microbial-pathogenicity-and-virulence-mediated-by-integrons-on-gram-positive-microorganisms
#3
REVIEW
Yanmei Li, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang
Gram-positive microorganisms are one of leading pathogenic microorganisms in public health, including several typical "Super Bugs" as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, which caused a increasement of infections, clinical failures and expenses. Regarded as a common genetic element responsible for horizontal gene transfer, integrons are widely distributed in various pathogens considered as a determinant in the acquisition and evolution of antibiotic resistance...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#4
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918634/an-engineered-probiotic-for-the-inhibition-of-salmonella-via-tetrathionate-induced-production-of-microcin-h47
#5
Jacob D Palmer, Emma Piattelli, Beth McCormick, Mark Silby, Christopher Brigham, Vanni Bucci
Complications arising from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming one of the key issues in modern medicine. Members of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae spp. include opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Salmonella spp.) that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Overgrowth of these bacteria is considered a hallmark of intestinal dysbiosis. Microcins (small antimicrobial peptides) produced by some gut commensals can potentially cure these conditions by inhibiting these pathogens, and have been proposed as a viable alternative to antibiotic treatment...
September 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916003/genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-wild-boars
#6
D Seinige, A Von Altrock, C Kehrenberg
We here report the occurrence of S. aureus in wild boars and characterize isolates genotypically and phenotypically in order to get knowledge about the occurrence of clonal lineages and genotypes in free-living wild animals. Forty-one S. aureus isolates obtained from 111 wild boars hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany, were investigated and compared to human and livestock isolates. The S. aureus belonged to multilocus sequence types ST1, ST7, ST30, ST133, ST425, ST804, ST890 and to the new ST3237, ST3238, ST3255 and ST3369...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915357/a-i-yigp-i-mutant-strain-is-a-small-colony-variant-of-i-e-coli-i-and-shows-pleiotropic-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Hui Xia, Qiongwei Tang, Jie Song, Jiang Ye, Haizhen Wu, Huizhan Zhang
Small colony variants (SCVs) are a commonly observed subpopulation of bacteria that have a small colony size and distinctive biochemical characteristics. SCVs are more resistant to some antibiotics than the wild-type, and usually cause persistent infections in the clinic. SCV studies have been very active during the past two decades, especially of <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. However, fewer studies on <i>Escherichia coli </i>SCVs exist, so we studied an <i>E. coli </i>SCV during an experiment involving the deletion of the<i> yigP</i> locus...
September 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912764/resistance-to-antibiotics-biocides-preservatives-and-metals-in-bacteria-isolated-from-seafoods-co-selection-of-strains-resistant-or-tolerant-to-different-classes-of-compounds
#8
José L Romero, María J Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez-Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas
Multi-drug resistant bacteria (particularly those producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases) have become a major health concern. The continued exposure to antibiotics, biocides, chemical preservatives, and metals in different settings such as the food chain or in the environment may result in development of multiple resistance or co-resistance. The aim of the present study was to determine multiple resistances (biocides, antibiotics, chemical preservatives, phenolic compounds, and metals) in bacterial isolates from seafoods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910381/genetic-characterization-of-blandm-harboring-plasmids-in-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-myanmar
#9
Yo Sugawara, Yukihiro Akeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Dan Takeuchi, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Hideharu Hagiya, Norihisa Yamamoto, Isao Nishi, Hisao Yoshida, Kazuhisa Okada, Khwar Nyo Zin, Mya Mya Aye, Kazunori Tonomo, Shigeyuki Hamada
The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910166/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-relatedness-of-salmonella-isolated-from-chickens-and-pigs-on-farms-abattoirs-and-markets-in-sichuan-province-china
#10
Suzhen Ma, Changwei Lei, Linghan Kong, Wei Jiang, Bihui Liu, Shuai Men, Yanxian Yang, Guangyang Cheng, Yanpeng Chen, Hongning Wang
This study aims at investigating the distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relationship of Salmonella isolated from 18 farms, their downstream abattoirs, and markets of chickens and pigs in Sichuan province, China. A total of 193 Salmonella isolates were identified from 693 samples with an isolation rate of 26.27% (88/335) in chickens and 29.33% (105/358) in pigs. Salmonella was isolated more frequently in abattoirs and markets than from farms. Serotypes were determined according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme and 16 different serotypes were identified, with Derby being the most common, followed by Typhimurium and Meleagridis...
September 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905709/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-laboratory-animal-facilities
#11
Heather L Narver
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become a global health crisis. Physicians and veterinarians are embracing the concept of 'antimicrobial stewardship' (AMS) to preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations. Antimicrobials are used in laboratory animals to treat clinical disease, to protect populations that may be vulnerable to infection, and in research projects including studies of the microbiome and to influence expression in genetically engineered animals. This overview provides a critical look at the use of antimicrobials in contemporary vivaria, with special attention to rodents because they are the most commonly used species in research and because antimicrobial use in rodents is not straightforward...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904189/comparison-of-automated-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-systems-to-detect-mecc-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Camille Kolenda, Céline Dupieux, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Anders Rhod Larsen, Bruno Pichon, Mark Holmes, Michèle Bès, Christopher Teale, Elizabeth Dickson, Robert Hill, Robert Skov, Angela Kearns, Frédéric Laurent
Methicillin-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is classically mediated by the mecA gene carried on a mobile genetic element, called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).….
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892305/high-level-resistance-of-melissococcus-plutonius-clonal-complex-3-strains-to-antimicrobial-activity-of-royal-jelly
#13
Daisuke Takamatsu, Aya Osawa, Keiko Nakamura, Mikio Yoshiyama, Masatoshi Okura
Melissococcus plutonius is the causative agent of European foulbrood of honey bee larvae. Among its three genetically distinct groups (CC3, CC12, and CC13), CC3 strains have been suggested to be more virulent at the colony level. Honey bee larvae are fed royal or worker jellies by adult bees, and these jellies exhibit antimicrobial activity. Since M. plutonius orally infects larvae via brood food, we herein investigated the resistance of M. plutonius to the antimicrobial activity of royal jelly (RJ). The results obtained revealed that M...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888881/prevalence-and-genetic-profiling-of-tetracycline-resistance-tet-r-genes-and-transposable-element-tn916-in-environmental-enterococcus-species
#14
Sindhu Zahid, Hassan Bin-Asif, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Marium Rehman, Syed Abid Ali
Resistance against antimicrobial agents in enterococci is a global concern that not only challenges infection therapy but also make them reservoir of antibiotic resistance in human and animal alike. This study was conducted to establish tetracycline resistance profiles, prevalence of tet genes and transposable element (Tn916) in enterococcal soil and clinical isolates. Enterococci (n = 1210) from different environmental niche were collected and subjected to molecular identification. In total, 361 isolates showed tetracycline resistance at the breakpoint of 32 μg ml(-1)...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885820/strategies-for-editing-virulent-staphylococcal-phages-using-crispr-cas10
#15
S M Nayeemul Bari, Forrest C Walker, Katie Cater, Barbaros Aslan, Asma Hatoum-Aslan
Staphylococci are prevalent skin-dwelling bacteria that are also leading causes of antibiotic-resistant infections. Viruses that infect and lyse these organisms (virulent staphylococcal phages) can be used as alternatives to conventional antibiotics and represent promising tools to eliminate or manipulate specific species in the microbiome. However, since over half their genes have unknown functions, virulent staphylococcal phages carry inherent risk to cause unknown downstream side effects. Further, their swift and destructive reproductive cycle make them intractable by current genetic engineering techniques...
September 8, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879525/colonic-spirochetes-what-has-genomics-taught-us
#16
David John Hampson, Penghao Wang
The 'colonic' spirochetes assigned to the genus Brachyspira are slow-growing anaerobic bacteria. The genus includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, and these variously colonise the large intestines of different species of birds and animals, including humans. Scientific understanding of the physiology and molecular biology of Brachyspira spp. remains very limited compared with that of other pathogenic spirochetes, and there are few descriptions of successful genetic manipulations undertaken to investigate gene function...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878891/epidemic-characterization-and-molecular-genotyping-of-shigella-flexneri-isolated-from-calves-with-diarrhea-in-northwest-china
#17
Zhen Zhu, Mingze Cao, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Jiyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of antibiotics resistance genes in pathogenic bacteria can cause enormous problems. Food animals are one of the main reservoirs of intestinal pathogens that pose a potential risk to human. Analyzing the epidemiological characteristics and resistance patterns of Shigella flexneri in calves is necessary for animal and human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 54 Shigella flexneri isolates, including six serotypes (1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 6 and Xv), were collected from 837 fecal samples obtained from 2014 to 2016...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873943/novel-sequence-types-of-extended-spectrum-and-acquired-ampc-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-escherichia-clade-v-isolated-from-wild-mammals
#18
Carla Andrea Alonso, Leticia Alcalá, Carmen Simón, Carmen Torres
The closer contact with wildlife due to the growing human population and the destruction of natural habitats emphasizes the need of gaining insight into the role of animals as source of antimicrobial resistance. Here, we aim at characterizing the antimicrobial resistance genes and phylogenetic distribution of commensal Escherichia coli from 62 wild mammals. Isolates exhibiting resistance to ≥1 antibiotic were detected in 25.8% of the animals and 6.4% carried an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing E...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870291/genomic-characterization-of-an-extensively-drug-resistance-salmonella-enterica-serotype-indiana-strain-harboring-blandm-1-gene-isolated-from-a-chicken-carcass-in-china
#19
Wei Wang, Zixin Peng, Zulqarnain Baloch, Yujie Hu, Jin Xu, Wenhui Zhang, Séamus Fanning, Fengqin Li
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to genetically characterize the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 isolated from a chicken carcass in China in 2014. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility against a panel of 23 antimicrobial agents was carried out on Salmonella enterica serotype Indiana C629 and assessed according to CLSI standards. Whole-genome sequencing of this isolate was conducted to obtain the complete genome of S...
November 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870171/evolution-of-mobile-genetic-element-composition-in-an-epidemic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-temporal-changes-correlated-with-frequent-loss-and-gain-events
#20
Dorota Jamrozy, Francesc Coll, Alison E Mather, Simon R Harris, Ewan M Harrison, Alasdair MacGowan, Andreas Karas, Tony Elston, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes mediates the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the emergence of new MRSA clones. Most MRSA lineages show an association with specific MGEs and the evolution of MGE composition following clonal expansion has not been widely studied. RESULTS: We investigated the genomes of 1193 S. aureus bloodstream isolates, 1169 of which were MRSA, collected in the UK and the Republic of Ireland between 2001 and 2010...
September 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
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