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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447896/nanoemulsion-is-an-effective-antimicrobial-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-infected-wounds
#1
Zhengyi Cao, Theodore Spilker, Yongyi Fan, Linda M Kalikin, Susan Ciotti, John J LiPuma, Paul E Makidon, John Erby Wilkinson, James R Baker, Su He Wang
AIM: To develop NB-201, a nanoemulsion compound, as a novel microbicidal agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, which is a common threat to public health but with limited therapeutic options. MATERIALS & METHODS: NB-201 was tested in in vitro and in vivo murine and porcine models infected with MRSA. RESULTS: Topical treatment of MRSA-infected wounds with NB-201 significantly decreased bacterial load and had no toxic effects on healthy skin tissues...
April 27, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443223/detection-of-integrons-and-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-types-in-clinical-methicillin-resistant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-strains
#2
Fahimeh Hajiahmadi, Elham Salimi Ghale, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Alireza Mordadi, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
OBJECTIVES: Integrons are thought to play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study investigates class 1 and 2 integron-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains isolated in Iran and characterizes their patterns of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Hundred clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were characterized for integron content and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type...
February 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439301/prevalence-virulence-potential-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-profiling-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-cattle
#3
Hee-Jin Dong, Soomin Lee, Woohyun Kim, Jae-Uk An, Junhyung Kim, Danil Kim, Seongbeom Cho
BACKGROUND: As a primary source of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, cattle are often targeted to develop strategies for reducing STEC contamination. Monitoring the virulence potentials of STEC isolates from cattle is important for tracing contamination sources, managing outbreaks or sporadic cases, and reducing the risks for human infection. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of STEC in cattle farm samples in South Korea and to assess their virulence potentials...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437232/epidemiological-physiological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-a-brazilian-collection-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Vanessa Cordeiro Dias, Juliana Alves Resende, André Netto Bastos, Lucas Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Victor Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Ricardo Villela Bastos, Cláudio Galuppo Diniz, Vânia Lúcia Da Silva
Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are widespread in the environment and are increasingly associated with nosocomial infections, often associated with multidrug-resistance phenotypes. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, physiological, and molecular characteristics of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. In total, 63 nonreplicated strains (44 A. baumannii and 19 P. aeruginosa) were isolated from hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, biocide tolerance, oxidative stress, hemolytic activity, and biofilm formation were assessed...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433796/genetic-diversity-and-virulence-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-isolated-from-meats-and-eggs
#5
Fatemeh Fardsanei, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Hamed Memariani, Farhad Nikkhahi
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated food products of animal origin. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry meats and eggs in Iran. A total of 34 S. Enteritidis strains were collected from different food sources of animal origin in Tehran from May 2015 to July 2016. All of the S. Enteritidis strains were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for virulence genes...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432358/differential-sensitivity-to-infections-and-antimicrobial-peptide-mediated-immune-response-in-four-silkworm-strains-with-different-geographical-origin
#6
Ottavia Romoli, Alessio Saviane, Andrea Bozzato, Paola D'Antona, Gianluca Tettamanti, Andrea Squartini, Silvia Cappellozza, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori has an innate immune system, whose main effectors are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Silkworm strains are commonly grouped into four geographical types (Japanese, Chinese, European and Tropical) and are generally characterised by a variable susceptibility to infections. To clarify the genetic and molecular mechanisms on which the different responses to infections are based, we exposed one silkworm strain for each geographical area to oral infections with the silkworm pathogens Enterococcus mundtii or Serratia marcescens...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#7
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430086/genotypic-relatedness-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-heidelberg-isolated-from-chickens-and-turkeys-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#8
Muhammad Nisar, Issmat I Kassem, Gireesh Rajashekara, Sagar M Goyal, Dale Lauer, Shauna Voss, Kakambi V Nagaraja
Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne illnesses in humans in the United States, and domestic poultry is considered an important source of this pathogen. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is the fourth most commonly reported Salmonella from retail meats and food animals in the United States. We assessed the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from various chicken and turkey hatcheries and breeder farms in the Midwest. The genotypes of 33 S...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428772/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-close-human-contacts-in-south-african-dairy-herds-genetic-diversity-and-inter-species-host-transmission
#9
Tracy Schmidt, Marleen M Kock, Marthie M Ehlers
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428290/draft-genome-sequence-of-acinetobacter-johnsonii-c6-an-environmental-isolate-engaging-in-interspecific-metabolic-interactions
#10
Rolf Sommer Kaas, Hanne Mordhorst, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Jacob Dyring Jensen, Janus A J Haagensen, Søren Molin, Sünje Johanna Pamp
Acinetobacter johnsonii C6 originates from creosote-polluted groundwater and performs ecological and evolutionary interactions with Pseudomonas putida in biofilms. The draft genome of A. johnsonii C6 is 3.7 Mbp and was shaped by mobile genetic elements. It reveals genes facilitating the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and resistance to antimicrobials and metals.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424761/sequencing-of-blaimp-carrying-incn2-plasmids-and-comparative-genomics-of-incn2-plasmids-harboring-class-1-integrons
#11
Xiaoyuan Jiang, Zhe Yin, Xiuyun Yin, Haihong Fang, Qiang Sun, Yigang Tong, Yuanhong Xu, Defu Zhang, Jiao Feng, Weijun Chen, Yajun Song, Jinglin Wang, Shuiping Chen, Dongsheng Zhou
This work presents the complete nucleotide sequences of p0801-IMP from Klebsiella pneumoniae, p7121-IMP from K. oxytoca, and p17285-IMP from Citrobacter freundii, which are recovered from three different cases of nosocomial infection. These three plasmids represent the first fully sequenced blaIMP-carrying IncN2 plasmids. Further comparative genomics analysis of all the five integron-carrying IncN2 plasmids p0801-IMP, p7121-IMP, p17285-IMP, pJIE137, and p34983-59.134kb indicates that they possess conserved IncN2 backbones with limited genetic variations with respect to gene content and organization...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419868/ciprofloxacin-resistance-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-causing-community-acquired-urinary-infections-in-bras%C3%A3-lia-brazil
#12
Rafaella Christina Rocha Moreira da Silva, Paulo de Oliveira Martins Júnior, Laura Fernandes Gonçalves, Vicente de Paulo Martins, Ana Beatriz Fabrício de Melo, André Pitondo-Silva, Tatiana Amabile de Campos
OBJECTIVES: Considering the global concern of ciprofloxacin resistance, the aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-R) Escherichia coli isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Brasília, Brazil. METHODS: CIP-R E. coli isolated from different outpatients between July 2013 and April 2014 in a tertiary hospital were analysed for antibiotic resistance profile, phylotype, uropathogenic E...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412568/first-report-on-mrsa-cc398-recovered-from-wild-boars-in-the-north-of-portugal-are-we-facing-a-problem
#13
Margarida Sousa, Nuno Silva, Vera Manageiro, Sónia Ramos, António Coelho, David Gonçalves, Manuela Caniça, Carmen Torres, Gilberto Igrejas, Patrícia Poeta
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from wild boars, to analyze their genetic lineages, and to investigate the susceptibility to oxacillin. Samples from mouth and nose of 45 wild boars (Sus scrofa) were collected during hunt activity from November 2012 to January 2013 in the North of Portugal. S. aureus isolates were recovered from 30 of these samples (33%); one isolate/sample was further studied. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by disk-diffusion test against 14 antimicrobial agents and minimal inhibitory concentration was used to test oxacillin according to EUCAST guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412524/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-of-the-sxt-element-in-vibrio-cholerae-from-clinical-and-environmental-water-samples-in-northeastern-thailand
#14
Wanida Mala, Kiatichai Faksri, Kittipan Samerpitak, Umaporn Yordpratum, Wanlop Kaewkes, Unchalee Tattawasart, Chariya Chomvarin
Multidrug resistance in V. cholerae has been increasing around the world including northeastern Thailand. The aquatic environment is a reservoir of V. cholerae and might be an important source of resistant strains. The aims of this study were to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of intSXT gene sequences from 31 clinical and 14 environmental V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/non-O139 isolates and 11 sequences amplified directly from environmental water samples. We also amplified class 1 integrons, the SXT elements (targeting the intSXT gene) and antimicrobial resistance genes directly from water samples...
April 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407796/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infection-and-the-molecular-characteristics-of-mrsa-bacteraemia-over-a-two-year-period-in-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-malaysia
#15
Pik San Sit, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Nuryana Idris, I-Ching Sam, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Kwai Lin Thong, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established pathogen that causes hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The prevalence rate of MRSA infections were reported to be the highest in Asia. As there is limited epidemiological study being done in Malaysia, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia. METHODS: Two hundred and nine MRSA strains from year 2011 to 2012 were collected from a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia...
April 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405633/genomic-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-low-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-sequence-type-95-strains
#16
Craig M Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R Johnson, Lee W Riley
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/an-update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#17
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for CDI. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described; these include the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism and DNA repair, as well as biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402221/an-update-on-the-use-of-c-elegans-for-preclinical-drug-discovery-screening-and-identifying-anti-infective-drugs
#18
Wooseong Kim, Gabriel Lambert Hendricks, Kiho Lee, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant and -tolerant bacteria is a major threat to human health. Although efforts for drug discovery are ongoing, conventional bacteria-centered screening strategies have thus far failed to yield new classes of effective antibiotics. Therefore, new paradigms for discovering novel antibiotics are of critical importance. Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism used for in vivo, offers a promising solution for identification of anti-infective compounds. Areas covered:This review examines the advantages of C...
April 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400529/control-of-gdhr-expression-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-via-autoregulation-and-a-master-repressor-mtrr-of-a-drug-efflux-pump-operon
#19
Corinne E Rouquette-Loughlin, Yaramah M Zalucki, Vijaya L Dhulipala, Jacqueline T Balthazar, Raúl G Doyle, Robert A Nicholas, Afrin A Begum, Erica L Raterman, Ann E Jerse, William M Shafer
The MtrCDE efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae contributes to gonococcal resistance to a number of antibiotics used previously or currently in treatment of gonorrhea, as well as to host-derived antimicrobials that participate in innate defense. Overexpression of the MtrCDE efflux pump increases gonococcal survival and fitness during experimental lower genital tract infection of female mice. Transcription of mtrCDE can be repressed by the DNA-binding protein MtrR, which also acts as a global regulator of genes involved in important metabolic, physiologic, or regulatory processes...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400211/a-sybr-%C3%A2-green-based-real-time-pcr-method-for-improved-detection-of-mcr-1-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-human-stool-samples
#20
Valentina Donà, Odette J Bernasconi, Sara Kasraian, Regula Tinguely, Andrea Endimiani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to design a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR (rt-PCR) method for colistin resistance mcr-1 gene detection in human faecal samples. METHODS: Stools (n=88) from 36 volunteers were analysed. To isolate mcr-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae, samples were enriched overnight in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth containing 2mg/L colistin and were then plated on selective agar plates with 4mg/L colistin. A SYBR(®) Green-based rt-PCR targeting mcr-1 was then designed...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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