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genetics of antimicrobial resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549097/cluster-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-high-level-azithromycin-resistance-and-decreased-ceftriaxone-susceptibility-hawaii-2016
#1
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Robert D Kirkcaldy, A Christian Whelen, Olusegun O Soge, John R Papp, Ellen N Kersh, Glenn M Wasserman, Norman P O'Connor, Pamela S O'Brien, Douglas T Sato, Eloisa V Maningas, Gail Y Kunimoto, Juval E Tomas
Background.: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We report on a cluster of N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrating high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545411/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-from-hefei-2014-2015-genetic-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
Fa-Xing Jiang, Qian Lan, Wen-Jing Le, Xiao-Hong Su
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genetic determinants of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hefei, China, were characterized adding a breadth of information to the molecular epidemiology of gonococcal resistance in China. METHODS: 126 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from a hospital clinic in Hefei, were collected between January, 2014, and November, 2015. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates for seven antimicrobials were determined by the agar dilution method...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542807/genetic-diversity-virulotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-susceptibility-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-isolated-from-pigs-and-porcine-products-in-malaysia
#3
Kwai Lin Thong, Lai Kuan Tan, Peck Toung Ooi
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. RESULTS: Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n=27; 1B/O:8, n=3; 1A/O:5, n=2) were analysed. About 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with MAR index <0.2 and majority of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, clindamycin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, tetracycline and amoxicillin...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536568/comparing-the-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-campylobacter-jejuni-recovered-from-cattle-and-humans
#4
Wonhee Cha, Rebekah E Mosci, Samantha L Wengert, Cristina Venegas Vargas, Steven R Rust, Paul C Bartlett, Daniel L Grooms, Shannon D Manning
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans, is a foodborne pathogen that can reside in chickens, pigs, and cattle. Because resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are commonly used to treat human infections, has emerged in C. jejuni, it is imperative to continously monitor resistance patterns and examine the genetic variation in strains from human infections and animal reservoirs. Our previous study of C. jejuni from human campylobacteriosis cases showed a significantly higher rate of tetracycline resistance compared to national trends, and identified multilocus sequence type (ST)-982 and a history of cattle contact to be associated with tetracycline resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535790/clonal-replacement-of-epidemic-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-hospital-in-china
#5
Yuying Liang, Xiuyun Yin, Lijun Zeng, Shuiping Chen
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent nosocomial pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections worldwide. The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) is increasing in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of KPC-KP in a nosocomial outbreak. METHODS: Fifty-four KPC-KP isolates were consecutively collected between November 2013 and August 2014 during a KPC-KP outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China...
May 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535195/presence-of-type-i-f-crispr-cas-systems-is-associated-with-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Seyid Aydin, Yoann Personne, Enas Newire, Rebecca Laverick, Oliver Russell, Adam P Roberts, Virve I Enne
Background: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and their associated cas genes are sequence-specific DNA nuclease systems found in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas systems use RNA transcripts of previously acquired DNA (spacers) to target invading genetic elements with the same sequence, including plasmids. In this research we studied the relationship between CRISPR/Cas systems and multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli . Methods: The presence of Type I-E and Type I-F CRISPR systems was investigated among 82 antimicrobial-susceptible and 96 MDR clinical E...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528649/metal-resistance-and-its-association-with-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J Stekel, D G Joakim Larsson, Jon L Hobman
Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#8
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526788/zinc-resistance-within-swine-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolates-in-the-usa-is-associated-with-mlst-lineage
#9
Samantha J Hau, Timothy Frana, Jisun Sun, Peter R Davies, Tracy L Nicholson
Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type (ST) 398 is primarily mediated by the czrC gene co-located with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V SCCmec element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of in feed zinc as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of MRSA in swine through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCCmec element in isolates obtained from pigs...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#11
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516842/serotype-distribution-antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-pilus-islets-in-pneumococci-following-the-use-of-conjugate-vaccines
#12
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Masaaki Shinagawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Nobumichi Kobayashi
PURPOSE: In Japan, the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in 2010 and, in 2013, the PCV7 was replaced with the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13). This study was conducted to investigate serotypes, antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of pilus islets in pneumococcal isolates from inpatients in a Japanese tertiary hospital. METHODOLOGY: From April 2011 to February 2016, 151 isolates [95 (18 children, 77 adults) and 56 (19 children, 37 adults) in the PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively] were collected...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515022/sos-response-in-bacteria-inhibitory-activity-of-lichen-secondary-metabolites-against-escherichia-coli-reca-protein
#13
Pierangelo Bellio, Letizia Di Pietro, Alisia Mancini, Marisa Piovano, Marcello Nicoletti, Fabrizia Brisdelli, Donatella Tondi, Laura Cendron, Nicola Franceschini, Gianfranco Amicosante, Mariagrazia Perilli, Giuseppe Celenza
BACKGROUND: RecA is a bacterial multifunctional protein essential to genetic recombination, error-prone replicative bypass of DNA damages and regulation of SOS response. The activation of bacterial SOS response is directly related to the development of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to antimicrobials. Although recent studies directed towards RecA inactivation via ATP binding inhibition described a variety of micromolar affinity ligands, inhibitors of the DNA binding site are still unknown...
June 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512290/evolution-of-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-after-dcd-renal-transplantation
#14
Hong Jiang, Luxi Cao, Lihui Qu, Tingting Qu, Guangjun Liu, Rending Wang, Bingjue Li, Yuchen Wang, Chaoqun Ying, Miao Chen, Yingying Lu, Shi Feng, Yonghong Xiao, Junwen Wang, Jianyong Wu, Jianghua Chen
Infection after renal transplantation remains a major cause of morbidity and death, especially infection from the extensively drug-resistant bacteria, A. baumannii. A total of fourteen A. baumannii isolates were isolated from the donors' preserved fluid from DCD (donation after cardiac death) renal transplantation and four isolates in the recipients' draining liquid at the Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from March 2013 to November 2014. An outbreak of A...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512093/population-genomic-analysis-of-1-777-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-houston-texas-unexpected-abundance-of-clonal-group-307
#15
S Wesley Long, Randall J Olsen, Todd N Eagar, Stephen B Beres, Picheng Zhao, James J Davis, Thomas Brettin, Fangfang Xia, James M Musser
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. To develop new therapeutic strategies for K. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. To address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing K...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506660/specific-clones-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-may-be-associated-with-colon-carcinoma
#16
Norihisa Noguchi, Mari Fukuzawa, Takeaki Wajima, Kaoru Yokose, Masae Suzuki, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Takashi Kawai, Fuminori Moriyasu, Masanori Sasatsu
Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces a tannase with activity that may be associated with the onset of colon carcinoma. To clarify this feature of colon carcinoma-associated S. lugdunensis, we obtained isolates from healthy subjects and patients with colon adenomas and carcinomas and analyzed their genetic backgrounds. In total, 40 S. lugdunensis isolates from 288 rectal swabs collected between 2002 and 2008 were used. These isolates were classified into four groups according to the diseases of the subjects: healthy (n=13), colon carcinoma (n=13), colon adenoma (n=9), and unknown (n=5)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505370/the-complete-nucleotide-sequence-of-an-incp-2-megaplasmid-unveils-a-mosaic-architecture-comprising-a-putative-novel-blavim-2-harbouring-transposon-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
João Botelho, Filipa Grosso, Sandra Quinteira, Aymen Mabrouk, Luísa Peixe
Objectives: In Pseudomonas aeruginosa , bla VIM-2 has been mostly associated with a chromosomal location and rarely with a plasmid backbone. Until now, only three complete bla VIM-2 -carrying plasmid sequences have been described in this species. Here we explore the modular structure of pJB37, the first bla VIM-2 -carrying megaplasmid described in P. aeruginosa . Methods: The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pJB37 was determined with an Illumina HiSeq, with de novo assembly by SPAdes, annotation by RAST and searching for antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504897/clonal-complexes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-dogs-in-the-united-states
#18
Ricardo Videla, Samar M Solyman, Akshar Brahmbhatt, Leslie Sadeghi, David A Bemis, Stephen A Kania
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the primary cause of canine pyoderma and has been associated with diseases in other animals, including human beings. A high prevalence of methicillin and multidrug resistance has been reported in this bacterium in some geographic regions of the United States. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) 68 was implicated, initially, as the major clonal genotype based on a limited number of samples. The objectives of this study were to determine the population genetics of S. pseudintermedius isolated from a cross-section of the United States using a seven-locus multilocus sequence typing method, to identify clonal complexes (CCs), and to correlate sequence types with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504889/genetic-characterization-of-vana-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-wild-red-legged-partridges-in-portugal
#19
Vanessa Silva, Gilberto Igrejas, Isabel Carvalho, Fernando Peixoto, Lucas Cardoso, José Eduardo Pereira, Rosa Del Campo, Patricia Poeta
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have been detected in wild animals representing a public health concern. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a common game bird and its meat is consumed in several countries, including Portugal. Three hundred five fecal samples of red-legged partridge from the north of Portugal were screened for VRE. Samples were cultured on Slanetz-Bartley agar supplemented with vancomycin (4 mg/L) and six vanA-Enterococcus faecium were recovered. Isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes...
May 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504616/prevalence-and-characterization-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-retail-chicken-in-tianjin-china
#20
Hui Ma, Yulan Su, Luyao Ma, Lina Ma, Ping Li, Xinjun Du, Greta Gölz, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide; however, there is a lack of information on the prevalence and antibiotic-resistant profile of C. jejuni in the People's Republic of China. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of C. jejuni on the retail level in Tianjin, one of the five national central cities in China. A total of 227 samples of chicken wings, legs, and breasts were collected from supermarkets and wet markets; 42 of these samples were confirmed to be positive for Campylobacter contamination...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
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