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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330321/antimicrobial-antibiofilm-and-microbial-barrier-properties-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-cloisite-30b-thin-films
#1
Snigdha Sajeendra Babu, Shiji Mathew, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Sabu Thomas, Radhakrishnan E K
Development of antibacterial and antibiofilm surfaces is in high demand. In this study, nanocomposite of Poly (ε-caprolactone)/Cloisite 30B was prepared by the solvent casting method. The membranes were characterised by SEM, AFM, and FTIR. Evaluation of water uptake, antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and microbial barrier properties demonstrated a significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against MTCC strain of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and strong biofilm positive Staphylococcus epidermidis of clinical origin at low clay concentrations...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330312/isolation-and-screening-of-l-asparaginase-free-of-glutaminase-and-urease-from-fungal-sp
#2
Kruthi Doriya, Devarai Santhosh Kumar
L-Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a malignant disorder in children. L-Asparaginase helps in removing acrylamide found in fried and baked foods that is carcinogenic in nature. L-Asparaginase is present in plants, animals and microbes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi are generally used for the production of L-asparaginase as it is difficult to obtain the same from plants and animals. L-Asparaginase from bacteria causes anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions due to low specificity to asparagine...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330310/diversity-and-bioactive-potentials-of-culturable-heterotrophic-bacteria-from-the-surficial-sediments-of-the-arabian-sea
#3
Abdulaziz Anas, Charulatha Nilayangod, C Jasmin, Saradavey Vinothkumar, P S Parameswaran, Shanta Nair
Marine sediments accommodate plethora of diverse microorganisms with varying ecological functions. In the present study, we isolated bacteria from surficial sediments of south east Arabian Sea (AS) and evaluated their bioactive potentials. A total of 131 isolates belonging to the phylum: γ-Proteobacteria (63%), Bacillales (34%) and Micrococcaceae (3%) were isolated. Among these, about 40% of the isolates showed the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes such as PKS or NRPS or both. Organic extracts of nearly 50% of these organisms were cytotoxic to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and were bactericidal to human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330308/construction-of-aspergillus-niger-integrated-with-cellulase-gene-from-ampullaria-gigas-spix-for-improved-enzyme-production-and-saccharification-of-alkaline-pretreated-rice-straw
#4
Peizhou Yang, Haifeng Zhang, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang
Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism that has been used for decades to produce extracellular enzymes. In this study, a novel Aspergillus niger strain integrated with a eukaryotic expression vector harboring the gpd-Shi promoter of shiitake mushrooms and cellulase gene of Ampullaria gigas Spix was engineered to improve cellulase production for the achievement of highly efficient saccharification of agricultural residues. In one strain, designated ACShi27, which exhibited the highest total cellulase expression, total cellulase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and xylanase expression levels were 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330291/optimization-of-culture-conditions-by-response-surface-methodology-and-unstructured-kinetic-modeling-for-bioactive-metabolite-production-by-nocardiopsis-litoralis-vsm-8
#5
Ushakiranmayi Managamuri, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Sudhakar Poda, V S Rama Krishna Ganduri, R Satish Babu
Response surface methodology-based central composite design on five variables incubation time, pH, temperature, sucrose concentration, and soya peptone concentration was employed for optimization of the production of bioactive compounds by Nocardiopsis litoralis strain VSM 8. The main quadratic effects and interactions of the five variables on the production of bioactive metabolites were investigated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfied fit for experimental data with regard to the production of the bioactive metabolites...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330280/culturable-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-medicinal-plant-ferula-songorica-molecular-phylogeny-distribution-and-screening-for-industrially-important-traits
#6
Yong-Hong Liu, Jian-Wei Guo, Nimaichand Salam, Li Li, Yong-Guang Zhang, Jian Han, Osama Abdalla Mohamad, Wen-Jun Li
Xinjiang, a region of high salinity and drought, is a host to many arid and semi-arid plants. Many of these plants including Ferula spp. have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. As many of the medicinal properties of plants are in tandem with the associated microorganisms residing within the plant tissues, it is advisable to explore the endophytic potential of such plants. In the present study, diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from medicinal plants Ferula songorica collected from Hebukesaier, Xinjiang were analyzed...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330279/immobilization-of%C3%A2-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-sp1-and-its-alkaline-protease-in-various-matrices-for-effective-hydrolysis-of-casein
#7
Shiwani Guleria, Abhishek Walia, Anjali Chauhan, C K Shirkot
An extracellular alkaline protease producing B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 was isolated from apple rhizosphere having multifarious plant growth-promoting activities. B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 protease was immobilized using various concentrations of calcium alginate, agar and polyacrylamide to determine the optimum concentration for formation of the beads. Enzyme activity before immobilization (at 60 °C, pH 8.0 for 5 min) was 3580 µg/ml/min. The results of immobilization with various matrices revealed that 3 % calcium alginate (2829...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330248/photo-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-and-enterococcus-hirae-using-methylene-blue-and-sodium-anthraquinone-2-sulphonate-effect-of-process-parameters
#8
Madhavi Singh, Kannan Pakshirajan, Vishal Trivedi
In this study, effect of different parameters, viz. concentration of photosensitizer (PS), pH of the bacterial cell suspension and initial cell count, on photo-inactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae bacteria using methylene blue (MB) and sodium anthraquinone-2-sulphonate (SAQS) was investigated employing the statistically valid full factorial design of experiments. The inactivation efficiency of E. hirae using MB ranges between 10.81 and 48.55 %, whereas in the case of E. coli it ranges between 10...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330246/microbial-enzymes-industrial-progress-in-21st-century
#9
REVIEW
Rajendra Singh, Manoj Kumar, Anshumali Mittal, Praveen Kumar Mehta
Biocatalytic potential of microorganisms have been employed for centuries to produce bread, wine, vinegar and other common products without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses in industries and medicine owing to their stability, catalytic activity, and ease of production and optimization than plant and animal enzymes. The use of enzymes in various industries (e.g., food, agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals) is increasing rapidly due to reduced processing time, low energy input, cost effectiveness, nontoxic and eco-friendly characteristics...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330237/biocatalytic-activity-of-aspergillus-niger-xylanase-in-paper-pulp-biobleaching
#10
A Sridevi, A Sandhya, G Ramanjaneyulu, G Narasimha, P Suvarnalatha Devi
Xylanase is a hemicellulase enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of xylan to xylose which is widely used in processing of feed, pulp and paper. It is produced by many microorganisms especially filamentous fungi like Trichoderma and Aspergillus. A potential xylanolytic fungal isolate Aspergillus niger was isolated from forest soils of Tirumala, AP, India, and its crude enzyme was checked for its potential in paper bleaching. Under submerged fermentation, production of xylanase, cellulase, biomass, total protein and sugar released were analysed after 7 days of incubation at room temperature...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330221/optimization-of-medium-parameters-by-response-surface-methodology-rsm-for-enhanced-production-of-cutinase-from-aspergillus-sp-rl2ct
#11
Vijaya Kumari, Vijay Kumar, Ravin Chauhan, Mohammad Asif, Tek Chand Bhalla
Cutinases are hydrolytic enzymes which catalyzes esterification and trans-esterification reactions that make them highly potential industrial biocatalyst. In the present investigation microorganisms showing cutinase activity were isolated from plant samples. The strain showing maximum cutinase activity was identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Aspergillus sp. RL2Ct and was selected for further studies. To achieve maximum enzyme production, the medium components affecting cutinase production were screened by Plackett-Burman followed by central composite design...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330219/effect-of-chlorpyrifos-on-soil-microbial-diversity-and-its-biotransformation-by-streptomyces-sp-hp-11
#12
M Supreeth, M A Chandrashekar, N Sachin, N S Raju
The application of pesticides in agricultural fields not only reaches the target pests but also with soil where it interacts with soil microorganisms resulting in change of microbial diversity. Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one such organophosphorous insecticide most widely used against various insects, termites, and beetles throughout the globe. In the present work, the effect of CP on soil microbial population was assessed by the cultivable method. The fertile soil which does not have a history of any pesticide application was treated with 100 and 200 µg/g of CP along with control which received only sterile water and incubated for 1, 7, and 14 days...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330199/optimization-of-fermentation-media-and-growth-conditions-for-microbial-xylanase-production
#13
Bushra Kalim, Nazish Mazhar Ali
Efficiency of cellulase-free xylanases is one of the determining factors in paper and pulp industries. Use of microbes which can produce cellulase-free xylanases may help to overcome the current challenges in kraft pulp processing. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from local samples offers a possibility for obtaining the potential microbes for this purpose. This research was therefore aimed to collect, screen, characterize and identify potential cellulase-free xylanase producers. A total of 313 microbial isolates were collected while using selective media (EBAM and XAM) to determine the xylanolytic potential of microbes...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330195/identification-and-characterization-of-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-in-vitro-cultures-of-peach-and-pear-rootstocks
#14
Fakhra Liaqat, Rengin Eltem
Endophytes are microorganisms which live symbiotically with almost all varieties of plant and in turn helping the plant in a number of ways. Instead of satisfactory surface sterilization approaches, repeatedly occurring bacterial growth on in vitro rootstock cultures of peach and pear was identified and isolated as endophytic bacteria in our present study. Five different isolates from peach rootstocks were molecularly identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Brevundimonas diminuta, Leifsonia shinshuensis, Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis Brevundimonas vesicularis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens while two endophytic isolates of pear were identified as Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana, and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330151/insight-into-thermophiles-and-their-wide-spectrum-applications
#15
REVIEW
Ridhi Mehta, Paavan Singhal, Hardeep Singh, Dhanashree Damle, Anil K Sharma
The deconstruction of biomass is a pivotal process for the manufacture of target products using microbial cells and their enzymes. But the enzymes that possess a significant role in the breakdown of biomass remain relatively unexplored. Thermophilic microorganisms are of special interest as a source of novel thermostable enzymes. Many thermophilic microorganisms possess properties suitable for biotechnological and commercial use. There is, indeed, a considerable demand for a new generation of stable enzymes that are able to withstand severe conditions in industrial processes by replacing or supplementing traditional chemical processes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330143/biodegradation-of-two-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-whole-corn-silage-as-affected-by-the-cultured-lactobacillus-plantarum
#16
Ying-Hua Zhang, Di Xu, Xin-Huai Zhao, Yao Song, Yan-Le Liu, Hong-Nan Li
Biodegradation of the pesticides is considered as one of the safest and cheapest ways. The aim of the present study was to reveal if the inoculated Lactic acid bacteria widely used in silage could provide beneficial safety to guarantee dairy feedstuffs and fresh milk. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) degradation in whole corn silage was investigated. Two OPPs, chlorpyrifos and phorate, were added to the whole corn, which was inoculated with L. plantarum 1.0315, L. plantarum 1.0624, L. plantarum 1.0622 and their combination at room temperature for 10 weeks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#17
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330137/biotechnological-production-of-hyaluronic-acid-a-mini-review
#18
REVIEW
Jun Hui Sze, Jeremy C Brownlie, Christopher A Love
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide found in the extracellular matrix of vertebrate epithelial, neural and connective tissues. Due to the high moisture retention, biocompatibility and viscoelasticity properties of this polymer, HA has become an important component of major pharmaceutical, biomedical and cosmetic products with high commercial value worldwide. Currently, large scale production of HA involves extraction from animal tissues as well as the use of bacterial expression systems in Streptococci...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330114/evaluation-of-orange-peel-for-biosurfactant-production-by-bacillus-licheniformis-and-their-ability-to-degrade-naphthalene-and-crude-oil
#19
Arthala Praveen Kumar, Avilala Janardhan, Buddolla Viswanath, Kallubai Monika, Jin-Young Jung, Golla Narasimha
A Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from mangrove soil and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis (KC710973). The potential of a mangrove microorganism to utilize different natural waste carbon substrates for biosurfactant production and biodegradation of hydrocarbons was evaluated. Among several substrates used in the present study, orange peel was found to be best substrate of biosurfactant yield with 1.796 g/L and emulsification activity of 75.17 % against diesel. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of biosurfactant compound revealed that the isolated biosurfactant is in lipopeptide nature...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330077/diversity-and-antagonistic-potential-of-marine-microbes-collected-from-south-west-coast-of-india
#20
S Sinimol, A R Sarika, A Jayakumaran Nair
The diversity of some of the culturable microorganisms associated with marine flora and fauna collected off Vizhinjam and Mulloor coast of South India was evaluated and their bioactive production potential determined. From a total of 24 bacteria, 4 actinomycetes and 8 fungi isolated from diverse marine sources, five bacterial species-BLM3, BSP2, BCS1, BCS4 and BMA6 showed inhibitory activity against at least one of the tested pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumonia KU1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VL3, Salmonella enterica typhimurium MTCC 98, Escherichia coli MTCC 40, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 105, Staphylococcus simulans MTCC 3610, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio sp...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
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