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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#1
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#2
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431102/an-escherichia-coli-expression-model-reveals-the-species-specific-function-of-ftsa-from-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-cell-division
#3
Yinan Zou, Yan Li, Sanjaya B Ekanayake, Jo-Anne R Dillon
Escherichia coli (Ec) has been used to study the function of cell division proteins from different microorganisms, especially when genetic tools are limited for studying these proteins in their native hosts. The expression of ftsA from N. gonorrhoeae (Ng) disrupted cell division in E. coli resulting in a significant increase in cell length. In some cells, FtsANg localized to the division site and the poles of E. coli cells, but the majority of cells showed no specifical localization. FtsANg did not complement an E...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431045/water-table-drawdown-shapes-the-depth-dependent-variations-in-prokaryotic-diversity-and-structure-in-zoige-peatlands
#4
Qiuping Zhong, Huai Chen, Liangfeng Liu, Yixin He, Dan Zhu, Lin Jiang, Wei Zhan, Ji Hu
Microbial communities are important to ecosystem function and sensitive to hydrological dynamics. However, we lack predictable knowledge about how soil microorganisms respond to water table drawdown in different depths. This research used high-throughput sequencing method to determine the responses of prokaryotic communities to the changes of water table and depth on Zoige peatlands. Our results showed that water table drawdown reduced alpha diversity indices (observed species, Shannon diversity and Chao1 richness) of prokaryotic communities...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430944/plant-microbial-diversity-is-suggested-as-the-key-to-future-biocontrol-and-health-trends
#5
Gabriele Berg, Martina Köberl, Daria Rybakova, Henry Müller, Rita Grosch, Kornelia Smalla
The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holo-biont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal, and diverse eukaryotic species...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430942/short-term-responses-and-resistance-of-soil-microbial-community-structure-to-elevated-co2-and-n-addition-in-grassland-mesocosms
#6
Marie Simonin, Naoise Nunan, Juliette M G Bloor, Valérie Pouteau, Audrey Niboyet
Nitrogen (N) addition is known to affect soil microbial communities, but the interactive effects of N addition with other drivers of global change remain unclear. The impacts of multiple global changes on the structure of microbial communities may be mediated by specific microbial groups with different life-history strategies. Here, we investigated the combined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on soil microbial communities using PLFA profiling in a short-term grassland mesocosm experiment. We also examined the linkages between the relative abundance of r- and K-strategist microorganisms and resistance of the microbial community structure to experimental treatments...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430277/rapid-single-cell-detection-and-identification-of-pathogens-by-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#7
N E Dina, H Zhou, A Colniţă, N Leopold, T Szoke-Nagy, C Coman, C Haisch
For the successful treatment of infections, real-time analysis and enhanced multiplex capacity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of the developed detection method are critical. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed with the final aim of identification and discrimination of pathogenic bacteria, based on their detected SERS fingerprint at the single-cell level. Several genera of bacteria that are found in most of the isolated infections in bacteraemia were successfully identified in less than 5 minutes without the use of antibodies or other specific receptors...
April 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429944/biotechnological-production-of-dimethoxyflavonoids-using-a-fusion-flavonoid-o-methyltransferase-possessing-both-3-and-7-o-methyltransferase-activities
#8
Danbi Lee, Hye Lin Park, Sang-Won Lee, Seong Hee Bhoo, Man-Ho Cho
Although they are less abundant in nature, methoxyflavonoids have distinct physicochemical and pharmacological properties compared to common nonmethylated flavonoids. Thus, enzymatic conversion and biotransformation using genetically engineered microorganisms of flavonoids have been attempted for the efficient production of methoxyflavonoids. Because of their regiospecificity, more than two flavonoid O-methyltransferases (FOMTs) and enzyme reactions are required to biosynthesize di(or poly)-methoxyflavonoids...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429823/changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis-in-response-to-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#9
Z F Ding, M J Cao, X S Zhu, G H Xu, R L Wang
Intestinal microorganisms play important roles in maintaining host health, but their functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully elucidated. The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one such example. We attempted to identify the shift of gut microbiota that occurred in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an emerging viral pathogen in the crab aquaculture industry. The microbiota may exert some control over aspects of the viral pathogenesis. We investigated the changes in composition and structure of the crab gut microbiome during various WSSV infection stages of 6 h post-infection (hpi) and 48 hpi, using a 16S rRNA approach on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#10
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#11
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429324/photomovement-in-euglena
#12
Donat-P Häder, Mineo Iseki
Motile microorganisms such as the green Euglena gracilis use a number of external stimuli to orient in their environment. They respond to light with photophobic responses, photokinesis and phototaxis, all of which can result in accumulations of the organisms in suitable habitats. The light responses operate synergistically with gravitaxis, aerotaxis and other responses. Originally the microscopically obvious stigma was thought to be the photoreceptor, but later the paraxonemal body (PAB, paraflagellar body) has been identified as the light responsive organelle, located in the trailing flagellum inside the reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#13
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429209/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
V A Petrov, I V Saltykova, I A Zhukova, V M Alifirova, N G Zhukova, Yu B Dorofeeva, A V Tyakht, B A Kovarsky, D G Alekseev, E S Kostryukova, Yu S Mironova, O P Izhboldina, M A Nikitina, T V Perevozchikova, E A Fait, V V Babenko, M T Vakhitova, V M Govorun, A E Sazonov
Gut microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy volunteers was analyzed by the method of high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing of bacterial genomes. In patients with Parkinson's diseases, changes in the content of 9 genera and 15 species of microorganisms were revealed: reduced content of Dorea, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides massiliensis, Stoquefichus massiliensis, Bacteroides coprocola, Blautia glucerasea, Dorea longicatena, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides plebeus, Prevotella copri, Coprococcus eutactus, and Ruminococcus callidus, and increased content of Christensenella, Catabacter, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira, Bifidobacterium, Christensenella minuta, Catabacter hongkongensis, Lactobacillus mucosae, Ruminococcus bromii, and Papillibacter cinnamivorans...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428948/understanding-the-entanglement-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Saira R Martínez-Alemán, Lizbeth Campos-García, José P Palma-Nicolas, Romel Hernández-Bello, Gloria M González, Alejandro Sánchez-González
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the CF trans-membrane conductance regulator. These mutations result in abnormal secretions viscous airways of the lungs, favoring pulmonary infection and inflammation in the middle of neutrophil recruitment. Recently it was described that neutrophils can contribute with disease pathology by extruding large amounts of nuclear material through a mechanism of cell death known as Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) into the airways of patients with CF...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428631/an-overview-of-the-synergy-and-crosstalk-between-pentraxins-and-collectins-ficolins-their-functional-relevance-in-complement-activation
#16
REVIEW
Ying Jie Ma, Bok Luel Lee, Peter Garred
The complement system is an innate immune defense machinery comprising components that deploy rapid immune responses and provide efficient protection against foreign invaders and unwanted host elements. The complement system is activated upon recognition of pathogenic microorganisms or altered self-cells by exclusive pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), such as collectins, ficolins and pentraxins. Recent accumulating evidence shows that the different classes of effector PRMs build up a co-operative network and exert synergistic effects on complement activation...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427880/evaluation-of-effective-microorganisms-on-home-scale-organic-waste-composting
#17
Yee Van Fan, Chew Tin Lee, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Lee Suan Chua, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi, Chee Woh Leow
Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427796/molecular-methods-for-septicemia-diagnosis
#18
Francesc Marco
Septicemia remains a major cause of hospital mortality. Blood culture remains the best approach to identify the etiological microorganisms when a bloodstream infection is suspected but it takes long time because it relies on bacterial or fungal growth. The introduction in clinical microbiology laboratories of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, DNA hybridization, microarrays or rapid PCR-based test significantly reduce the time to results. Tests for direct detection in whole blood samples are highly desirable because of their potential to identify bloodstream pathogens without waiting for blood cultures to become positive...
April 17, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427647/ascorbic-acid-stability-in-fruit-juices-during-thermosonication
#19
Karla Aguilar, Alfonso Garvín, Albert Ibarz, Pedro E D Augusto
Thermosonication is an emerging technology useful for inactivating microorganisms and enzymes in fruit juices. However, the effect of the ultrasound processing on the ascorbic acid content is not clear and the results reported in the literature are contradictory. In this work, the impact of sonication and thermosonication on the ascorbic acid content was first evaluated in model systems. Degassed model solutions at four different pH values (3-6) were processed with or without sonication for 60min at two different conditions of temperature (25 and 55°C)...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427626/manothermosonication-as-a-useful-tool-for-lipid-extraction-from-oleaginous-microorganisms
#20
A Meullemiestre, C Breil, M Abert-Vian, F Chemat
Manothermonication is a recognized and efficient method used for sterilization in food preservation. The synergistic effect of sonication combined with pressure and temperature allows enhancing the cavitation activity. Never employed for extraction, this study is about the transposition of this process as a tool of extraction. In this study, Rhodosporidium toruloides yeast was submitted to extraction by four modes of sonication, with a temperature ranged from 20 to 55°C and a pressure between 1 to 2bars. The lipids extraction yields were compared to the conventional maceration...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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