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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934824/acid-fastness-of-histoplasma-in-surgical-pathology-practice
#1
Madhu Rajeshwari, Immaculata Xess, Mehar Chand Sharma, Deepali Jain
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis (HP) is diagnosed by visualizing intracellular microorganisms in biopsy and/or culture. Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) staining methods are routinely used for identification. The acid-fast property of Histoplasma was identified decades ago, but acid-fast staining has not been practiced in current surgical pathology. Awareness of the acid-fast property of Histoplasma, which is due to mycolic acid in the cell wall, is important in distinguishing Histoplasma from other infective microorganisms...
September 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934686/changes-in-microbial-community-during-removal-of-bde-153-in-four-types-of-aquatic-sediments
#2
Ying Pan, Juan Chen, Haichao Zhou, Nora F Y Tam
Indigenous microorganisms in sediments could degrade polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but how the microbial communities respond to PBDEs was seldom reported. The effect of BDE-153, a common congener in aquatic environments, on the microbial communities in four types of aquatic sediments was evaluated during the 150days' incubation under an anaerobic condition. The intrinsic potential to remove BDE-153 varied significantly among four sediment types, and the removal rates of mangrove, mudflat, marine and freshwater sediments were 0...
September 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934357/from-bacterial-killing-to-immune-modulation-recent-insights-into-the-functions-of-lysozyme
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie A Ragland, Alison K Criss
Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934348/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-poultry-and-livestock-china
#4
Afrah Kamal Yassin, Jiansen Gong, Patrick Kelly, Guangwu Lu, Luca Guardabassi, Lanjing Wei, Xiangan Han, Haixiang Qiu, Stuart Price, Darong Cheng, Chengming Wang
Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934331/direct-identification-of-microorganisms-from-thioglycolate-broth-by-maldi-tof-ms
#5
Jorge Arca-Suárez, Fátima Galán-Sánchez, Pilar Marin-Casanova, Manuel A Rodríguez-Iglesias
We developed an easy MALDI-TOF MS-based assay to identify microorganisms directly from thioglycolate broth. A total of 101 positive thioglycolate broths inoculated with 15 different kinds of samples were evaluated. In 91 samples (90.1%), direct MALDI-TOF MS identifications were the same as those obtained after conventional laboratory procedures including subcultures. In 10 samples misidentified by direct processing, yeasts or mixed cultures grew in the thioglycolate subcultures, or high cellular debris hampered a correct analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934201/forensic-genetics-and-genomics-much-more-than-just-a-human-affair
#6
REVIEW
Miguel Arenas, Filipe Pereira, Manuela Oliveira, Nadia Pinto, Alexandra M Lopes, Veronica Gomes, Angel Carracedo, Antonio Amorim
While traditional forensic genetics has been oriented towards using human DNA in criminal investigation and civil court cases, it currently presents a much wider application range, including not only legal situations sensu stricto but also and, increasingly often, to preemptively avoid judicial processes. Despite some difficulties, current forensic genetics is progressively incorporating the analysis of nonhuman genetic material to a greater extent. The analysis of this material-including other animal species, plants, or microorganisms-is now broadly used, providing ancillary evidence in criminalistics in cases such as animal attacks, trafficking of species, bioterrorism and biocrimes, and identification of fraudulent food composition, among many others...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933248/removals-of-estrone-and-17%C3%AE-estradiol-by-microalgae-cultivation-kinetics-and-removal-mechanisms
#7
Chantima Ruksrithong, Songkeart Phattarapattamawong
Occurrence of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in environment has attracted the public attention since E1 and E2 cause estrogenicity on aquatic microorganisms. Microalgae cultivation in wastewater is considered as an economical practice since microalgae can be used for not only pollutant removals, but also as energy resources. This research aims to investigate the removals of E1 and E2 in synthetic wastewater by microalgae (i.e. Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus). At the steady state, Scenedesmus obliquus removed E1 and E2 by 91% and 99%, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933170/-pcr-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#8
Tomáš Freiberger
The practices based on microbe cultivation are the corner stone of laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases etiology. However, cultivation-independent molecular methods for microorganism detection are increasingly being used in a routine clinical setting as an important complement to the conventional procedures and, in some cases, they have already become the golden diagnostic standard. The PCR-based methods are used the most frequently.Key words: molecular genetic detection of microorganisms - polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933156/we-are-not-alone-the-imop-initiative-and-its-roles-in-a-biology-and-disease-driven-human-proteome-project
#9
Andreas Tholey, Nicolas L Taylor, Joshua L Heazlewood, Emøke Bendixen
The Human Proteome is nearly fully mapped and will provide a knowledge base to accelerate our understanding of how proteins and protein networks can affect human health and disease. However, providing solutions to human health challenges will likely fail if insights are exclusively based on studies of human samples and human proteomes. In recent years, it has become evident that human health depends on an integrated understanding of the many species that make human life possible. These include the commensal microorganisms which are essential to human life, pathogens and food species as well as the classic model organisms that enable studies of biological mechanisms...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933144/a-colorimetric-sensor-array-based-on-gold-nanoparticles-with-diverse-surface-charges-for-microorganisms-identification
#10
Bingyu Li, Xizhe Li, Yanhua Dong, Bing Wang, Dongyang Li, Youmin Shi, Yayan Wu
We report a simple and novel colorimetric sensor array for rapid identification of microorganisms. In this study, four gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diverse surface charges were used as sensing elements. The interactions between AuNPs and microorganisms led to obvious color shifts, which could be observed by naked eyes. Fifteen microorganisms had their own response patterns and were differentiated by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully. Moreover, microorganisms mixtures could also be well discerned...
September 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933074/-genomic-research-of-traditional-chinese-medicines-in-vivo-metabolism
#11
Shui-Ming Xiao, Rui Bai, Xiao-Yan Zhang
Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932883/helicase-dependent-isothermal-amplification-a-novel-tool-in-the-development-of-molecular-based-analytical-systems-for-rapid-pathogen-detection
#12
REVIEW
Susana Barreda-García, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
Highly sensitive testing of nucleic acids is essential to improve the detection of pathogens, which pose a major threat for public health worldwide. Currently available molecular assays, mainly based on PCR, have a limited utility in point-of-need control or resource-limited settings. Consequently, there is a strong interest in developing cost-effective, robust, and portable platforms for early detection of these harmful microorganisms. Since its description in 2004, isothermal helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) has been successfully applied in the development of novel molecular-based technologies for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of viruses and bacteria...
September 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932445/structural-elucidation-of-a-hy-droxy-cineole-product-obtained-from-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-cyp101j2-catalysed-transformation-of-1-8-cineole
#13
Gavin E Collis, Birgit Unterweger, Geoff J Dumsday, Craig M Forsyth
1,8-Cineole is an abundant natural product that has the potential to be transformed into other building blocks that could be suitable alternatives to petroleum-based chemicals. Mono-hydroxy-lation of 1,8-cineole can potentially occur at eight different carbon sites around the bicyclic ring system. Using cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP101J2 from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B2, the hy-droxy-lation can be regioselectively directed at the C atom adjacent to the methyl-substituted quaternary bridgehead atom of 1,8-cineole...
July 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932218/alleviation-of-heavy-metal-stress-in-plants-and-remediation-of-soil-by-rhizosphere-microorganisms
#14
REVIEW
Jitendra Mishra, Rachna Singh, Naveen K Arora
Increasing concentration of heavy metals (HM) due to various anthropogenic activities is a serious problem. Plants are very much affected by HM pollution particularly in contaminated soils. Survival of plants becomes tough and its overall health under HM stress is impaired. Remediation of HM in contaminated soil is done by physical and chemical processes which are costly, time-consuming, and non-sustainable. Metal-microbe interaction is an emerging but under-utilized technology that can be exploited to reduce HM stress in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932213/petri-net-based-model-of-helicobacter-pylori-mediated-disruption-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-stomach-lining-during-gastric-carcinoma
#15
Anam Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Faryal M Awan, Aqsa Ikram, Jamil Ahmad, Amjad Ali
Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932156/possible-interaction-between-visfatin-periodontal-infection-and-other-systemic-diseases-a-brief-review-of-literature
#16
REVIEW
Mojtaba Bayani, Mohammad Pourali, Mohammad Keivan
Gingivitis and periodontitis are common bacterial infections caused by a variety of microorganisms. Despite the microorganisms' roles as etiologic agents, inflammation-induced substances also have crucial parts in the loss of connective tissue and the supporting alveolar bone. Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator, which acts as growth factor, cytokine, and pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor. A positive correlation was detected between the serum/plasma levels of visfatin and inflammatory disorders such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931767/musical-instrument-associated-health-issues-and-their-management
#17
Kae Okoshi, Taro Minami, Masahiro Kikuchi, Yasuko Tomizawa
Playing musical instruments can bring joy to people, but can also cause a wide variety of health issues that range from mild disorders to potentially fatal conditions. Although sports medicine is an established medical subspecialty, relatively few studies have investigated the health issues associated with musical instruments. Here we present an overview of these health issues. These include infections due to microorganisms, allergic reactions, as well as mechanical injuries from sustained high pressures within the oral, mediastinal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931205/bioelectrochemical-oxidation-of-organics-by-alkali-halotolerant-anodophilic-biofilm-under-nitrogen-deficient-alkaline-and-saline-conditions
#18
Tharanga N Weerasinghe Mohottige, Maneesha P Ginige, Anna H Kaksonen, Ranjan Sarukkalige, Ka Yu Cheng
This work aimed to study the feasibility of using bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for organics removal under alkaline-saline and nitrogen (N) deficient conditions. Two BES inoculated with activated sludge were examined for organics (oxalate, acetate, formate) oxidation under alkaline-saline (pH 9.5, 25g/L NaCl) and N deficient conditions. One reactor (R1) received ammonium chloride as an N-source, while the other (R2) without. The reactors were initially loaded with only oxalate (25mM), but start-up was achieved only when acetate was added as co-substrate (5mM)...
August 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931073/bacterial-and-diazotrophic-diversities-of-endophytes-in-dendrobium-catenatum-determined-through-barcoded-pyrosequencing
#19
Ou Li, Rong Xiao, Lihua Sun, Chenglin Guan, Dedong Kong, Xiufang Hu
As an epiphyte orchid, Dendrobium catenatum relies on microorganisms for requisite nutrients. Metagenome pyrosequencing based on 16S rRNA and nifH genes was used to characterize the bacterial and diazotrophic communities associated with D. catenatum collected from 5 districts in China. Based on Meta-16S rRNA sequencing, 22 bacterial phyla and 699 genera were identified, distributed as 125 genera from 8 phyla and 319 genera from 10 phyla shared by all the planting bases and all the tissues, respectively. The predominant Proteobacteria varied from 71...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931053/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-metagenome-derived-l-lysine-decarboxylase-gene-from-subtropical-soil-microorganisms
#20
Jie Deng, Hua Gao, Zhen Gao, Huaxian Zhao, Ying Yang, Qiaofen Wu, Bo Wu, Chengjian Jiang
L-lysine decarboxylase (LDC, EC 4.1.1.18) is a key enzyme in the decarboxylation of L-lysine to 1,5-pentanediamine and efficiently contributes significance to biosynthetic capability. Metagenomic technology is a shortcut approach used to obtain new genes from uncultured microorganisms. In this study, a subtropical soil metagenomic library was constructed, and a putative LDC gene named ldc1E was isolated by function-based screening strategy through the indication of pH change by L-lysine decarboxylation. Amino acid sequence comparison and homology modeling indicated the close relation between Ldc1E and other putative LDCs...
2017: PloS One
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