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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750507/improved-biosurfactant-production-by-bacillus-subtilis-spb1-mutant-obtained-by-random-mutagenesis-and-its-application-in-enhanced-oil-in-a-sand-system
#1
Mouna Bouassida, Semia Ellouze-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi
Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of the environmental bioremediation as well as the petroleum industry and the enhanced oil recovery. However, the major bottlenecks in biosurfactant production are yield increase and cost reduction. Improving the bioindustrial production processes relies on many issues such as the use of cheap raw materials, the optimization of medium-culture conditions and selecting hyperproducing strains...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750287/operation-driven-heterogeneity-and-overlooked-feed-associated-populations-in-global-anaerobic-digester-microbiome
#2
Ran Mei, Masaru K Nobu, Takashi Narihiro, Kyohei Kuroda, Julian Muñoz Sierra, Zhuoying Wu, Lin Ye, Patrick K H Lee, Po-Heng Lee, Jules B van Lier, Michael J McInerney, Yoichi Kamagata, Wen-Tso Liu
Anaerobic digester (AD) microbiomes harbor complex, interacting microbial populations to achieve biomass reduction and biogas production, however how they are influenced by operating conditions and feed sludge microorganisms remain unclear. These were addressed by analyzing the microbial communities of 90 full-scale digesters at 51 municipal wastewater treatment plants from five countries. Heterogeneity detected in community structures suggested that no single AD microbiome could be defined. Instead, the AD microbiomes were classified into eight clusters driven by operating conditions (e...
July 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749999/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-the-progenitor-of-a-new-class-of-cephalosporin-analogues-with-a-particular-focus-on-structure-based-computational-analysis
#3
Anna Verdino, Giovanni Vigliotta, Deborah Giordano, Ivana Caputo, Annunziata Soriente, Margherita De Rosa, Anna Marabotti
We present the synthesis and biological evaluation of the prototype of a new class of cephalosporins, containing an additional isolated beta lactam ring with two phenyl substituents. This new compound is effective against Gram positive microorganisms, with a potency similar to that of ceftriaxone, a cephalosporin widely used in clinics and taken as a reference, and with no cytotoxicity against two different human cell lines, even at a concentration much higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749746/the-increasing-relevance-of-biofilms-in-common-dermatological-conditions
#4
G Kravvas, D Veitch, F Al-Niaimi
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are diverse groups of microorganisms encased in a self-produced matrix that offers protection against unfavourable conditions and antibiotics. METHODS: We performed a literature search using the MEDLINE electronic database. Only original articles published in English were considered for review. RESULTS: Biofilms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, eczema, hidradenitis suppurativa, onychomycosis, miliaria, and impetigo...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749656/development-of-artificial-riboswitches-for-monitoring-of-naringenin-in-vivo
#5
Sungho Jang, Sungyeon Jang, Yu Xiu, Taek Jin Kang, Sang-Hyeup Lee, Mattheos A G Koffas, Gyoo Yeol Jung
Microbial strains are considered promising hosts for production of flavonoids because of their rapid growth rate and suitability for large-scale manufacturing. However, productivity and titer of current recombinant strains still do not meet the requirements of industrial processes. Genetically encoded biosensors have been applied for high-throughput screening or dynamic regulation of biosynthetic pathways for enhancing the performance of microbial strains that produce valuable chemicals. Currently, few protein sensor-regulators for flavonoids exist...
July 27, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749495/characterization-of-a-highly-efficient-antibiotic-degrading-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-obtained-from-an-uncultured-member-of-a-permafrost-community
#6
Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Christopher Selleck, Charmaine Enculescu, Jeffrey R Harmer, Nataša Mitić, Whitney R Craig, Waleed Helweh, Philip Hugenholtz, Gene W Tyson, David L Tierney, James A Larrabee, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival...
July 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749137/identification-of-antiangiogenic-potential-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-napyradiomycin-a1-isolated-from-the-marine-derived-streptomyces-sp-yp127
#7
Ji Sun Hwang, Geum Jin Kim, Hyun Gyu Choi, Min Cheol Kim, Dongyup Hahn, Joo-Won Nam, Sang-Jip Nam, Hak Choel Kwon, Jungwook Chin, Sung Jin Cho, Hayoung Hwang, Hyukjae Choi
Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation. Excessive angiogenesis is a critical factor in the progression of cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic inflammatory diseases. When investigating the effects of crude extracts of cultured marine microorganisms, an extract of the cultured Streptomyces sp. YP127 strain was found to inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation. Bioassay-guided fractionation and spectroscopic data analyses led to the identification of napyradiomycin A1 (1) as an antiangiogenic component of the extract...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748644/diversity-and-stability-of-coral-endolithic-microbial-communities-at-a-naturally-high-pco2-reef
#8
Vanessa R Marcelino, Kathleen M Morrow, Madeleine J H van Oppen, David G Bourne, Heroen Verbruggen
The health and functioning of reef-building corals is dependent on a balanced association with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. The coral skeleton harbours numerous endolithic microbes, but their diversity, ecological roles and responses to environmental stress, including ocean acidification, are not well characterized. This study tests whether pH affects the diversity and structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal communities associated with skeletons of Porites spp. using targeted amplicon (16S rRNA gene, UPA and tufA) sequencing...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748436/organophosphorus-pesticide-mixture-removal-from-environmental-matrices-by-a-soil-streptomyces-mixed-culture
#9
Gabriela Briceño, Karen Vergara, Heidi Schalchli, Graciela Palma, Gonzalo Tortella, María Soledad Fuentes, María Cristina Diez
The current study aimed to evaluate the removal of a pesticide mixture composed of the insecticides chlorpyrifos (CP) and diazinon (DZ) from liquid medium, soil and a biobed biomixture by a Streptomyces mixed culture. Liquid medium contaminated with 100 mg L(-1) CP plus DZ was inoculated with the Streptomyces mixed culture. Results indicated that microorganisms increased their biomass and that the inoculum was viable. The inoculum was able to remove the pesticide mixture with a removal rate of 0.036 and 0...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748135/biocatalytic-and-bioelectrocatalytic-approaches-for-the-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-using-enzymes
#10
REVIEW
Stefanie Schlager, Angela Dibenedetto, Michele Aresta, Dogukan H Apaydin, Liviu M Dumitru, Helmut Neugebauer, Niyazi S Sariciftci
In the recent decade, CO2 has increasingly been regarded not only as a greenhouse gas but even more as a chemical feedstock for carbon-based materials. Different strategies have evolved to realize CO2 utilization and conversion into fuels and chemicals. In particular, biological approaches have drawn attention, as natural CO2 conversion serves as a model for many processes. Microorganisms and enzymes have been studied extensively for redox reactions involving CO2. In this review, we focus on monitoring nonliving biocatalyzed reactions for the reduction of CO2 by using enzymes...
June 2017: Energy Technol (Weinh)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748114/uric-acid-in-plants-and-microorganisms-biological-applications-and-genetics-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Rehab M Hafez, Tahany M Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M Naguib
Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748089/the-role-of-nanotechnology-in-the-treatment-of-viral-infections
#12
REVIEW
Lavanya Singh, Hendrik G Kruger, Glenn E M Maguire, Thavendran Govender, Raveen Parboosing
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with viruses in particular making global impact on healthcare and socioeconomic development. In addition, the rapid development of drug resistance to currently available therapies and adverse side effects due to prolonged use is a serious public health concern. The development of novel treatment strategies is therefore required. The interaction of nanostructures with microorganisms is fast-revolutionizing the biomedical field by offering advantages in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748033/candida-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-the-effect-on-wound-closure-in-vitro
#13
Thijs M Haverman, Alexa M G A Laheij, Johannes J de Soet, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
Microorganisms play a role in oral mucositis after cancer therapy. The current study explored the hypothesis that Candida spp. alone and together with Porphyromonas gingivalis cause delayed healing of oral ulcerations due to the inhibition of wound closure. An in vitro scratch assay model was used to study the influence of viable and heat-killed Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, and Candida albicans on cell migration of oral epithelial cells. Separately, the effect of conditioned medium of Candida spp. and the effect of a mixed infection of Candida spp...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748031/antibiofilm-peptides-against-oral-biofilms
#14
Zhejun Wang, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo
The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747970/reproductive-performance-of-genetically-engineered-mice-housed-in-different-housing-systems
#15
Shikha Yadav, Inderjeet Yadav, Kunal Pratap, Pradeep Kumar Tiwari, Vijay Pal Singh
The genetically engineered mice require special husbandry care and are mainly housed in Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) systems and Static Micro Isolator Cages (SMIC) to minimize the risk for spreading undesirable microorganisms. However, the static micro isolation cage housing like SMIC are being replaced with IVC systems in many facilities due to a number of benefits like a higher density housing in limited space, better protection from biohazards and allergens and decreased work load due to decreased frequency of cage changing required in this system...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747952/human-permanent-ectoparasites-recent-advances-on-biology-and-clinical-significance-of-demodex-mites-narrative-review-article
#16
REVIEW
Dorota Litwin, WenChieh Chen, Ewa Dzika, Joanna Korycińska
BACKGROUND: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747908/unraveling-rubisco-form-i-and-form-ii-regulation-in-an-uncultured-organism-from-a-deep-sea-hydrothermal-vent-via-metagenomic-and-mutagenesis-studies
#17
Stefanie Böhnke, Mirjam Perner
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. This autotrophic CO2 fixation cycle accounts for almost all the assimilated carbon on Earth. Due to the primary role that RubisCO plays in autotrophic carbon fixation, it is important to understand how its gene expression is regulated and the enzyme is activated. Since the majority of all microorganisms are currently not culturable, we used a metagenomic approach to identify genes and enzymes associated with RubisCO expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747900/fungal-and-bacterial-diversity-isolated-from-aquilaria-malaccensis-tree-and-soil-induces-agarospirol-formation-within-3-months-after-artificial-infection
#18
Hemraj Chhipa, Nutan Kaushik
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam, commonly known as Agarwood, is a highly valuable species used in production of agar oil from its infected wood, which is utilized in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. Agar oil formation in agarwood takes years through the natural process which is induced by natural or artificial injury or microbial infection. The role of soil fungi and bacteria in artificial induction is still an unexplored area. In the present study, we isolated the fungal and bacterial community residing inside the stem of A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747899/the-global-redox-responding-regb-rega-signal-transduction-system-regulates-the-genes-involved-in-ferrous-iron-and-inorganic-sulfur-compound-oxidation-of-the-acidophilic-acidithiobacillus-ferrooxidans
#19
Danielle Moinier, Deborah Byrne, Agnès Amouric, Violaine Bonnefoy
The chemical attack of ore by ferric iron and/or sulfuric acid releases valuable metals. The products of these reactions are recycled by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. These acidophilic chemolithotrophic prokaryotes, among which Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, grow at the expense of the energy released from the oxidation of ferrous iron and/or inorganic sulfur compounds (ISCs). In At. ferrooxidans, it has been shown that the expression of the genes encoding the proteins involved in these respiratory pathways is dependent on the electron donor and that the genes involved in iron oxidation are expressed before those responsible for ISCs oxidation when both iron and sulfur are present...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747897/identification-of-emerging-human-mastitis-pathogens-by-maldi-tof-and-assessment-of-their-antibiotic-resistance-patterns
#20
María Marín, Rebeca Arroyo, Irene Espinosa-Martos, Leónides Fernández, Juan M Rodríguez
Lactational mastitis constitutes one of the main causes of undesired weaning, depriving the mother-infant pair from the benefits of breastfeeding; therefore, this condition should be considered a relevant public health issue. The role of specific microorganisms remains unclear since human milk cultures and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are not routinely performed, despite the fact that this would be key to ensure an early and effective diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the culturable microbial diversity in 647 milk samples from breastfeeding women with clinical symptoms of mastitis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) VITEK MS technology and to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a collection of isolates from these samples by the VITEK 2 AST system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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