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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150801/soil-physical-properties-response-to-tillage-practices-during-summer-fallow-of-dryland-winter-wheat-field-on-the-loess-plateau
#1
Jian-Fu Xue, Ai-Xia Ren, Hui Li, Zhi-Qiang Gao, Tian-Qing Du
Soil physical properties are a greatly important part of the soil and indicator of soil quality, which can directly affect soil nutrient turnover and crop yields in dryland. This study was carried out with three tillage practices during the summer fallow season since 2011, including no tillage (NT), plow tillage (PT), and subsoiling (ST) in dryland winter wheat fields of the Loess Plateau. Results showed that soil tillage during the summer fallow had a small effect on soil bulk density (ρ b) in the 0-50-cm soil profile before sowing and after harvesting of winter wheat...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145804/a-descriptive-study-of-the-health-information-needs-of-kenyan-women-in-the-first-6%C3%A2-weeks-postpartum
#2
Everlyne Rotich, Liz Wolvaardt
BACKGROUND: A large number of maternal and neonatal deaths occur during birth and 48 h after birth. The benefits of postnatal care to the mother and newborn cannot be overemphasized as this is another opportunity where complications that might arise from pregnancy and childbirth can be treated, as well as the time to provide important information on maternal and newborn care after delivery. This study aimed to determine the information needs of mother-baby pairs in the first 6 weeks after birth...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145792/evaluating-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-local-psycho-educational-intervention-for-pregnant-women-with-common-mental-problems-affected-by-armed-conflict-in-swat-pakistan-a-parallel-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#3
Muhammad Naseem Khan, Mukesh Dherani, Anna Chiumento, Najia Atif, Katie Bristow, Siham Sikander, Atif Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current research was conducted in the Swat valley, where widespread conflict and militancy had been experienced prior to the field activities. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a locally developed psycho-educational intervention. METHODS: This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative and qualitative component. For the quantitative component, trial participants were identified from a cross-sectional study conducted in the earlier phase of the research, with Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score of ≥9...
December 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144467/progress-in-and-promise-of-bacterial-quorum-sensing-research
#4
Marvin Whiteley, Stephen P Diggle, E Peter Greenberg
This Review highlights how we can build upon the relatively new and rapidly developing field of research into bacterial quorum sensing (QS). We now have a depth of knowledge about how bacteria use QS signals to communicate with each other and to coordinate their activities. In recent years there have been extraordinary advances in our understanding of the genetics, genomics, biochemistry, and signal diversity of QS. We are beginning to understand the connections between QS and bacterial sociality. This foundation places us at the beginning of a new era in which researchers will be able to work towards new medicines to treat devastating infectious diseases, and use bacteria to understand the biology of sociality...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143680/abortion-as-empowerment-reproductive-rights-activism-in-a-legally-restricted-context
#5
Julia McReynolds-Pérez
BACKGROUND: This paper analyzes the strategies used by activist health professionals in Argentina who justify providing abortion despite legal restrictions on the procedure. These "insider activists" make a case for abortion rights by linking pregnancy termination to a woman's ability to exert agency at a key point in her reproductive life, and argue that refusing women access to the procedure constitutes a grievous health risk. This argument frames pregnancy termination as an issue of empowerment and also as a medical necessity...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141646/physical-activity-and-the-environment-conceptual-review-and-framework-for-intervention-research
#6
REVIEW
Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, Rick Prins, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. METHODS: We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141642/doing-implementation-research-on-health-governance-a-frontline-researcher-s-reflexive-account-of-field-level-challenges-and-their-management
#7
Gupteswar Patel, Surekha Garimella, Kerry Scott, Shinjini Mondal, Asha George, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Implementation Research (IR) in and around health systems comes with unique challenges for researchers including implementation, multi-layer governance, and ethical issues. Partnerships between researchers, implementers, policy makers and community members are central to IR and come with additional challenges. In this paper, we elaborate on the challenges faced by frontline field researchers, drawing from experience with an IR study on Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs)...
November 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140502/social-worker-identity-a-profession-in-context
#8
Brad Forenza, Caitlin Eckert
Social work is a broad field encompassing micro, mezzo, and macro areas of practice. Consequently, the field lacks a unifying professional identity due to the expansiveness of the profession. Professional identity is conceptualized as an extension of social identity, vis-à-vis the embodiment of three qualities: connectedness, expansiveness, and effectiveness. This study used 12 in-depth, individual interviews with practicing social workers to explore these qualities. Findings from interviews reveal six primary themes and 21 subthemes pertaining to social worker identity...
November 13, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140332/physical-significance-of-backscattering-phase-measurements
#9
Chenfei Hu, Gabriel Popescu
Quantitative phase imaging of transparent objects in transmission allows for a direct interpretation of the results: the phase shift measured is linear in the refractive index contrast and object thickness. However, the same measurement in a backscattering geometry yields fundamentally different results, because the incident field component is absent from the detected field. As a result, the relationship between the measured phase and object properties is obscure. We derived analytical expressions for the propagating fields under the first-order Born approximation and studied the interpretation of the measured phase shifts in backscattering versus transmission geometries...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138636/stem-cell-tracking-technologies-for-neurological-regenerative-medicine-purposes
#10
REVIEW
Yongtao Zheng, Jiongwei Huang, Tongming Zhu, Ronggang Li, Zhifu Wang, Fukai Ma, Jianhong Zhu
The growing field of stem cell therapy is moving toward clinical trials in a variety of applications, particularly for neurological diseases. However, this translation of cell therapies into humans has prompted a need to create innovative and breakthrough methods for stem cell tracing, to explore the migration routes and its reciprocity with microenvironment targets in the body, to monitor and track the outcome after stem cell transplantation therapy, and to track the distribution and cell viability of transplanted cells noninvasively and longitudinally...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136377/quantifying-missing-phospho-proteome-regions-with-the-broad-specificity-protease-subtilisin
#11
Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, Stefan Loroch, Margherita Dell'Aica, Albert Sickmann, Andreas Roos, René Peiman Zahedi
Despite huge efforts to map the human proteome using mass spectrometry the overall sequence coverage achieved to date is still below 50%. Reasons for missing areas of the proteome comprise protease-resistant domains including the lack/excess of enzymatic cleavage sites, non-unique peptide sequences, impaired peptide ionization/separation and low expression levels. To access novel areas of the proteome the beneficial use of enzymes complementary to trypsin, such as Glu-C, Asp-N, Lys-N, Arg-C, LysArginase has been reported...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135963/comprehensive-survey-on-improved-focality-and-penetration-depth-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-employing-multi-coil-arrays
#12
Xile Wei, Yao Li, Meili Lu, Jiang Wang, Guosheng Yi
Multi-coil arrays applied in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are proposed to accurately stimulate brain tissues and modulate neural activities by an induced electric field (EF). Composed of numerous independently driven coils, a multi-coil array has alternative energizing strategies to evoke EFs targeting at different cerebral regions. To improve the locating resolution and the stimulating focality, we need to fully understand the variation properties of induced EFs and the quantitative control method of the spatial arrangement of activating coils, both of which unfortunately are still unclear...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135236/photoelectrochemical-immunoassays
#13
Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
As an essential direction of photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis, PEC immunoassays have attracted substantial research scrutiny for its desirable combination of the inherent sensitivity of the PEC bioanalysis and the specific bioaffinity properties of the immunomolecules. The past five years have witnessed substantial advances toward the development of PEC immunoassays, and numerous approaches to advanced PEC immunoassays have been established. Although the summaries on specific topics, such as the PEC DNA biosensors, PEC aptasensing, PEC enzymatic biosensors or the general development of PEC bioanalysis, have been presented in previous reviews, no in-depth survey has yet been made for addressing specifically on the important category of PEC immunoassays...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134716/advances-in-computational-and-statistical-diffusion-mri
#14
Lauren J O'Donnell, Alessandro Daducci, Demian Wassermann, Christophe Lenglet
Computational methods are crucial for the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Computational diffusion MRI can provide rich information at many size scales, including local microstructure measures such as diffusion anisotropies or apparent axon diameters, whole-brain connectivity information that describes the brain's wiring diagram and population-based studies in health and disease. Many of the diffusion MRI analyses performed today were not possible five, ten or twenty years ago, due to the requirements for large amounts of computer memory or processor time...
November 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132215/in-vivo-molecular-epr-based-spectroscopy-and-imaging-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-redox-using-functional-paramagnetic-probes
#15
Valery V Khramtsov
<i><b>Significance:</b></i> A key role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression, treatment resistance and as a target for therapeutic intervention is increasingly appreciated. Among physiological components of the TME are tissue hypoxia, acidosis, high reducing capacity, elevated concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi). Noninvasive <i>in vivo</i> assessment of these parameters provide unique insights into biological processes in TME, and may serve as a tool for pre-clinical screening of anticancer drugs and optimizing TME-targeted therapeutic strategies...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131645/high-resolution-monitoring-above-and-below-the-groundwater-table-uncovers-small-scale-hydrochemical-gradients
#16
Niklas Gassen, Christian Griebler, Ulrike Werban, Nico Trauth, Christine Stumpp
Hydrochemical solute concentrations in the shallow subsurface can be spatially highly variable within small scales, particularly at interfaces. However, most monitoring systems fail to capture these small scale variations. Within this study, we developed a high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) with which we monitored water across the interface of the unsaturated and saturated zone with a vertical resolution of 0.05-0.5 m. We installed three of these 4 m deep HR-MLWs in the riparian zone of a 3rd-order river and analyzed for hydrochemical parameters and stable water isotopes...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131351/ion-recombination-and-polarity-correction-factors-for-a-plane-parallel-ionization-chamber-in-a-proton-scanning-beam
#17
Małgorzata Liszka, Liliana Stolarczyk, Magdalena Kłodowska, Anna Kozera, Dawid Krzempek, Natalia Mojżeszek, Anna Pędracka, Michael Patrick Russell Waligórski, Paweł Olko
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on charge collection in the ionization chamber (IC) in proton pencil beam scanning (PBS), where the local dose-rate may exceed the dose rates encountered in conventional MV therapy by up to 3 orders of magnitude. METHODS: We measured values of the ion recombination (ks ) and polarity (kpol ) correction factors in water, for a plane-parallel Markus TM23343 IC, using the cyclotron-based Proteus-235 therapy system with an active proton PBS of energies 30-230 MeV...
November 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131189/3d-shape-deformation-and-vibration-measurements-using-infrared-kinect-sensors-and-digital-image-correlation
#18
Hieu Nguyen, Zhaoyang Wang, Patrick Jones, Bing Zhao
Consumer-grade red-green-blue and depth (RGB-D) sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect and the Asus Xtion, are attractive devices due to their low cost and robustness for real-time sensing of depth information. These devices provide the depth information by detecting the correspondences between the captured infrared (IR) image and the initial image sent to the IR projector, and their essential limitation is the low accuracy of 3D shape reconstruction. In this paper, an effective technique that employs the Kinect sensors for accurate 3D shape, deformation, and vibration measurements is introduced...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130896/characterisation-of-flattening-filter-free-fff-beam-properties-for-initial-beam-set-up-and-routine-qa-independent-of-flattened-beams
#19
David Paynter, Steve J Weston, Vivian P Cosgrove, David I Thwaites
Objectives Flattening filter free beams have reached widespread use for clinical treatment deliveries. The usual methods for FFF beam characterisation for their quality assurance require the use of associated conventional flattened beams (cFF). Methods for QA of FFF without the need to use an associated cFF beams are presented and evaluated against current methods for both FFF and cFF beams. Methods Inflection point normalisation is evaluated against conventional methods for the determination of field size and penumbra for field sizes from 3cm x 3cm to 40cm x40cm at depths from dmax to 20cm in water for matched and unmatched FFF beams and for cFF beams...
November 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129966/root-growth-in-field-grown-winter-wheat-some-effects-of-soil-conditions-season-and-genotype
#20
L Hodgkinson, I C Dodd, A Binley, R W Ashton, R P White, C W Watts, W R Whalley
This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing...
November 2017: European Journal of Agronomy: the Journal of the European Society for Agronomy
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