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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526922/advances-in-systemic-therapy-for-metastatic-breast-cancer-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
S P Corona, N Sobhani, A Ianza, G Roviello, G Mustacchi, M Bortul, F Zanconati, D Generali
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide. One in eight women will develop the disease in her lifetime. Notwithstanding the incredible progress made in this field, BC still represents the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women. Targeted drugs have revolutionised breast cancer treatment and improved the prognosis as well as the life expectancy of millions of women. However, the phenomenon of primary and secondary pharmacological resistance is becoming increasingly evident, limiting the efficacy of these agents and calling for a better in-depth knowledge and understanding of the biology as well as the biochemical crosstalk underlying the disease...
July 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526796/sulfide-induced-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-supports-anammox-in-an-open-water-unit-process-wetland
#2
Zackary L Jones, Justin T Jasper, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
Open-water unit process wetlands host a benthic diatomaceous and bacterial assemblage capable of nitrate removal from treated municipal wastewater with unexpected contributions from anammox processes. In exploring mechanistic drivers of anammox, 16S rRNA gene sequencing profiles of the biomat revealed significant microbial community shifts along the flow path and with depth. Notably there was an increasing abundance of sulfate reducers (Desulfococcus and other Deltaproteobacteria) and anammox microorganisms (Brocadiaceae) with depth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523765/interference-of-allelopathic-rice-with-penoxsulam-resistant-barnyardgrass
#3
Xue-Fang Yang, Chui-Hua Kong, Xia Yang, Yong-Feng Li
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing knowledge of allelopathic rice interference with barnyardgrass, relatively little is known about its action on herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass. The incidence of herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass is escalating in paddy fields. It is warranted to understand interference of allelopathic rice with herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass and potential mechanisms. RESULTS: Penoxsulam-resistant and -susceptible barnyardgrass biotypes were identified and segregated from a putative penoxsulam-resistant population occurring in China paddy fields...
May 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521748/contextualizing-willingness-to-participate-recommendations-for-engagement-recruitment-enrolment-of-kenyan-msm-in-future-hiv-prevention-trials
#4
Monika Doshi, Lisa Avery, Ronnie P Kaddu, Mary Gichuhi, Gloria Gakii, Elsabé du Plessis, Sumit Dutta, Shamshad Khan, Joshua Kimani, Robert R Lorway
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518059/recent-omics-technologies-and-their-emerging-applications-for-personalised-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Dong-Hyuk Kim, Young-Sook Kim, Nam-Il Son, Chan-Koo Kang, Ah-Ram Kim
A major objective of 'omics' technologies is to understand genetic causality of complex traits of human diseases. High-throughput omics technologies and their application to medicine open up remarkable opportunities for realising optimised medical treatment for individuals. Because many major breakthrough and discoveries in this field have been driven by the development of new omics technologies, in this review, the authors aim to provide an in-depth description of their underlying principles as a foundation of developing another new omics technology, and to introduce their emerging applications for personalised medicine...
June 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515883/correlating-species-and-spectral-diversities-using-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-in-early-successional-fields
#6
Itiya P Aneece, Howard Epstein, Manuel Lerdau
Advances in remote sensing technology can help estimate biodiversity at large spatial extents. To assess whether we could use hyperspectral visible near-infrared (VNIR) spectra to estimate species diversity, we examined the correlations between species diversity and spectral diversity in early-successional abandoned agricultural fields in the Ridge and Valley ecoregion of north-central Virginia at the Blandy Experimental Farm. We established plant community plots and collected vegetation surveys and ground-level hyperspectral data from 350 to 1,025 nm wavelengths...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515411/evaluating-myometrial-invasion-in-endometrial-cancer-comparison-of-reduced-field-of-view-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging
#7
Mayumi Takeuchi, Kenji Matsuzaki, Masafumi Harada
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic ability of reduced field-of-view (FOV) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in evaluating the depth of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer. METHODS: Three tesla (3T) MR images including T2-weighted imaging, reduced FOV DW imaging and 3D DCE MR imaging in sagittal and oblique axial (short axis) planes in 25 women with surgically proven endometrial cancer were retrospectively evaluated...
May 18, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514593/thickness-resonance-acoustic-microscopy-for-nanomechanical-sub-surface-imaging
#8
Gajendra S Shekhawat, Arvind K Srivastava, Vinayak P Dravid, Oluwaseyi Balogun
A nondestructive scanning near field thickness resonance acoustic microscopy (SNTRAM), has been developed that provides high resolution mechanical depth sensitivity and sharp phase contrast of sub-surface features. In SNTRAM technology, we excited the sample at its thickness resonance at which sharp change in phase is observed and mapped with scanning probe microscopy stage in near field to provide nanometer scale nanomechanical contrast of sub-surface features/defects. We reported here the remarkable sub-subsurface phase contrast and sensitivity of SNTRAM by exciting the sample with a sinusoidal elastic wave at the frequency equal to the thickness resonance of the sample...
May 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512652/comparison-of-simplistic-biofilm-models-for-%C3%A2-evaluating-irrigating-solutions
#9
Maximilian Gänsbauer, Andreas Burkovski, Matthias Karl, Tanja Grobecker-Karl
OBJECTIVE: Many innovations have recently been implemented in the field of endodontics, often based on a variety of in-vitro/ex-vivo test setups. It was the goal of this research to compare different biofilm models for evaluating the effectiveness of rinsing solutions. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Three different models have been applied in this study, including petri dishes with nutrient medium, arrays of human dentin disks, and split bovine root segments. The susceptibility of biofilms formed by Enterococcus faecalis to commonly used endodontic irrigants was tested...
May 16, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511089/a-computational-assessment-of-representative-sampling-of-soil-gas-using-existing-groundwater-monitoring-wells-screened-across-the-water-table
#10
Kaveh Sookhak Lari, John L Rayner, Greg B Davis
Representative sampling is of great importance to decision making regarding contaminant site risks and remedial effectiveness. A focus here is whether existing groundwater monitoring wells screened across the water table can be sampled to yield representative indicators of soil gas composition. For the first time, we provide multi-phase, multi-component computational simulations to address this. We simulated high and low gas extractions rate strategies to sample the gas phase over short and extended screening intervals across the water table...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508717/expanding-the-haitian-rehabilitation-workforce-employment-situation-and-perceptions-of-graduates-from-three-rehabilitation-technician-training-programs
#11
Nancy Descôteaux, Valérie Chagnon, Xin Di Dong, Eric Ellemo, Alessandra Hamelin, Evans Juste, Xavier Laplante, Allison Miron, Philippe Morency, Katherine Samuel, David Charles, Matthew Hunt
PURPOSE: This article examines the employment situation and perceptions of graduates from three rehabilitation technician (RT) programs in Haiti. METHODS: In this mixed method study, 74 of 93 recent graduates completed a questionnaire, and 20 graduates participated in an in-depth qualitative interview. We analyzed survey results using descriptive statistics. We used a qualitative description approach and analyzed the interviews using constant comparative techniques...
February 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508713/investigation-of-the-reasons-for-not-using-helmet-among-motorcyclists-in-kerman-iran
#12
Aliasghar Maghsoudi, Dariush Boostani, Manoochehr Rafeiee
This study was carried out to investigate reasoning and interpretation of motorcyclists for not using helmet utilizing qualitative methodology of 'grounded theory'. The field of the study was Kerman, a cultural-historical city at the south-east of Iran. Participants were 21 young male motorcyclists. Two sampling strategies were used: maximum variation and snowball sampling. To collect data, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted. Data analysis yielded seven categories: fatalism; a barrier to social relationships; peer group pressure and negative labelling; messing up the appearance; disturbance in hearing and vision; barrier to normal breathing; and heaviness and superfluity of helmet...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506874/impact-of-acquisition-and-analysis-strategies-on-cortical-depth-dependent-fmri
#13
Sriranga Kashyap, Dimo Ivanov, Martin Havlicek, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (≥ 7T) provides the opportunity to probe columnar and laminar processing in the human brain in vivo at submillimeter spatial scales. However, fMRI data only indirectly reflects the neuronal laminar profile, due to a bias to ascending and pial veins inherent in gradient- and spin-echo BOLD fMRI. In addition, accurate delineation of the cortical depths is difficult, due to the relatively large voxel sizes and lack of sufficient tissue contrast in the functional images...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504938/perceptual-real-time-2d-to-3d-conversion-using-cue-fusion
#14
Thomas Leimkuehler, Petr Kellnhofer, Tobias Ritschel, Karol Myszkowski, Hans-Peter Seidel
We propose a system to infer binocular disparity from a monocular video stream in real-time. Different from classic reconstruction of physical depth in computer vision, we compute perceptually plausible disparity, that is numerically inaccurate, but results in a very similar overall depth impression with plausible overall layout, sharp edges, fine details and agreement between luminance and disparity. We use several simple monocular cues to estimate disparity maps and confidence maps of low spatial and temporal resolution in real-time...
May 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502118/the-role-of-rare-morph-advantage-and-conspicuousness-in-the-stable-gold-dark-colour-polymorphism-of-a-crater-lake-midas-cichlid-fish
#15
J Torres-Dowdall, J Golcher-Benavides, G Machado-Schiaffino, A Meyer
1.Genetically based stable colour polymorphisms provide a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that preserve genetic variability in the wild. Different mechanisms are proposed to promote the stability of polymorphisms, but only few empirical examples have been documented, resulting in an incomplete understanding of these mechanisms. 2.A remarkable genetically-determined stable colour polymorphism is found in the Nicaraguan Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus). All Midas cichlids start their life with a dark-grey colouration (dark morph), but individuals carrying the dominant "gold" allele (~10%) lose their melanophores later in life, revealing the underlying orange colouration (gold morph)...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497964/biosynthetic-origin-of-the-hydroxamic-acid-moiety-of-trichostatin-a-identification-of-unprecedented-enzymatic-machinery-involved-in-hydroxylamine-transfer
#16
Kei Kudo, Taro Ozaki, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Makoto Nishiyama, Tomohisa Kuzuyama
Trichostatin A (TSA) is widely used in the field of epigenetics because it potently inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC). In-depth studies have revealed that the hydroxamic acid group in TSA chelates the zinc(II) ion in the active site of HDAC to realize the inhibitory activity. Here we report the first identification of a complete TSA biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. RM72 and the heterologous production of TSA in Streptomyces albus. Biochemical analyses unambiguously demonstrate that unprecedented biosynthetic machinery catalyzes the direct transfer of hydroxylamine from a nonproteinogenic amino acid, l-glutamic acid γ-monohydroxamate, to the carboxylic acid group of trichostatic acid to form the hydroxamic acid moiety of TSA...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496451/genome-wide-identification-of-histone-modifiers-and-their-expression-patterns-during-fruit-abscission-in-litchi
#17
Manjun Peng, Peiyuan Ying, Xuncheng Liu, Caiqin Li, Rui Xia, Jianguo Li, Minglei Zhao
Modifications to histones, including acetylation and methylation processes, play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in plant development as well as in stress responses. However, limited information on the enzymes catalyzing histone acetylation and methylation in non-model plants is currently available. In this study, several histone modifier (HM) types, including six histone acetyltransferases (HATs), 11 histone deacetylases (HDACs), 48 histone methyltransferases (HMTs), and 22 histone demethylases (HDMs), are identified in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494490/biomechanical-responses-of-lamina-cribrosa-to-intraocular-pressure-change-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma-eyes
#18
Harry Quigley, Karun Arora, Sana Idrees, Francisco Solano, Sahar Bedrood, Christopher Lee, Joan Jefferys, Thao Nguyen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure change in anterior lamina cribrosa depth (ALD) globally and regionally in glaucoma eyes at different intraocular pressures (IOP). Methods: Twenty-seven glaucoma patients were imaged before and after IOP-lowering procedures using optical coherence tomography. The anterior lamina was marked in approximately 25 locations in each of six radial scans to obtain global and regional estimates of ALD. ALD and its change with IOP were compared with optic disc damage, nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual field loss...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494422/cyanobacteria-blooms-before-and-during-the-restoration-process-of-a-shallow-urban-lake
#19
Joanna Rosińska, Anna Kozak, Renata Dondajewska, Ryszard Gołdyn
Swarzędzkie Lake (near Poznań) has been heavily polluted. To improve the water quality, the restoration of lake by three methods: aeration, phosphorus inactivation using small doses of iron sulphate and magnesium chloride (FeSO4 and MgCl2) and biomanipulation was initiated at the end of 2011. The aim of the present study was to determine whether sustainable restoration has a significant impact on phytoplankton, especially cyanobacterial blooms in a shallow, urban, degraded lake. Therefore, phytoplankton and the physico-chemical parameters of water at the summer thermal stratification and autumn water mixing before (2011) and during restoration (2012-2014) was studied...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494282/anthropogenic-fibres-in-the-baltic-sea-water-column-field-data-laboratory-and-numerical-testing-of-their-motion
#20
A Bagaev, A Mizyuk, L Khatmullina, I Isachenko, I Chubarenko
Distribution of microplastics particles (MPs) in the water column is investigated on the base of 95 water samples collected from various depths in the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016. Fibres are the prevalent type of MPs: 7% of the samples contained small films; about 40% had (presumably) paint flakes, while 63% contained coloured fibres in concentrations from 0.07 to 2.6 items per litre. Near-surface and near-bottom layers (defined as one tenth of the local depth) have 3-5 times larger fibre concentrations than intermediate layers...
May 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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