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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#1
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034449/nitrous-oxide-based-vs-nitrous-oxide-free-general-anaesthesia-and-accidental-awareness-in-surgical-patients-an-abridged-cochrane-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
J Hounsome, J Greenhalgh, O J Schofield-Robinson, S R Lewis, T M Cook, A F Smith
Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia can arise from a failure to deliver sufficient anaesthetic agent, or from a patient's resistance to an expected sufficient dose of such an agent. Awareness is 'explicit' if the patient is subsequently able to recall the event. We conducted a systematic review into the effect of nitrous oxide used as part of a general anaesthetic on the risk of accidental awareness in people over the age of five years undergoing general anaesthesia for surgery. We included 15 randomised controlled trials, 14 of which, representing a total of 3439 participants, were included in our primary analysis of the frequency of accidental awareness events...
October 16, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033355/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-serratus-anterior-plane-block-for-pain-treatment-after-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery
#3
Korgun Okmen, Burcu Metin Okmen
BACKGROUND: Analgesia following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is important for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Various regional methods of anaesthesia are currently being used to achieve this goal. In our study, we aim to assess the effectiveness of SAPB on postoperative VATS analgesia in our study. METHODS: A total of 40 patients aged between 18 and 70 years, those who were in the Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) I-III class and underwent VATS were included in the study...
October 12, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031203/local-anaesthetic-pain-relief-therapy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-nanotechnological-formulation-co-loaded-with-ropivacaine-and-dexamethasone
#4
Yongxin Zhang, Yaocun Yue, Meng Chang
Combination therapy is frequently applied to anesthesia and analgesia for its benefits, which includes prolonged analgesia following peripheral nerve blockade, and reduced side effects. The aim of this study was to develop chitosan (CH) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles to co-deliver ropivacaine (RPV) and dexamethasone (DEM) (RPV/DEM CH-PCL NPs) for the prolongation of anesthesia and pain relief. In the present study, RPV/DEM CH-PCL NPs were fabricated. The properties of CH-PCL NPs were evaluated for their particle sizes, zeta potential, drug loading capacity and in vitro drug release profile...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029934/ability-of-pulse-wave-transit-time-to-detect-changes-in-stroke-volume-and-to-estimate-cardiac-output-compared-to-thermodilution-technique-in-isoflurane-anaesthetised-dogs
#5
H Sano, J P Chambers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to detect changes in stroke volume (SV) and to estimate cardiac output (CO) compared with the thermodilution technique in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. ANIMALS: Eight adult laboratory dogs. METHODS: The dogs were anaesthetized with isoflurane and mechanically ventilated. Reference CO (TDCO) was measured via a pulmonary artery catheter using the thermodilution technique and reference SV (TDSV) was calculated...
April 26, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028933/novel-method-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-cerebral-autoregulation-by-paced-breathing
#6
N H Sperna Weiland, J Hermanides, M W Hollmann, B Preckel, W J Stok, J J van Lieshout, R V Immink
Background: Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that maintains constancy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite variations in blood pressure (BP). Patients with attenuated CA have been shown to have an increased incidence of peri-operative stroke. Studies of CA in anaesthetized subjects are rare, because a simple and non-invasive method to quantify the integrity of CA is not available. In this study, we set out to improve non-invasive quantification of CA during surgery. For this purpose, we introduce a novel method to amplify spontaneous BP fluctuations during surgery by imposing mechanical positive pressure ventilation at three different frequencies and quantify CA from the resulting BP oscillations...
October 6, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028921/smartpilot%C3%A2-view-guided-anaesthesia-improves-postoperative-outcomes-in-hip-fracture-surgery-a-randomized-blinded-controlled-study
#7
D Leblanc, M Conté, G Masson, F Richard, A Jeanneteau, G Bouhours, J M Chrétien, L Rony, E Rineau, S Lasocki
Background: Both under-dosage and over-dosage of general anaesthetics can harm frail patients. We hypothesised that computer-assisted anaesthesia using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models guided by SmartPilot® View (SPV) software could optimise depth of anaesthesia and improve outcomes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomized, single-centre, blinded trial included patients undergoing hip fracture surgery under general anaesthesia...
September 27, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027777/immobilisation-during-anaesthesia-for-vitrectomy-using-a-laryngeal-mask-without-neuromuscular-blockade-versus-endotracheal-intubation-and-neuromuscular-blockade
#8
Axel Fudickar, Matthias Gruenewald, Beate Fudickar, Moritz Hill, Martin Wallenfang, Julia Hüllemann, Dana Voss, Amke Caliebe, Johann B Roider, Markus Steinfath, Felix Treumer
BACKGROUND: For intraocular surgery, most authors recommend general anaesthesia including intubation and neuromuscular blockade to avoid complications by patient movements. However, anaesthesia using a laryngeal mask and avoidance of muscle relaxants is common clinical practice. Purpose of this prospective observational study was to compare the incidence of eye movement and deviation of the eye axis during general anaesthesia adjusted to minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) for pars plana-vitrectomy (PPV) using a laryngeal mask without neuromuscular blockade (LM) versus endotracheal intubation and neuromuscular blockade (INT)...
October 12, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026686/pain-prediction-from-ecg-in-vascular-surgery
#9
Tricia Adjei, Wilhelm Von Rosenberg, Valentin Goverdovsky, Katarzyna Powezka, Usman Jaffer, Danilo P Mandic
Varicose vein surgeries are routine outpatient procedures, which are often performed under local anaesthesia. The use of local anaesthesia both minimises the risk to patients and is cost effective, however, a number of patients still experience pain during surgery. Surgical teams must therefore decide to administer either a general or local anaesthetic based on their subjective qualitative assessment of patient anxiety and sensitivity to pain, without any means to objectively validate their decision. To this end, we develop a 3-D polynomial surface fit, of physiological metrics and numerical pain ratings from patients, in order to model the link between the modulation of cardiovascular responses and pain in varicose vein surgeries...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026387/the-effect-of-a-preanaesthesia-clinic-consultation-on-adult-patient-anxiety-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kenya-a-cohort-study
#10
Anthony Kamau, Vitalis Mung'ayi, Gerald Yonga
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is a common perioperative complication seen in approximately 11-80% of adults undergoing surgery. One of the goals of the preanaesthesia clinic is to allay anxiety. A preanaesthesia clinic evaluation has been shown to reduce anxiety however current studies on anxiety and the preanaesthesia clinic have not quantified this reduction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reduction in anxiety in patients evaluated in the clinic versus those evaluated in the ward...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026047/response-to-the-food-and-drug-administration-warning-on-the-use-of-anaesthetics-in-young-children
#11
EDITORIAL
S Wong, T Wc Hui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025864/pre-emptive-ice-cube-cryotherapy-for-reducing-pain-from-local-anaesthetic-injections-for-simple-lacerations-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
JaeWoo Song, HyukHoon Kim, EunJung Park, Jung Hwan Ahn, Eunhui Yoon, Samsun Lampotang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, SangChun Choi
OBJECTIVE: Subcutaneous local anaesthetic injection can be painful to patients in the ED. We evaluated the effect of cryotherapy by application of an ice cube to the injection site prior to injection in patients with simple lacerations. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomised, controlled trial in consented patients with simple lacerations needing primary repair at a single emergency centre from April to July 2016. We randomly assigned patients undergoing repair for simple lacerations to either the cryotherapy group or the control group (standard care; no cryotherapy or other pretreatment of the injection site)...
October 12, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025452/management-of-failed-spinal-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section
#13
Gavin Wyndham Jones, Raphael Anthony Samuel, Bruce McClure Biccard
BACKGROUND: Failed spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section (CS) may be partial or complete and the subsequent discomfort is the most commonly cited cause of litigation in obstetric anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a standardised approach to: (i) testing the level of block of spinal anaesthesia; and (ii) the management of failed spinal anaesthesia for CS. METHODS: A structured questionnaire to ascertain the current practice of testing the level of block and management of three different scenarios of failed spinal anaesthesia was distributed to 51 government hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024367/commissioning-guidance-for-weight-assessment-and-management-in-adults-and-children-with-severe-complex-obesity
#14
REVIEW
R Welbourn, J Hopkins, J B Dixon, N Finer, C Hughes, R Viner, J Wass
The challenge of managing the epidemic of patients with severe and complex obesity disease in secondary care is largely unmet. In England, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the National Health Service England have published guidance on the provision of specialist (non-surgical) weight management services. We have undertaken a systematic review of 'what evidence exists for what should happen in/commissioning of: primary or secondary care weight assessment and management clinics in patients needing specialist care for severe and complex obesity?' using an accredited methodology to produce a model for organization of multidisciplinary team clinics that could be developed in every healthcare system, as an update to a previous review...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023857/preceding-haemorrhagic-shock-as-a-detrimental-risk-factor-for-respiratory-distress-after-excessive-allogeneic-blood-transfusion
#15
R Masuda, T Iijima, R Kondo, Y Itoda, M Matsuhashi, S Hashimoto, T Kohira, N Kobayashi, H Okazaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether transfusion-associated circulatory overload arises as a simple result of over-transfusion or requires another trigger remains unclear. Here, we examined whether respiratory distress could be reproduced by massive transfusion alone in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 anaesthetized swine were equipped with monitors. Allogeneic blood was obtained from 10 donor swine. A 4-stage loading protocol with each stage equivalent to 25% of the blood volume (BV) in the recipient swine was then used to infuse crystalloid (CR), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or allogeneic blood (TR) (n = 5 each)...
October 11, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023806/the-percutaneous-toxicokinetics-of-vx-in-a-damaged-skin-porcine-model-and-the-evaluation-of-woundstat%C3%A2-as-a-topical-decontaminant
#16
Helen Lydon, Charlotte Hall, Hazem Matar, Christopher Dalton, J Kevin Chipman, John S Graham, Robert P Chilcott
This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for the decontamination of superficial, nerve agent-contaminated wounds. Anaesthetized animals were randomly assigned to either control (n = 7), no decontamination (n = 12) or WoundStat™ (n = 12) treatment groups. Pigs were exposed to a 5× LD50 dose of neat, radiolabelled S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methyl-phosphonothioate (VX; or equivalent volume of sterile saline for the control group) via an area of superficially damaged skin on the ear...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#17
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022538/preoperative-fasting-times-prescribed-and-actual-fasting-times-at-universitas-hospital-annex-bloemfontein-south-africa
#18
G Lamacraft, C Labuschagne, S Pretorius, M C Prinsloo, M D Smit, J-R Steyn
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend a preoperative fasting period of 6 hours for solid food and 2 hours for clear fluids. Because of fixed meal times and imprecise operation starting times, patients often fast for an extended period of time. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prescribed preoperative fasting times, and the actual duration of fasting, compared with the internationally accepted fasting times for solid food and clear fluids. METHODS: Patients (N=105) aged 14 - 60 years, who were scheduled for elective surgery in the morning session (list starting time 07h00), were included in this prospective study...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022202/clove-oil-induces-anaesthesia-and-blunts-muscle-contraction-power-in-three-amazon-fish-species
#19
Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Débora Martins Pereira, Jessica Cristina Souza Silva, Laís Cássia Araújo de Oliveira, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue, Moisés Hamoy, Vanessa Jóia de Mello, Marcelo Ferreira Torres, Luis André Luz Barbas
Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effectiveness on Amazon fish species and no compelling evidence has ever been reported on the relaxant properties of this oil for skeletal muscle of fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the latencies to deep anaesthesia and recovery, along with the myorelaxant effect of clove oil on three Amazon fish species: cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, banded cichlid, Heros severus and angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, submitted to short-term anaesthetic baths...
October 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021729/management-of-split-skin-graft-donor-site-in-the-west-african-sub-region-survey-of-plastic-surgeons-practice
#20
O A Olawoye, S A Ademola, A O Iyun, A I Michael, O M Oluwatosin
Split skin graft (SSG) is one of the most commonly performed operations on any Plastic Surgery service. Rate of donor site healing is affected by various factors including the type of dressing applied. The aim of this study was to survey the practice of plastic surgeons in the sub region with respect to management of SSG donor site and see how it conforms to international standards. Structured questionnaires on various aspects of the harvest and management of SSG donor sites were administered to plastic surgeons during the 53rd annual conference of the West African College of Surgeons (WACS) at Lome, Togo in March 2013...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
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