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Anaesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675966/unilateral-cervical-plexus-block-for-prosthetic-laryngoplasty-in-the-standing-horse
#1
L Campoy, T Morris, N Ducharme, R Gleed, M Martin-Flores
BACKGROUND: Locoregional anaesthetic techniques can facilitate certain surgeries being performed under standing procedural sedation. The second and third spinal cervical nerves (C2, C3) are part of the cervical plexus and provide sensory innervation to the peri-laryngeal structures in people; block of these nerves might permit laryngeal lateralisation surgery in horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical basis for an ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block in horses...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675067/making-pediatric-neuroanesthesia-safer
#2
REVIEW
Neelakshi Kalita, Amna Goswami, Parthasarathi Goswami
It a challenging task for a Neuroanaesthetist to do the tight rope walking of maintaining the homeostasis of the small baby and at the same time complying with to the demands of the surgery and the surgeon. With the advancement of surgical techniques and availability of safer anaesthetic drugs and equipments it is possible to provide anaesthesia to even premature babies. This article gives a comprehensive review of the anatomical and physiological differences between the adult and the pediatric population and the anaesthetic implications of the various neurosurgical disorders...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673317/budget-impact-model-of-mydrane%C3%A2-a-new-intracameral-injectable-used-for-intra-operative-mydriasis-from-a-uk-hospital-perspective
#3
Keith Davey, Bernard Chang, Christine Purslow, Emilie Clay, Anne-Lise Vataire
BACKGROUND: During cataract surgery, maintaining an adequate degree of mydriasis throughout the entire operation is critical to allow for visualisation of the capsulorhexis and the crystalline lens. Good anaesthesia is also essential for safe intraocular surgery. Mydrane® is a new injectable intracameral solution containing two mydriatics (tropicamide 0.02% and phenylephrine 0.31%) and one anaesthetic (lidocaine 1%) that was developed as an alternative to the conventional topical pre-operative mydriatics used in cataract surgery...
April 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672828/characteristics-of-children-less-than-2-years-of-age-undergoing-anaesthesia-in-denmark-2005-2015-a-national-observational-study
#4
C Strøm, A Afshari, L H Lundstrøm, N Lohse
There are few data available that describe the current anaesthetic management of children. We have analysed anaesthetic practice and peri-operative complications for children in Denmark aged less than two years. We conducted a population-based observational cohort study using the Danish Anaesthesia Database to identify children who received anaesthesia in hospital from 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2015. Data were combined with that from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System...
April 19, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671883/reported-analgesic-and-anaesthetic-administration-to-non-human-primates-undergoing-experimental-surgical-procedure-2010-2015
#5
Henri Georges Michel Justin Bertrand, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul Andrew Flecknell
BACKGROUND: The use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research remains a major societal concern with public expectations that appropriate anaesthetics and analgesics are used to minimize any pain or distress caused to animals undergoing invasive procedures. A literature review was conducted to examine the reporting of anaesthesia and analgesia methods used in non-human primates undergoing surgical procedures, with recovery from anaesthesia. METHODS: A total of 397 papers from peer-review journals published between 2010 and 2015 were examined...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671874/pain-assessment-by-pupil-dilation-reflex-in-response-to-noxious-stimulation-in-anaesthetized-adults
#6
D Wildemeersch, N Peeters, V Saldien, M Vercauteren, G Hans
BACKGROUND: In response to noxious stimulation, pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) occurs even in anaesthetized patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of pupillometry with an automated increasing stimulus intensity to monitor intraoperative opioid administration. METHODS: Thirty-four patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. Induction by propofol anaesthesia was increased progressively until the sedation depth criteria (SeD) were attained...
April 19, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670727/estimation-of-salivary-cortisol-among-subjects-undergoing-dental-extraction
#7
Srikanth Gadicherla, Revathi-Panduranga Shenoy, Bhavik Patel, Meenakshi Ray, Brijesh Naik, Kalyana-Chakravarthy Pentapati
Background: Dental procedures can be stressful and studies have shown that salivary cortisol is elevated during such procedures. Our study aimed to evaluate saliva cortisol levels among the subjects who underwent dental extractions and to compare it with that of the controls. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate any correlation between salivary cortisol and hemodynamic parameters. Material and Methods: We conducted this clinical study among subjects, who were indicated for dental extraction...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669111/expression-and-promoter-methylation-status-of-two-dna-repair-genes-in-leukocytes-from-patients-undergoing-propofol-or-isoflurane-anaesthesia
#8
Cristiana M M Freire, Mariana G Braz, João Paulo C Marcondes, Nayara M Arruda, José Reinaldo C Braz, Cláudia A Rainho, Leandro G Braz, Daisy M F Salvadori
Despite the widespread use of the anaesthetics propofol (PROP) and isoflurane (ISO), data about their toxicogenomic potential and interference in epigenetic events are unknown. This study evaluated the expression and methylation profile of two important DNA-repair genes (XRCC1 and hOGG1) in 40 patients undergoing elective and minimally invasive surgery (tympanoplasty and septoplasty) under ISO or PROP anaesthesia. The endpoints were examined at three sampling times: before anaesthesia (T0), 2 h after the beginning of anaesthesia (T2) and 24 h after the beginning of surgery (T24)...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666908/intravenous-local-anaesthetic-compared-with-intraperitoneal-local-anaesthetic-in-abdominal-surgery-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Wiremu S MacFater, Weisi Xia, Ahmed Barazanchi, Bruce Su'a, Darren Svirskis, Andrew G Hill
INTRODUCTION: Modern perioperative care strategies aim to optimise perioperative care by reducing the body's stress response to surgery. A major facet of optimising an abdominal surgery analgesia programme is using a multimodal opioid sparing approach. Local anaesthetics have shown promise and there has been considerable research into the most effective route for their administration. This review aims to determine if there is a difference in analgesic efficacy between intraperitoneal local anaesthetic (IPLA) and intravenous local anaesthetic (IVLA)...
April 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666130/does-dexmedetomidine-given-as-a-premedication-or-intraoperatively-reduce-post-hospitalisation-behaviour-change-in-children-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-a-tertiary-paediatric-hospital
#10
Paul Lee-Archer, Craig McBride, Rebecca Paterson, Michael Reade, Britta Regli-von Ungern-Sternberg, Deborah Long
INTRODUCTION: It has been reported that post-hospitalisation behaviour change (PHBC) occurs in over 50% of children undergoing a general anaesthetic and manifests as behaviours such as sleep and eating disorders, defiance of authority, nightmares, enuresis and temper tantrums. The effect is usually short-lived (2-4 weeks); however, in 5-10% of children, these behaviours can last up to 12 months. The risk factors for developing PHBC include underlying anxiety in the child or parent, a previous bad hospital experience, emergence delirium and preschool age...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664158/spread-of-injectate-around-hip-articular-sensory-branches-of-the-femoral-nerve-in-cadavers
#11
N D Nielsen, M Greher, B Moriggl, R Hoermann, T D Nielsen, J Børglum, T F Bendtsen
BACKGROUND: Anatomical knowledge dictates that regional anaesthesia after total hip arthroplasty requires blockade of the hip articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves. A direct femoral nerve block increases the risk of fall and impedes mobilisation. We propose a selective nerve block of the hip articular branches of the femoral nerve by an ultrasound-guided injection in the plane between the iliopsoas muscle and the iliofemoral ligament (the iliopsoas plane). The aim of this study was to assess whether dye injected in the iliopsoas plane spreads to all hip articular branches of the femoral nerve...
April 17, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664150/conductive-hearing-loss-in-four-dogs-associated-with-the-use-of-ointment-based-otic-medications
#12
Lynette K Cole, Päivi J Rajala-Schultz, Gwendolen Lorch
BACKGROUND: Hearing loss (HL) is classified as conductive when sound transmission is compromised in the ear canal or middle ear, or sensorineural when there is an abnormality of the receptor cells of the cochlea or auditory pathway. Hearing in dogs is evaluated using the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to characterize BAER findings pre- and post-ear flushing in four dogs with acute HL following application of an ointment-based otic medication containing betamethasone, clotrimazole and gentamicin in a mineral oil-based system containing a plasticized hydrocarbon gel...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661678/effect-of-predosing-versus-slow-administration-of-propofol-on-the-dose-required-for-anaesthetic-induction-and-on-physiologic-variables-in-healthy-dogs
#13
Mathieu Raillard, Emma J Love, Pamela J Murison
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the timing of propofol administration on the dose required for induction of anaesthesia and commonly measured physiological effects. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, investigator-blinded clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 32 healthy dogs aged 6-144 months and weighing 3.5-47.2 kg. METHODS: Premedication was intramuscular acepromazine (0.025 mg kg-1 ) and methadone (0.25 mg kg-1 )...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661414/dexmedetomidine-metabolic-clearance-is-not-affected-by-fat-mass-in-obese-patients
#14
A Rolle, S Paredes, L I Cortínez, B J Anderson, N Quezada, S Solari, F Allende, J Torres, D Cabrera, V Contreras, J Carmona, C Ramírez, A M Oliveros, M Ibacache
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with reduced dexmedetomidine clearance, suggesting impaired hepatic function or reduced hepatic blood flow. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of obesity in dexmedetomidine metabolic clearance. METHODS: Forty patients, ASA I-III, 18-60 yr old, weighing 47-126 kg, scheduled for abdominal laparoscopic surgery, were enrolled. Anaesthetic agents (propofol, remifentanil, and dexmedetomidine) were dosed based on lean body weight measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661412/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-for-propofol-for-broad-application-in-anaesthesia-and-sedation
#15
D J Eleveld, P Colin, A R Absalom, M M R F Struys
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models are used in target-controlled-infusion (TCI) systems to determine the optimal drug administration to achieve a desired target concentration in a central or effect-site compartment. Our aim was to develop a PK-PD model for propofol that can predict the bispectral index (BIS) for a broad population, suitable for TCI applications. METHODS: Propofol PK data were obtained from 30 previously published studies, five of which also contained BIS observations...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661386/association-between-intraoperative-opioid-administration-and-30-day-readmission-a-pre-specified-analysis-of-registry-data-from-a-healthcare-network-in-new-england
#16
D R Long, A L Lihn, S Friedrich, F T Scheffenbichler, K C Safavi, S M Burns, J C Schneider, S D Grabitz, T T Houle, M Eikermann
BACKGROUND: The use of intraoperative opioids may influence the rate of postoperative complications. This study evaluated the association between intraoperative opioid dose and the risk of 30-day hospital readmission. METHODS: We conducted a pre-specified analysis of existing registry data for 153 902 surgical cases performed under general anaesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital and two affiliated medical centres. We examined the association between total intraoperative opioid dose (categorised in quintiles) and 30-day hospital readmission, controlling for several patient-, anaesthetist-, and case-specific factors...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661379/isoflurane-disrupts-excitatory-neurotransmitter-dynamics-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-complex-i
#17
P I Zimin, C B Woods, E B Kayser, J M Ramirez, P G Morgan, M M Sedensky
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of action of volatile anaesthetics are unclear. Volatile anaesthetics selectively inhibit complex I in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mice in which the mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFS4 is knocked out [Ndufs4(KO)] either globally or in glutamatergic neurons are hypersensitive to volatile anaesthetics. The volatile anaesthetic isoflurane selectively decreases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory events in hippocampal slices from Ndufs4(KO) mice...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661242/use-applicability-and-reliability-of-depth-of-hypnosis-monitors-in-children-a-survey-among-members-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-anaesthesiology
#18
Yuen Man Cheung, Gail Scoones, Robert Jan Stolker, Frank Weber
BACKGROUND: To assess the thoughts of practicing anaesthesiologists about the use of depth of hypnosis monitors in children. METHODS: Members of the European Society for Paediatric Anaesthesiology were invited to participate in an online survey about their thoughts regarding the use, applicability and reliability of hypnosis monitoring in children. RESULTS: The survey achieved a response rate of 30% (N = 168). A total of 138 completed surveys were included for further analysis...
April 16, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660772/human-factors-enablers-and-barriers-for-successful-airway-management-an-in-depth-interview-study
#19
R Schnittker, S Marshall, T Horberry, K L Young
Human factors are the individual, team, environmental and organisational aspects of the anaesthetic environment that affect performance and decision-making of anaesthesia teams. This study aimed to identify which human factors were enablers and/or barriers to anaesthesia teams during airway management challenges. Sixteen interviews were conducted with experienced anaesthetists and anaesthetic nurses using an in-depth interview technique (the Critical Decision Method) to identify human factors enablers and/or barriers during successful management of a significant airway challenge...
April 16, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#20
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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