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Anaesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819223/levobuipivacaine-induced-dissemination-of-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#1
Shun-Ming Chan, Bo-Feng Lin, Chih-Shung Wong, Wen-Ting Chuang, Yu-Ting Chou, Zhi-Fu Wu
While anaesthetics are frequently used on cancer patients during surgical procedures, their consequence on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to investigate the influence of local anesthetics on lung cancer cell dissemination in vitro and in vivo. A549 human non-small lung cancer cells were treated with various local anaesthetics including ropivacaine, lidocaine, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine. Cell barrier property was assessed using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818873/modulation-of-the-membrane-dipole-potential-a-prospective-mechanism-to-differentiate-anaesthetic-non-anaesthetic-activity-and-a-tool-to-assess-susceptibility
#2
Benjamin Michael Davis, Jonathan Brenton, Sterenn Davis, Ehtesham Shamsher, Claudia Sisa, Ljuban Grgic, M Francesca Cordeiro
There is great individual variation in response to general anaesthetics leading to difficulties in optimal dosing and sometimes even accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). AAGA is a rare but potentially devastating complication affecting between 0.1% and 2% of patients undergoing surgery. The development of novel, personalised screening techniques to accurately predict a patient's response to GA and the risk of AAGA remains an unmet clinical need. In the present study we demonstrate the principle of using a fluorescent reporter of the membrane dipole potential, di-8-ANEPPs, as a novel method to monitor anaesthetic activity using a well-described inducer/non-inducer pair...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818693/hybrid-photoacoustic-and-electrophysiological-recording-of-neurovascular-communications-in-freely-moving-rats
#3
Lei Xi, Tian Jin, Junli Zhou, Paul Carney, Hubei Jiang
Uncovering the relationships between neural activities and capillary-level hemodynamics such as blood flow and concentration of hemoglobin in the brain plays an important role in the study of animal behaviors and brain disorders. Here, we developed a miniature probe integrating a photoacoustic sensor and micro-electrodes to simultaneously record the dynamics of blood flow and total hemoglobin inside a single capillary and the activities of surrounding neurons with high spatiotemporal resolution in freely-moving rats...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814087/effects-of-sevoflurane-on-apoptosis-bdnf-and-cognitive-functions-in-neonatal-rats
#4
A B Ozer, S Ceribasi, A O Ceribasi, I Demirel, M K Bayar, B Ustundag, A Ileri, O L Erhan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early and late effects of sevoflurane on the neonatal brain. BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most used anaesthetics in neonatal subjects. METHODS: The study included 7-day-old male Wistar-Albino rats (n = 30), which were divided into the two groups according to the anaesthetic received: sevoflurane (S) and control group (C). Half of each group was sacrificed six hours after anaesthesia (early, E) while the remaining subjects were sacrificed six weeks later (late, L)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811096/topical-anaesthetic-use-prior-to-rigid-gas-permeable-contact-lens-fitting
#5
Felicity R Gill, Paul J Murphy, Christine Purslow
PURPOSE: To investigate effect of topical anaesthetic (TA) during gas permeable (GP) contact lens (CL) fitting on subjective and objective measures of patient anxiety. METHODS: 47 subjects (mean±sd age=26.9±4.9years; soft CL wearers, 18, neophytes, 29). Each subject randomly assigned to Group A or B, and attended on two occasions, one week apart. First visit: subject received bilaterally either a single drop of TA (0.5% proxymetacaine) (Group A) or placebo (0...
August 12, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807576/evaluation-of-three-tidal-volumes-10-12-and-15%C3%A2-ml%C3%A2-kg-1-in-dogs-for-controlled-mechanical-ventilation-assessed-by-volumetric-capnography-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Seline Bumbacher, Johannes P Schramel, Martina Mosing
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three routinely used tidal volumes (VT; 10, 12 and 15 mL kg(-1)) for controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) in lung-healthy anaesthetized dogs by assessing alveolar ventilation (VTalv) and dead space (DS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 36 client-owned dogs. METHODS: Dogs were randomly allocated to a VT of 10 (G10), 12 (G12) or 15 (G15) mL kg(-1). After induction CMV was started...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807061/the-incidence-of-hyperthermia-during-cochlear-implant-surgery-in-children
#7
A Schwartz, D Kaplan, V Rosenzweig, M Klein, B F Gruenbaum, S E Gruenbaum, M Boyko, A Zlotnik, E Brotfain
BACKGROUND: Inadvertent hyperthermia during anaesthesia is a rare but life-threatening complication. We have encountered several cases of severe hyperthermia in paediatric patients undergoing anaesthesia for cochlear implantation. METHODS: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children who developed hyperthermia while undergoing cochlear implantation, and to explore possible mechanisms and predisposing factors. The anaesthetic charts of all patients aged under 18 years who underwent cochlear implantation, or mastoid or ophthalmic surgery, between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009, at Soroka Medical Center in Beer Sheva, Israel, were reviewed...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805235/how-do-singapore-patients-view-post-anaesthesia-adverse-outcomes-a-single-centre-willingness-to-pay-study
#8
Xinqi Look, May Un Sam Mok, Yan Sheng Tay, Hairil Rizal Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Knowing how patients value quality of anaesthesia helps anaesthesiologists to customise their service. However, generalising findings from Western population-based willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies across different cultures and societies might overlook several important contextualised understandings of anaesthesia experience for Singapore patients. This study aimed to capture the Singapore perspective of undesired post-anaesthesia outcomes. METHODS: 132 patients recruited in the pre-anaesthetic evaluation clinic were given questionnaires describing ten possible post-anaesthetic outcomes to rank for undesirability and assign relative value through proportioning hypothetical SGD 100 to avoid their occurrence...
August 14, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803717/noninvasive-stroke-volume-variation-using-electrical-velocimetry-for-predicting-fluid-responsiveness-in-dogs-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#9
Kazumasu Sasaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Mutoh, Yasuyuki Taki, Ryuta Kawashima
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of a noninvasive cardiac output monitoring system with electrical velocimetry (EV) for predicting fluid responsiveness in dogs undergoing cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental trial. ANIMALS: A total of 30 adult Beagle dogs. METHODS: Stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variation (SVV) and cardiac index were measured using the EV device in sevoflurane-anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs undergoing thoracotomies for experimental creation of right ventricular failure...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803399/blood-purine-measurements-as-a-rapid-real-time-indicator-of-reversible-brain-ischaemia
#10
Faming Tian, Fakhra Bibi, Nicholas Dale, Christopher H E Imray
To preserve the disequilibrium between ATP and ADP necessary to drive cellular metabolism, enzymatic pathways rapidly convert ADP to adenosine and the downstream purines inosine and hypoxanthine. During ischaemia, these same pathways result in the production of purines. We performed a prospective observational study to test whether purine levels in arterial blood might correlate with brain ischaemia. We made real-time perioperative measurements, via microelectrode biosensors, of the purine levels in untreated arterial blood from 18 patients undergoing regional anaesthetic carotid endarterectomy...
August 12, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800884/ionic-mechanisms-of-the-action-of-anaesthetics-on-sinoatrial-node-automaticity
#11
REVIEW
Akiko Kojima, Hiroshi Matsuura
Although various general anaesthetics affect the heart rate in clinical settings, their precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Because the heart rate is determined by automaticity of the cardiac pacemaker sinoatrial node and its regulation by autonomic nervous system, it is important to clarify the effect of anaesthetics on sinoatrial node automaticity. The spontaneous electrical activity of sinoatrial node is generated by a complex but coordinated interaction of multiple ionic currents, such as the hyperpolarisation-activated cation current (If), T-type and L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa,T and ICa,L), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX), and rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) currents (IKr and IKs)...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799206/the-incidence-and-characteristics-of-3-month-mortality-after-intraoperative-cardiac-arrest-in-adults
#12
M Hur, H-C Lee, K H Lee, J-T Kim, C-W Jung, H-P Park
BACKGROUND: There is little information about clinical outcomes after intraoperative cardiac arrest (IOCA). We determined the incidence and characteristics of 3-month mortality after IOCA. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 238,648 adult surgical patients from January 2005 to December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Characteristics of IOCA were documented using the Utstein reporting template. RESULTS: IOCA occurred in 50 patients (21/100,000 surgeries)...
August 11, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798394/orthosteric-versus-allosteric-dependent-activation-of-the-gabaa-receptor-requires-numerically-distinct-subunit-level-rearrangements
#13
Jahanshah Amin, Meena S Subbarayan
Anaesthetic molecules act on synaptic transmission via the allosteric modulation of ligand-gated chloride channels, such as hetero-oligomeric α1β2γ2 GABAA receptors. To elucidate the overall activation paradigm via allosteric versus orthosteric sites, we used highly homologous, but homo-oligomeric, ρ1 receptors that are contrastingly insensitive to anaesthetics and respond partially to several full GABA α1β2γ2 receptor agonists. Here, we coexpressed varying ratios of RNAs encoding the wild-type and the mutated ρ1 subunits, which are anaesthetic-sensitive and respond with full efficacy to partial GABA agonists, to generate distinct ensembles of receptors containing five, four, three, two, one, or zero mutated subunits...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797196/the-improve-guidelines-ischaemia-models-procedural-refinements-of-in-vivo-experiments
#14
Nathalie Percie du Sert, Alessio Alfieri, Stuart M Allan, Hilary Vo Carswell, Graeme A Deuchar, Tracy D Farr, Paul Flecknell, Lindsay Gallagher, Claire L Gibson, Michael J Haley, Malcolm R Macleod, Barry W McColl, Christopher McCabe, Anna Morancho, Lawrence Df Moon, Michael J O'Neill, Isabel Pérez de Puig, Anna Planas, C Ian Ragan, Anna Rosell, Lisa A Roy, Kathryn O Ryder, Alba Simats, Emily S Sena, Brad A Sutherland, Mark D Tricklebank, Rebecca C Trueman, Lucy Whitfield, Raymond Wong, I Mhairi Macrae
Most in vivo models of ischaemic stroke target the middle cerebral artery and a spectrum of stroke severities, from mild to substantial, can be achieved. This review describes opportunities to improve the in vivo modelling of ischaemic stroke and animal welfare. It provides a number of recommendations to minimise the level of severity in the most common rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion, while sustaining or improving the scientific outcomes. The recommendations cover basic requirements pre-surgery, selecting the most appropriate anaesthetic and analgesic regimen, as well as intraoperative and post-operative care...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795511/a-sequential-case-series-of-23-intubations-in-a-rural-emergency-department-in-new-zealand
#15
Eleanor Powell, Hatem Alkhouri, Sally McCarthy, John Mackenzie, Toby Fogg, John Vassiliadis, Chris Cresswell
OBJECTIVE: To describe the practice and procedure of emergency intubation in Whanganui Emergency Department, New Zealand and determine whether intubation can be carried out effectively in the rural setting. METHOD: A prospective observational study using the Australia and New Zealand Airway Registry proforma to collect data on the indication, lead intubator, first-pass success rate and peri-procedural complications. Data were also collected on whether a formal airway assessment was carried out and whether a checklist was used...
August 10, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794872/thd-and-mucopexy-efficacy-and-controversy
#16
Haytham Abudeeb, Ajogwu Ugwu, Jamshid Darabnia, Ahmed Hammad, Khurram Khan, Min Maung, Elizabeth McNulty, Abdul Latif Khan, Arijit Mukherjee
AIMS: Transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialisation and mucopexy has evolved in recent years as a popular minimally invasive non-excisional surgery for symptomatic prolapsing haemorrhoids. The long-term outcome of this procedure however, remains to be established. We aim to analyse the long-term outcome of THD-mucopexy in the management of prolapsing haemorrhoids based on the evidence of a prospective data from a single institution. METHODS: A prospective data was collected on 100 consecutive cases of grade 3 and 4 symptomatic haemorrhoids between the period 03/2010 and 06/2015 who underwent the procedure as a day case under general anaesthetic...
September 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794532/local-anaesthetic-systemic-toxicity-following-oral-ingestion-in-a-child-revisiting-dibucaine
#17
Raylene Dias, Nandini Dave, Milind S Tullu, Chandrahas T Deshmukh
Dibucaine, a potent and toxic local anaesthetic, although currently withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use as a spinal anaesthetic, continues to remain available in many over-the-counter topical formulations. Systemic toxicity following oral ingestion of local anaesthetics is rare. We report a case of accidental ingestion of dibucaine (ear drops) in a 7-year-old child who developed diplopia, giddiness, ventricular premature contractions and a right bundle branch block. We also present a brief discussion on the pharmacologic and toxicity profile of dibucaine, the Naranjo algorithm for assessing causality in case of adverse drug reactions and a review of current guidelines on the management of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794529/an-observational-study-on-patient-admission-in-the-anaesthesia-gas-monitor-and-minimum-alveolar-concentration-monitoring-a-deficiency-with-huge-impact
#18
Habib Md Reazaul Karim, Anilkumar Narayan, Md Yunus, Sanjay Kumar, Avinash Prakash, Sarasa Kumar Sahoo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. METHODS: Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs) were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794527/the-effect-of-addition-of-dexamethasone-to-levobupivacaine-in-parturients-receiving-combined-spinal-epidural-for-analgesia-for-vaginal-delivery
#19
Amr Samir Wahdan, Ahmed Ibrahim El-Sakka, Hassan Mostafa Ismail Gaafar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Regional analgesia is commonly used for the relief of labour pain, Prolongation of analgesia can be achieved by adjuvant medications. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal levobupivacaine with dexamethasone for labour analgesia. METHODS: A total of 80 females were included in this study, all were primigravidas undergoing vaginal delivery with cervical dilatation ≥4 cm and 50% or more effacement...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794523/safety-monitoring-of-local-anaesthetic-drugs-from-the-perspective-of-pharmacovigilance-programme-of-india
#20
Pramod Kumar, Ismeet Kaur, Vivekanandan Kalaiselvan, Abhishank Singh
Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI) was established to promote patient safety by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India in July 2010. It covers various medical hospitals/institutes and National Health Programmes across the country. India is coordinating with various national and international programmes to be a part of international drug monitoring and to monitor the risk-benefit profile of medicines. At present, India has contributed more than 200,000 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the database and can draw signals for regulatory decisions...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
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