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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102549/enhancing-capillary-blood-collection-the-influence-of-nicotinic-acid-and-nonivamide
#1
Christian Moro, Jessica Bass, Anna Mae Scott, Elisa F D Canetti
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acid and nonivamide are often applied topically during capillary blood collection to induce vasodilation. These molecules may have an influence on immune effector cell activity in nearby tissues. This study investigates whether the induction of flushing by nicotinic acid and nonivamide causes an inflammatory response that influences the composition of immune cells present in a capillary blood sample. METHODS: Females aged between 18 and 30 years old provided capillary blood samples...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071653/prophylactic-orthosteric-inhibition-of-leukocyte-integrin-cd11b-cd18-prevents-long-term-fibrotic-kidney-failure-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#2
Abbas Dehnadi, A Benedict Cosimi, Rex Neal Smith, Xiangen Li, José L Alonso, Terry K Means, M Amin Arnaout
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#3
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063475/characterisation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-hamster-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#4
Jennifer Rees, David Haig, Victoria Mack, William C Davis
Flow cytometry was used to identify mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules (hLDM) and also to characterize mAbs developed against hLDM. Initial screening of mAbs developed against LDMs in other species yielded mAbs specific for the major histocompatibility (MHC) II molecule, CD4 and CD18. Screening of sets of mAbs developed against hLDM yielded 22 new mAbs, including additional mAbs to MHC II molecules and mAbs that recognize LDMs expressed on all leukocytes, granulocytes, all lymphocytes, all T cells, a subset of T cells, or on all B cells...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053192/mature-cd10-and-immature-cd10-neutrophils-present-in-g-csf-treated-donors-display-opposite-effects-on-t-cells
#5
Olivia Marini, Sara Costa, Dalila Bevilacqua, Federica Calzetti, Nicola Tamassia, Cecilia Spina, Donata De Sabata, Elisa Tinazzi, Claudio Lunardi, Maria T Scupoli, Chiara Cavallini, Elisa Zoratti, Ilaria Tinazzi, Antonio Marchetta, Aurora Vassanelli, Maurizio Cantini, Giorgio Gandini, Andrea Ruzzenente, Alfredo Guglielmi, Francesco Missale, William Vermi, Cristina Tecchio, Marco A Cassatella, Patrizia Scapini
The identification of discrete neutrophil populations, as well as the characterization of their immunoregulatory properties, is an emerging topic under extensive investigation. In such regard, the presence of circulating CD66b(+)-neutrophil populations, exerting either immunosuppressive or proinflammatory functions, has been described in several acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, due to the lack of specific markers, the precise phenotype and maturation status of these neutrophil populations remain unclear...
January 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024915/how-do-megakaryocytic-microparticles-target-and-deliver-cargo-to-alter-the-fate-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#6
Jinlin Jiang, Chen-Yuan Kao, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Megakaryocytic microparticles (MkMPs), the most abundant MPs in circulation, can induce the differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into functional megakaryocytes. This MkMP capability could be explored for applications in transfusion medicine but also for delivery of nucleic acids and other molecules to HSPCs for targeted molecular therapy. Understanding how MkMPs target, deliver cargo and alter the fate of HSPCs is important for exploring such applications. We show that MkMPs, which are distinct from Mk exosomes (MkExos), target HSPCs with high specificity since they have no effect on other ontologically or physiologically related cells, namely mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells or granulocytes...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024857/calpain-inhibition-decreases-inflammatory-protein-expression-in-vessel-walls-in-a-model-of-chronic-myocardial-ischemia
#7
Brittany A Potz, Ashraf A Sabe, Nassrene Y Elmadhun, Sharif A Sabe, Benedikt J V Braun, Richard T Clements, Anny Usheva, Frank W Sellke
BACKGROUND: Emerging data suggest a link between calpain activation and the enhanced inflammatory response of the cardiovascular system. We hypothesize that calpain activation associates with altered inflammatory protein expression in correlation with the proinflammatory profile of the myocardium. Our pig hypercholesterolemic model with chronic myocardial ischemia was treated with calpain inhibitors to establish their potential to improve cardiac function. METHODS: Yorkshire swine, fed a high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks then underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery...
December 23, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024183/altered-leukocyte-distribution-under-hypercholesterolemia-a-cross-sectional-study-in-children-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#8
Jacob J Christensen, Liv T Osnes, Bente Halvorsen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Martin P Bogsrud, Cecilie Wium, Arne Svilaas, Ingunn Narverud, Stine M Ulven, Pål Aukrust, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have elevated LDL cholesterol from the first year of life, and represent a model of early-stage atherosclerosis. Data suggest that adults with FH have alterations in circulating monocyte subpopulations towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype, but it is not known whether FH children have similar perturbations. In addition, there are no data on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in FH children. The objective of the present study was to characterize the distributions of circulating monocyte and lymphocyte subpopulations in children with FH and healthy, normocholesterolemic children...
December 1, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011042/glial-changes-and-evidence-for-apoptosis-in-the-brain-of-cats-infected-by-cytauxzoon-felis
#9
L L Clarke, P M Krimer, D R Rissi
Ischaemic neuropathological changes associated with Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats have been reported recently. This paper describes the associated glial changes and the evidence for apoptosis in the brain of cats infected naturally by C. felis. Sections of brain from eight affected cats and eight age- and sex-matched control cats were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD18 and cleaved caspase-3. Vascular changes in the leptomeninges and parenchyma, the number of positive astrocytes and phagocytic cells (microglia or macrophages) and the average astrocytic cytoplasmic area and number and length of astrocytic processes were quantified, and a mean value for the grey and white matter in both groups was generated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000693/consumption-of-a-high-fat-breakfast-on-consecutive-days-alters-preclinical-biomarkers-for-atherosclerosis
#10
B K McFarlin, K C Carpenter, A L Henning, A S Venable
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent research has speculated that the risk of developing atherosclerosis is due to the accumulation of the effects of daily diet choices. The purpose of this study was to examine which of our previously identified preclinical disease risk biomarkers were further elevated when consuming a high-fat (644±50 kcal; 100% recommended dietary allowance for fat), high-calorie (1118±100 kcal; 70% daily caloric needs) breakfast on consecutive days. Young, normal weight females (N=7) participated in this study...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990411/identification-of-human-cathelicidin-peptide-ll-37-as-a-ligand-for-macrophage-integrin-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-mac-1-cd11b-cd18-that-promotes-phagocytosis-by-opsonizing-bacteria
#11
Valeryi K Lishko, Benjamin Moreno, Nataly P Podolnikova, Tatiana P Ugarova
LL-37, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, has numerous immune-modulating effects. However, the identity of a receptor(s) mediating the responses in immune cells remains uncertain. We have recently demonstrated that LL-37 interacts with the αMI-domain of integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1), a major receptor on the surface of myeloid cells, and induces a migratory response in Mac-1-expressing monocyte/macrophages as well as activation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Here, we show that LL-37 and its C-terminal derivative supported strong adhesion of various Mac-1-expressing cells, including HEK293 cells stably transfected with Mac-1, human U937 monocytic cells and murine IC-21 macrophages...
July 7, 2016: Research and Reports in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853810/inflammation-but-not-recruitment-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-requires-signalling-through-mac-1-cd11b-cd18-in-diet-induced-obesity-dio
#12
Dennis Wolf, Nora Bukosza, David Engel, Marjorie Poggi, Felix Jehle, Nathaly Anto Michel, Yung-Chih Chen, Christian Colberg, Natalie Hoppe, Bianca Dufner, Louis Boon, Hermann Blankenbach, Ingo Hilgendorf, Constantin von Zur Muhlen, Jochen Reinöhl, Björn Sommer, Timoteo Marchini, Mark A Febbraio, Christian Weber, Christoph Bode, Karlheinz Peter, Esther Lutgens, Andreas Zirlik
Cell accumulation is a prerequisite for adipose tissue inflammation. The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, αMβ2) is a classic adhesion receptor critically regulating inflammatory cell recruitment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a genetic deficiency and a therapeutic modulation of Mac-1 regulate adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57Bl6/J mice genetically deficient (Mac-1(-/-)) or competent for Mac-1 (WT) consumed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Surprisingly, Mac-1(-/-) mice presented with increased diet-induced weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and in the liver in insulin-clamps, insulin secretion deficiency and elevated glucose levels in fasting animals, and dyslipidaemia...
November 17, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852744/integrin-cross-talk-regulates-the-human-neutrophil-response-to-fungal-%C3%AE-glucan-in-the-context-of-the-extracellular-matrix-a-prominent-role-for-vla3-in-the-antifungal-response
#13
Courtney M Johnson, Xian M O'Brien, Angel S Byrd, Valentina E Parisi, Alex J Loosely, Wei Li, Hadley Witt, Hafeez M Faridi, Craig T Lefort, Vineet Gupta, Minsoo Kim, Jonathan S Reichner
Candida albicans infection produces elongated hyphae resistant to phagocytic clearance compelling alternative neutrophil effector mechanisms to destroy these physically large microbial structures. Additionally, all tissue-based neutrophilic responses to fungal infections necessitate contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Neutrophils undergo a rapid, ECM-dependent mechanism of homotypic aggregation and NETosis in response to C. albicans mediated by the β2 integrin, complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, αMβ2)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828665/aerobic-training-modulates-t-cell-activation-in-elderly-women-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
W F Gomes, A C R Lacerda, G E A Brito-Melo, S F Fonseca, E Rocha-Vieira, A A O Leopoldino, M R Amorim, V A Mendonça
Osteoarthritis of the knee (kOA) is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and can lead to major physical and functional limitations. However, the specific effects of walking, particularly on the immune system, are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of walking (3×/week) on the leukocyte profile and quality of life (QL) of elderly women with kOA. Sixteen women (age: 67±4 years, body mass index: 28.07±4.16 kg/m2) participated in a walking program. The variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training with a progressively longer duration (30-55 min) and higher intensity (72-82% of HRmax determined using a graded incremental treadmill test)...
2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815445/neutrophil-necroptosis-is-triggered-by-ligation-of-adhesion-molecules-following-gm-csf-priming
#15
Xiaoliang Wang, Zhaoyue He, He Liu, Shida Yousefi, Hans-Uwe Simon
Apoptosis is the most common form of neutrophil death under both physiological and inflammatory conditions. However, forms of nonapoptotic neutrophil death have also been observed. In the current study, we report that human neutrophils undergo necroptosis after exposure to GM-CSF followed by the ligation of adhesion receptors such as CD44, CD11b, CD18, or CD15. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrate the presence of a receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-a mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL) signaling pathway in neutrophils which, following these treatments, first activates p38 MAPK and PI3K, that finally leads to the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799556/precise-gene-editing-paves-the-way-for-derivation-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-leukotoxin-resistant-cattle
#16
Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Ahmed Tibary, Jonathan E Beever, Poothapillai Kasinathan, Wendy C Brown, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Signal peptides of membrane proteins are cleaved by signal peptidase once the nascent proteins reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Previously, we reported that, contrary to the paradigm, the signal peptide of ruminant CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, is not cleaved and hence remains intact on mature CD18 molecules expressed on the surface of ruminant leukocytes. Leukotoxin secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica binds to the intact signal peptide and causes cytolysis of ruminant leukocytes, resulting in acute inflammation and lung tissue damage...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796667/lymphocyte-integrin-expression-differences-between-sirs-and-sepsis-patients
#17
D S Heffernan, S F Monaghan, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories...
October 31, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779362/role-of-monocyte-recruitment-in-hemangiosarcoma-metastasis-in-dogs
#18
D P Regan, A Escaffi, J Coy, J Kurihara, S W Dow
Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumour associated with short survival times because of early and widespread metastasis. In humans and rodents, monocytes play key roles in promoting tumour metastasis through stimulating tumour cell extravasation, seeding, growth and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the potential association between monocyte infiltration and tumour metastasis in HSA and other common canine tumours. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CD18(+) monocytes within metastases...
October 25, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765364/phyllanthin-from-phyllanthus-amarus-inhibits-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Menaga Ilangkovan, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Phyllanthin found in many Phyllanthus species has various biochemical and pharmacological properties especially on its hepatoprotective effects. However, its effect on the immune system has not been well documented. PURPOSE: In the present study, phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for its immunosuppressive effects on various cellular and humoral immune responses in Balb/C mice. METHODS: Male mice were treated daily at 20, 40 and 100mg/kg of phyllanthin for 14 days by oral gavage...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737899/am80-gcsf-synergizes-myeloid-expansion-and-differentiation-to-generate-functional-neutrophils-that-reduce-neutropenia-associated-infection-and%C3%A2-mortality
#20
Lin Li, Xiaotian Qi, Weili Sun, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Siyue Lou, Hong Zhu, Nemani V Prasadarao, Alice Zhou, Hiroyuki Shimada, Koichi Shudo, Yong-Mi Kim, Sajad Khazal, Qiaojun He, David Warburton, Lingtao Wu
Neutrophils generated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) are functionally immature and, consequently, cannot effectively reduce infection and infection-related mortality in cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CCIN). Am80, a retinoic acid (RA) agonist that enhances granulocytic differentiation by selectively activating transcription factor RA receptor alpha (RARα), alternatively promotes RA-target gene expression. We found that in normal and malignant primary human hematopoietic specimens, Am80-GCSF combination coordinated proliferation with differentiation to develop complement receptor-3 (CR3)-dependent neutrophil innate immunity, through altering transcription of RA-target genes RARβ2, C/EBPε, CD66, CD11b, and CD18 This led to generation of functional neutrophils capable of fighting infection, whereas neutralizing neutrophil innate immunity with anti-CD18 antibody abolished neutrophil bactericidal activities induced by Am80-GCSF Further, Am80-GCSF synergy was evaluated using six different dose-schedule-infection mouse CCIN models...
November 2, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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