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Cerebral artery anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439406/angiographic-anatomy-of-the-extracranial-and-intracranial-portions-of-the-internal-carotid-arteries-in-donkeys
#1
Nurul Hayah Khairuddin, Martin Sullivan, Patrick J Pollock
BACKGROUND: In horses, the extracranial and intracranial pathway of the internal carotid artery has been described. The extracranial pathway of the internal carotid artery begins at the carotid termination and runs on the dorsal surface of the medial compartment of the guttural pouch. Thereafter the internal carotid artery passes through the foramen lacerum to continue intracranially, forming part of the rostrolateral quadrants of the cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis). The objectives of this study were to define and record the anatomy of the carotid arterial tree and the internal carotid artery in donkeys using angiographic techniques...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400487/vascular-anatomy-predicts-the-risk-of-cerebral-ischemia-in-patients-randomized-to-carotid-stenting-versus-endarterectomy
#2
Mandy D Müller, Frank J Ahlhelm, Alexander von Hessling, David Doig, Paul J Nederkoorn, Sumaira Macdonald, Philippe A Lyrer, Aad van der Lugt, Jeroen Hendrikse, Christoph Stippich, H Bart van der Worp, Toby Richards, Martin M Brown, Stefan T Engelter, Leo H Bonati
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Complex vascular anatomy might increase the risk of procedural stroke during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Randomized controlled trial evidence that vascular anatomy should inform the choice between CAS and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been lacking. METHODS: One-hundred eighty-four patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis who were randomly assigned to CAS or CEA in the ICSS (International Carotid Stenting Study) underwent magnetic resonance (n=126) or computed tomographic angiography (n=58) at baseline and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after treatment...
April 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379506/morphological-and-hemodynamic-differences-between-aneurysmal-middle-cerebral-artery-bifurcation-and-contralateral-nonaneurysmal-anatomy
#3
Jianping Song, Fengping Zhu, Yi Qian, Chubin Ou, Jiajun Cai, Xiang Zou, Zehan Wu, Wei Zhu, Liang Chen, Ying Mao
BACKGROUND: The morphological and hemodynamic features differ between middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations with and without aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological and hemodynamic differences between aneurysmal MCA bifurcation and contralateral nonaneurysmal anatomy. METHODS: Computed tomography angiography of 36 patients with unilateral small saccular MCA bifurcation aneurysms was evaluated. The parent-daughter angles (φ1 for larger branch and φ2 for smaller branch), bifurcation angle (φ = φ1 + φ2), inclination angle (γ angle), and their relationships with the MCA bifurcation locations were analyzed...
March 30, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347213/limb-misidentification-a-clinical-anatomical-prospective-study
#4
Daniel Antoniello, Reena Gottesman
The misidentification of one's own limb (LM) after right hemisphere stroke is a striking phenomenon that is incompletely understood. The authors prospectively studied the natural history and anatomy of LM in 36 patients with hyperacute right middle cerebral artery infarct. Unlike in previous studies, rapid clinical assessment was prioritized. The authors found LM to be common and transient, involving 61% at onset, evolving to 15% at 1 week. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found supramarginal gyrus (SMG) damage associated with LM...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338438/learning-brain-aneurysm-microsurgical-skills-in-a-human-placenta-model-predictive-validity
#5
Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Ferrarez, Taise Mosso Ramos, Jose Augusto Malheiros, Arthur Nicolato, Carla Jorge Machado, Mauro Tostes Ferreira, Fellype Borges de Oliveira, Cecília Félix Penido Mendes de Sousa, Pollyana Helena Vieira Costa, Sebastiao Gusmao, Giuseppe Lanzino, Rolando Del Maestro
OBJECTIVE Surgery for brain aneurysms is technically demanding. In recent years, the process to learn the technical skills necessary for these challenging procedures has been affected by a decrease in the number of surgical cases available and progressive restrictions on resident training hours. To overcome these limitations, surgical simulators such as cadaver heads and human placenta models have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these models in improving technical skills is unknown. This study assessed concurrent and predictive validity of brain aneurysm surgery simulation in a human placenta model compared with a "live" human brain cadaveric model...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291675/choices-of-stent-and-cerebral-protection-in-the-ongoing-acst-2-trial-a-descriptive-study
#6
D D de Waard, A Halliday, G J de Borst, R Bulbulia, A Huibers, R Casana, L H Bonati, V Tolva
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Several plaque and lesion characteristics have been associated with an increased risk for procedural stroke during or shortly after carotid artery stenting (CAS). While technical advancements in stent design and cerebral protection devices (CPD) may help reduce the procedural stroke risk, and anatomy remains important, tailoring stenting procedures according to plaque and lesion characteristics might be a useful strategy in reducing stroke associated with CAS. In this descriptive report of the ongoing Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2 (ACST-2), it was assessed whether choice for stent and use or type of CPD was influenced by plaque and lesion characteristics...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217397/a5-segment-aneurysm-of-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-imbedded-into-the-body-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-case-report
#7
Fransua Sharafeddin, Ahmad Hafez, Martin Lehecka, Rahul Raj, Roberto Colasanti, Ahmadreza Rafiei, Joham Choque, Behnam R Jahromi, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi
BACKGROUND: The A5 segment aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery are rare, approximately 0.5% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are small with a wide base located in the midline, with the domes mostly projecting upward or backward. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a unique case of A5 segment aneurysm, with the dome embedded into the body of the corpus callosum. This 41-year-old female was admitted to the neurology department for possible multiple sclerosis investigation...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209740/quantitative-mri-volumetry-diffusivity-cerebrovascular-flow-and-cranial-hydrodynamics-during-head-down-tilt-and-hypercapnia-the-spacecot-study
#8
Larry Allen Kramer, Khader M Hasan, Ashot E Sargsyan, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Jörn Rittweger, Dorit Donoviel, Saki Higashi, Benson Mwangi, Darius A Gerlach, Eric M Bershad
PURPOSE: In order to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of visual changes observed in astronauts, we aimed to use quantitative MRI to measure anatomic and physiologic responses during a ground-based spaceflight analogue (head down tilt, HDT) combined with increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Six healthy, male subjects participated in the double-blinded, randomized cross-over design study with two conditions: 26.5 h of -12° HDT with ambient air and with 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198523/diversity-among-posterior-thalamoperforating-branches-originated-from-p1-segment-systematic-review
#9
Cezary Grochowski, Ryszard Maciejewski
BACKGROUND: The P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) begins at the termination of the basilar artery and ends at the origin of posterior communicating artery (PCoM), within the interpeduncular cistern. Perforating branches arising from this segment are called posterior thalamoperforating arteries and the main and biggest artery among those is called thalamoperforating artery (TPA). Perforating branches are a crucial component of cerebrovascular system supplying the posterior part of the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, perforated substance, posterior part of internal capsule and the nucleus of III and IV cranial nerve...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191601/the-maxillary-artery-and-its-variants-an-anatomical-study-with-neurosurgical-applications
#10
Jorge E Alvernia, Joaquin Hidalgo, Marc P Sindou, Chad Washington, Gustavo Luzardo, Eddie Perkins, Remi Nader, Patrick Mertens
BACKGROUND: The maxillary artery (MA) has gained attention in neurosurgery particularly in cerebral revascularization techniques, intracranial endonasal approaches and endovascular procedures. OBJECTIVES: To describe and illustrate the anatomy of the MA and its neurosurgical importance in a detailed manner. METHODS: Six cadaveric heads (12 MAs) were injected with latex. The arteries and surrounding structures were dissected and studied using microsurgical techniques...
February 13, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183839/mr-imaging-of-individual-perfusion-reorganization-using-superselective-pseudocontinuous-arterial-spin-labeling-in-patients-with-complex-extracranial-steno-occlusive-disease
#11
V Richter, M Helle, M J P van Osch, T Lindner, A S Gersing, P Tsantilas, H-H Eckstein, C Preibisch, C Zimmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with multiple stenoses or occlusions of the extracranial arteries require an individualized diagnostic approach. We evaluated the feasibility and clinical utility of a novel MR imaging technique for regional perfusion imaging in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling with a circular labeling spot enabling selective vessel labeling was added to routine imaging in a prospective pilot study in 50 patients (10 women, 70...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135902/mapping-common-aphasia-assessments-to-underlying-cognitive-processes-and-their-neural-substrates
#12
Elizabeth H Lacey, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Mackenzie E Fama, Peter E Turkeltaub
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. OBJECTIVE: To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. METHODS: Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained...
May 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111187/functional-and-oxygen-metabolic-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-the-awake-mouse-brain
#13
Rui Cao, Jun Li, Bo Ning, Naidi Sun, Tianxiong Wang, Zhiyi Zuo, Song Hu
A long-standing challenge in optical neuroimaging has been the assessment of hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in the awake rodent brain at the microscopic level. Here, we report first-of-a-kind head-restrained photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), which enables simultaneous imaging of the cerebrovascular anatomy, total concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and blood flow in awake mice. Combining these hemodynamic measurements allows us to derive two key metabolic parameters-oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2)...
April 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093693/a-simple-post-mortem-room-angiography-method-for-the-investigation-of-traumatic-basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#14
Christopher P Johnson, Mike Murphy, George A Johnson, Stephen M Wills, Jonathan E Medcalf
Identifying the site of vascular bleeding in fatal cases of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is important, but can be very difficult to achieve when there is extensive blood clot in the posterior cranial fossa. Post mortem angiography in these circumstances has been reported previously but with mixed results, and is rarely used in current practice within the United Kingdom. We have developed a simple and effective post mortem angiography method, using fluoroscopy and clear modern contrast medium, suitable for use in the autopsy room...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089839/maxillary-artery-to-middle-cerebral-artery-bypass-a-novel-technique-for-exposure-of-the-maxillary-artery
#15
Kaan Yağmurlu, M Yashar S Kalani, Nikolay L Martirosyan, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, Evgenii Belykh, Avra S Laarakker, Peter Nakaji, Joseph M Zabramski, Mark C Preul, Robert F Spetzler
OBJECTIVE: To define the maxillary artery (MaxA) anatomy and present a novel technique for exposing and preparing this vessel as a bypass donor. METHODS: Cadaveric and radiologic studies were used to define the MaxA anatomy and show a novel method for harvesting and preparing it for extracranial to intracranial bypass. RESULTS: The MaxA runs parallel to the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery and is located on average 24.8 ± 3...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067615/intracranial-atherosclerosis-from-anatomy-to-pathophysiology
#16
Yuehua Pu, Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Lawrence Ks Wong, Liping Liu
Background Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis is an important etiology subtype of ischemic stroke. Stenosis severity was thought to be the main reference index for clinical treatment and research. However, stenosis could not reflect the ischemia risk completely, instead the hemodynamic state across the lesion, the extent of collateral circulation, and perfusion impairment downstream the stenosis are more important. Aims We write this review aimed to summarize novel angiographic methods applied in the evaluation of functional severity of ICAS, and commented on their limitations and prospects in future research...
April 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960167/intracranial-arteries-anatomy-and-collaterals
#17
REVIEW
David S Liebeskind, Louis R Caplan
Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942478/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-non-human-primates
#18
Xiaodong Zhang, Chun-Xia Li
Non-human primates (NHPs) resemble most aspects of humans in brain physiology and anatomy and are excellent animal models for translational research in neuroscience, biomedical research and pharmaceutical development. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) offers essential physiological information of the brain to examine the abnormal functionality in NHP models with cerebral vascular diseases and neurological disorders or dementia. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI techniques allow for high temporal and spatial CBF measurement and are intensively used in studies of animals and humans...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924799/collateral-flow-and-white-matter-disease-in-patients-with-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion
#19
Mami Ishikawa, Hitoshi Sugawara, Mutsumi Nagai, Gen Kusaka, Yuichi Tanaka, Heiji Naritaka
BACKGROUND: When an internal carotid artery (ICA) occludes, a patient may develop cerebral infarction (CI). We investigated whether CI caused by ICA occlusion (ICAO) is associated with collateral flow through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (ACoA and PCoA). METHODS: In 100 patients with ICAO, we investigated CI and white matter disease by performing an MRI and the anatomy of the ACoA and PCoA were investigated by performing magnetic resonance angiography...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813463/bypass-surgery-for-complex-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysms-an-algorithmic-approach-to-revascularization
#20
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Wendy Huang, Arnau Benet, Olivia Kola, Michael T Lawton
OBJECT Management of complex aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can be challenging. Lesions not amenable to endovascular techniques or direct clipping might require a bypass procedure with aneurysm obliteration. Various bypass techniques are available, but an algorithmic approach to classifying these lesions and determining the optimal bypass strategy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to propose a comprehensive and flexible algorithm based on MCA aneurysm location for selecting the best of multiple bypass options...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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