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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821017/the-location-of-australian-buruli-ulcer-lesions-implications-for-unravelling-disease-transmission
#1
Arvind Yerramilli, Ee Laine Tay, Andrew J Stewardson, Peter G Kelley, Emma Bishop, Grant A Jenkin, Mike Starr, Janine Trevillyan, Andrew Hughes, N Deborah Friedman, Daniel P O'Brien, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is increasing in incidence in Victoria, Australia. To improve understanding of disease transmission, we aimed to map the location of BU lesions on the human body. METHODS: Using notification data and clinical records review, we conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with BU in Victoria from 1998-2015. We created electronic density maps of lesion locations using spatial analysis software and compared lesion distribution by age, gender, presence of multiple lesions and month of infection...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#2
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819541/mortality-among-5-17-year-old-children-in-kenya
#3
Bonface Ombaba Osano, Fred Were, Shanaaz Mathews
INTRODUCTION: Global mortality trends have changed over time and are expected to continue changing with a reduction in communicable diseases and an increase of non-communicable disease. Increased survival of children beyond five years may change mortality patterns for these children. There are few studies in Africa that explore the causes of mortality in children over five years. The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate and clinical profiles of children aged 5-17 years who died in six Kenyan hospitals in 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819523/-cutaneous-tuberculosis-in-bamako-mali
#4
Adama Dicko, Ousmane Faye, Youssouf Fofana, Moussa Soumoutera, Siritio Berthé, Saidou Touré, Bekaye Traoré, Binta Guindo, Koureissi Tall, Alimata Keita, Lassine Kéita, Karim Coulibaly, Somita Keita
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is the most common mycobacteriosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare and underdiagnosed due to its clinical polymorphism and to the smallness of technical equipment. This study aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, histopathological aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis in Bamako (Mali). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from January 1991 to December 2008. The study was performed in the Department of Dermatology at the National Center for Disease Control and in the Department of Pneumophtisiology at the Hospital of Point G...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819487/an-evaluation-of-wb123-antibody-elisa-in-individuals-treated-with-ivermectin-and-albendazole-and-implementation-challenges-in-africa
#5
Dziedzom Komi de Souza, Irene Offei Owusu, Joseph Otchere, Michelle Adimazoya, Kwadwo Frempong, Collins Stephen Ahorlu, Daniel Adjei Boakye, Michael David Wilson
The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that takes longer to develop. To this end a new antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123 has been developed and further designed into a point of care rapid diagnostic test, under evaluation...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819468/paediatric-fractures-in-a-sub-saharan-tertiary-care-center-a-cohort-analysis-of-demographic-characteristics-clinical-presentation-therapeutic-patterns-and-outcomes
#6
Marc Leroy Guifo, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Blondel Nana Oumarou, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Aristide Guy Bang, Aurelien Ndoumbe, Bonaventure Jemea, Maurice Aurelien Sosso
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric fractures are often of good prognosis due to auto-correction of insufficient fracture reduction by bone remodeling. In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional healers are renowned for managing fractures and there is a neglect for specialized pediatric fracture care. We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment patterns and outcomes of paediatric fractures in a tertiary health care centre in Yaoundé. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between January 2011 and June 2015 at the University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818582/associations-between-meeting-combinations-of-24-h-movement-guidelines-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-from-12-countries
#7
H Sampasa-Kanyinga, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P T Katzmarzyk, G Hu, R Kuriyan, C Maher, J Maia, T Olds, O L Sarmiento, C Tudor-Locke, J-P Chaput
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether meeting vs not meeting movement/non-movement guidelines (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], screen time, sleep duration), and combinations of these recommendations, are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world and explore whether the associations vary by study site. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, multinational cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study included 6106 children aged 9-11 years from sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States...
August 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818546/glecaprevir-plus-pibrentasvir-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-2-4-5-or-6-infection-in-adults-with-compensated-cirrhosis-expedition-1-a-single-arm-open-label-multicentre-phase-3-trial
#8
Xavier Forns, Samuel S Lee, Joaquin Valdes, Sabela Lens, Reem Ghalib, Humberto Aguilar, Franco Felizarta, Tarek Hassanein, Holger Hinrichsen, Diego Rincon, Rosa Morillas, Stefan Zeuzem, Yves Horsmans, David R Nelson, Yao Yu, Preethi Krishnan, Chih-Wei Lin, Jens J Kort, Federico J Mensa
BACKGROUND: The once-daily, ribavirin-free, pangenotypic, direct-acting antiviral regimen, glecaprevir coformulated with pibrentasvir, has shown high rates of sustained virological response in phase 2 and 3 studies. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks of coformulated glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We did this single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 study at 40 sites in Belgium, Canada, Germany, South Africa, Spain, and the USA...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818053/the-impact-of-self-interviews-on-response-patterns-for-sensitive-topics-a-randomized-trial-of-electronic-delivery-methods-for-a-sexual-behaviour-questionnaire-in-rural-south-africa
#9
Guy Harling, Dumile Gumede, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Nuala McGrath, Janet Seeley, Deenan Pillay, Till W Bärnighausen, Abraham J Herbst
BACKGROUND: Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
August 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817197/estimating-seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-among-different-middle-east-and-north-african-male-populations-residing-in-qatar
#10
Gheyath K Nasrallah, Soha R Dargham, Layla I Mohammed, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: HSV-1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV-1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age-distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. METHODS: Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013-2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti-HSV-1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, USA)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815393/pattern-noise-pano-a-new-automated-functional-glaucoma-test
#11
Sylvain El-Khoury, Thomas Hannen, Diana Carmen Dragnea, Faustin Ngounou, Paul-Rolf Preußner
PURPOSE: To present a newly developed visual field device (pattern noise: PANO) designed to be sensitive to glaucoma defects, cost-effective, material-practical and easy to repair and therefore particularly suited for low-income countries, where glaucoma can be highly prevalent (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa). METHODS: This is primarily a descriptive paper, but it also includes a prospective matched case-control pilot study. Hardware, stimulus, target configuration, testing strategy and result sheet are described...
August 16, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815000/african-tick-bite-fever-in-returning-swedish-travellers-report-of-two-cases-and-aspects-of-diagnostics
#12
Kenneth Nilsson, Katarina Wallménius, Pernilla Rundlöf-Nygren, Susanne Strömdahl, Carl Påhlson
Introduction: African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and a possible cause of fever in returning Swedish travellers. Two patients are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods are discussed. Patients and methods: Two middle-aged men fell ill with fever after returning home from South Africa. Both had single eschars and one also presented with a lymph node swelling. Samples were taken for serology, general bacterial culture from the wound (Patient 1) using a swab and additionally for Patient 2 PCR of a skin biopsy from the eschar...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#13
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814259/may-gender-or-ethnicity-affect-delta-over-baseline-values-obtained-by-13-c-urea-breath-test
#14
Carmine Petruzziello, Dario Sinatti, Maria Gnarra, Alessio Migneco, Valentina Tesori, Cristina Graziani, Antonio Gasbarrini, Francesco Franceschi, Veronica Ojetti
INTRODUCTION: 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is a non-invasive test for detecting active H.pylori infection. Previous studies showed a correlation of delta over baseline (DOB) values with bacterial load, mucosal inflammation and successful eradication. Gender has been shown to affect DOB in children. Aim of our study was to verify whether gender or ethnicity affects DOB in adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 2922 patients (1024M/1898F mean age 47±15 years) that underwent UBT in our outpatient unit, from October 2015 to October 2016...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#15
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812648/fungus-like-mycelial-fossils-in-2-4-billion-year-old-vesicular-basalt
#16
Stefan Bengtson, Birger Rasmussen, Magnus Ivarsson, Janet Muhling, Curt Broman, Federica Marone, Marco Stampanoni, Andrey Bekker
Fungi have recently been found to comprise a significant part of the deep biosphere in oceanic sediments and crustal rocks. Fossils occupying fractures and pores in Phanerozoic volcanics indicate that this habitat is at least 400 million years old, but its origin may be considerably older. A 2.4-billion-year-old basalt from the Palaeoproterozoic Ongeluk Formation in South Africa contains filamentous fossils in vesicles and fractures. The filaments form mycelium-like structures growing from a basal film attached to the internal rock surfaces...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809926/impact-of-fortified-versus-unfortified-lipid-based-supplements-on-morbidity-and-nutritional-status-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-in-ill-gambian-children
#17
Stefan A Unger, Saikou Drammeh, Jahid Hasan, Kabiru Ceesay, Edrisa Sinjanka, Sainey Beyai, Bakary Sonko, Bai Lamin Dondeh, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809619/the-effect-of-hiv-status-on-clinical-outcomes-of-surgical-sepsis-in-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#18
Samantha Green, Victor Y Kong, Jocinta Odendaal, Benn Sartorius, Damian L Clarke, Petra Brysiewicz, Jereme L Bruce, Grant L Laing, Wanda Bekker
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa (SA), has long been the epicentre of the HIV epidemic, but the impact of HIV co-infection on the clinical outcomes of emergency surgical patients with sepsis remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with the management of patients with HIV co-infection and to compare the disease spectrum and outcome with those without HIV infection. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken at the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Surgical Service (PMSS), SA over a 5-year period from January 2010 to December 2014...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809618/corneal-donations-in-south-africa-a-15-year-review
#19
Nicholas J York, Christopher Tinley
BACKGROUND: Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809615/does-access-to-private-healthcare-influence-potential-lung-cancer-cure-rates
#20
Thadathilankal-Jess John, Dante Plekker, Elvis M Irusen, Coenie F N Koegelenberg
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies show a link between poor socioeconomic status (SES) and late-stage cancer diagnosis. However, this has not been consistently shown looking at non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in isolation. Despite the extremely high prevalence of lung cancer and disparities in access to healthcare based on health insurance in South Africa, there is a paucity of data on the influence of health insurance (as a surrogate for SES) on stage at presentation of NSCLC. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between health insurance status (and invariably SES) and staging (and therefore resectability) of patients with primary NCSLC at the time of initial presentation...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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