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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453817/epidemiology-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-cameroon-the-first-population-based-cohort-survey-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Aimé Bonny, Kemi Tibazarwa, Samuel Mbouh, Jonas Wa, Réné Fonga, Cecile Saka, Marcus Ngantcha
Background: Incidence estimates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are unknown. Method: Over 12 months, the household administrative office and health community committee within neighbourhoods in two health areas of Douala, Cameroon, registered all deaths among 86 188 inhabitants aged >18 years. As part of an extended multi-source surveillance system, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS), local medical examiners and district hospital mortuaries were also surveyed...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449319/comparison-of-administrative-and-survey-data-for-estimating-vitamin-a-supplementation-and-deworming-coverage-of-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Amynah Janmohamed, David Doledec
OBJECTIVE: To compare administrative coverage data to results from household coverage surveys for vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming campaigns conducted during 2010-2015 in 12 African countries. METHODS: Paired t-tests examined differences between administrative and survey coverage for 52 VAS and 34 deworming dyads. Independent t-tests measured VAS and deworming coverage differences between data sources for door-to-door and fixed-site delivery strategies and VAS coverage differences between 6 to 11 and 12 to 59-month age groups...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449238/exposure-response-relationship-of-neighbourhood-sanitation-and-children-s-diarrhea
#3
Youngmee Tiffany Jung, Wendy Lou, Yu-Ling Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrheal morbidity, and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. METHODS: We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was 2-week incidence of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age (N=300426). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrheal morbidity...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#4
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447308/determinants-of-stage-at-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-nigerian-women-sociodemographic-breast-cancer-awareness-health-care-access-and-clinical-factors
#5
Elima Jedy-Agba, Valerie McCormack, Oluwole Olaomi, Wunmi Badejo, Monday Yilkudi, Terna Yawe, Emmanuel Ezeome, Iliya Salu, Elijah Miner, Ikechukwu Anosike, Sally N Adebamowo, Benjamin Achusi, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Clement Adebamowo
PURPOSE: Advanced stage at diagnosis is a common feature of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), contributing to poor survival rates. Understanding its determinants is key to preventing deaths from this cancer in SSA. METHODS: Within the Nigerian Integrative Epidemiology of Breast Cancer Study, a multicentred case-control study on breast cancer, we studied factors affecting stage at diagnosis of cases, i.e. women diagnosed with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer between January 2014 and July 2016 at six secondary and tertiary hospitals in Nigeria...
April 26, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446210/cognitive-changes-in-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder
#6
Melany L Hendricks, R A Emsley, D G Nel, H B Thornton, G P Jordaan
AIMS: This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446173/impact-of-the-ebola-outbreak-on-routine-immunization-in-western-area-sierra-leone-a-field-survey-from-an-ebola-epidemic-area
#7
Xiaojin Sun, T T Samba, Jianyi Yao, Wenwu Yin, Lin Xiao, Fuqiang Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Jikun Zhou, Zengqiang Kou, Hongwei Fan, Hao Zhang, Aqnes Williams, Paul M Lansana, Zundong Yin
BACKGROUND: Since March 2014, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa disrupted health care systems - especially in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - with a consequential stress on the area's routine immunization programs. To address perceived decreased vaccination coverage, Sierra Leone conducted a catch-up vaccination campaign during 24-27 April 2015. We conducted a vaccination coverage survey and report coverage estimates surrounding the time of the EVD outbreak and the catch-up campaign...
April 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445544/pressure-flaking-to-serrate-bifacial-points-for-the-hunt-during-the-mis5-at-sibudu-cave-south-africa
#8
Veerle Rots, Carol Lentfer, Viola C Schmid, Guillaume Porraz, Nicholas J Conard
Projectile technology is considered to appear early in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA) and the rich and high resolution MSA sequence of Sibudu Cave in KwaZulu-Natal has provided many new insights about the use and hafting of various projectile forms. We present the results of a functional and technological analysis on a series of unpublished serrated bifacial points recently recovered from the basal deposits of Sibudu Cave. These serrated tools, which only find equivalents in the neighbouring site of Umhlatuzana, precede the Still Bay techno-complex and are older than 77 ka BP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445491/how-people-used-ochre-at-rose-cottage-cave-south-africa-sixty-thousand-years-of-evidence-from-the-middle-stone-age
#9
Tammy Hodgskiss, Lyn Wadley
We describe colour, hardness, grain size, geological type and surface modifications of ochre pieces excavated, first by Malan and later by Harper, from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of Rose Cottage Cave, 96, 000 to 30, 000 years ago. Soft, bright-red shales are abundant, and most ochre has clayey or silty grain sizes. The post-Howiesons Poort layers contain the most ochre pieces, but the Howiesons Poort layers have the highest frequency of ochre per sediment volume. The pre-Howiesons Poort layers have the highest utilization rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445088/predicting-the-need-for-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-by-identifying-patients-at-high-risk-for-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#10
Dorina Onoya, Cornelius Nattey, Eric Budgell, Liudmyla van den Berg, Mhairi Maskew, Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line)...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444863/the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-urban-bo-sierra-leone-and-in-the-16-countries-of-the-west-africa-region
#11
Abu James Sundufu, Cecil N Bockarie, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to measure the prevalence of diabetes among adults in urban Bo, Sierra Leone, and to compare the new result to the diabetes prevalence rates reported from studies across West Africa. METHODS: A total of 694 outpatients ages 18 and older at Bo Government Hospital were tested for diabetes between January 2012 and December 2014. Diabetes was defined as a fasting blood sugar level of ≥126 mg/dl (≥7.0 mmol/l). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of diabetes was 6...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444469/modelling-the-unaids-90-90-90-treatment-cascade-for-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-south-africa-using-the-findings-of-a-data-triangulation-process-to-map-a-way-forward
#12
Andrew Scheibe, Michael Grasso, Henry Fisher Raymond, Albert Manyuchi, Thomas Osmand, Tim Lane, Helen Struthers
A data triangulation exercise was carried out between 2013 and 2015 to assess the HIV epidemic and response among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in South Africa. We used the findings to assess progress in achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals for GBMSM in the country. Three scenarios were developed using different GBMSM population factors (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0% of males aged ≥15) to estimate the population size, HIV prevalence of 13.2-49.5%, and 68% of GBMSM knowing their status. Due to data gaps, general population data were used as estimates of GBMSM on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and virologically suppressed (25...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444452/ebola-virus-disease-in-children-during-the-2014-2015-epidemic-in-guinea-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#13
Mahamoud Sama Chérif, Nut Koonrungsesomboon, Diénaba Kassé, Sékou Ditinn Cissé, Saliou Bella Diallo, Fatoumata Chérif, Facély Camara, Alpha Koné, Eleonor Fundan Avenido, Mandiou Diakité, Mamadou Pathé Diallo, Edouard Le Gall, Mohamed Cissé, Juntra Karbwang, Kenji Hirayama
The most recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has resulted in more than 11,000 deaths in West Africa. It has threatened child health in the affected countries, including Guinea. This nationwide retrospective cohort study included all children under 20 years of age with laboratory-confirmed EVD in Guinea during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak for analysis. Of 8,448 children with probable or suspected EVD, 695 cases were laboratory-confirmed EVD. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 62.9%. Pediatric patients with younger age had a significantly higher rate of death (adjusted OR = 0...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443524/risk-factors-for-prelacteal-feeding-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multilevel-analysis-of-population-data-from-twenty-two-countries
#14
Anselm S Berde, Hilal Ozcebe
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors of prelacteal feeding (PLF) among mothers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. The key outcome variable was PLF. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with PLF. SETTING: Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. SUBJECTS: Mother-baby pairs (n 95348)...
April 26, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443373/association-between-women-s-empowerment-and-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-kalal%C3%A3-district-of-northern-benin
#15
Halimatou Alaofè, Min Zhu, Jennifer Burney, Rosamond Naylor, Taren Douglas
BACKGROUND: Evidence on effectiveness of women's empowerment (WE) to reduce undernutrition is limited in sub-Sahara Africa, and few studies incorporate multidimensional measures of WE. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a WE status, in sum and across leadership, decision-making, mobility, economic security, male involvement in housework, and nonfamily group domains, is associated with women and their children nutritional status in Kalalé district of northern Benin. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2014 Solar Market Garden baseline study: 767 paired reproductive-age women aged 15 to 49 years and children 6 to 59 months old...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443265/registration-for-deceased-organ-and-tissue-donation-among-ontario-immigrants-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#16
Alvin Ho-Ting Li, Ngan N Lam, Sonny Dhanani, Matthew Weir, Versha Prakash, Joseph Kim, Greg Knoll, Amit X Garg
BACKGROUND: Canada has low rates of deceased organ and tissue donation. Immigrants to Canada may differ in their registered support for deceased organ donation based on their country of origin. METHODS: We used linked administrative databases in Ontario (about 11 million residents aged ≥ 16 yr) to study the proportion of immigrants and long-term residents registered for deceased organ and tissue donation as of October 2013. We used modified Poisson regression to identify and quantify predictors of donor registration...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442750/hepatitis-a-virus-infections-and-outbreaks-in-asylum-seekers-arriving-to-germany-september-2015-to-march-2016
#17
Kai Michaelis, Jürgen J Wenzel, Klaus Stark, Mirko Faber
From September 2015 to March 2016, hepatitis A notifications in Germany increased by 45% to 699 cases compared to 482 cases in the same period of the previous year. Children aged five to nine years were predominantly affected (22% of all cases in this period). We hypothesized that this increase could be explained by the marked influx of asylum seekers in this time period. We analysed national surveillance data and estimated the number of imported and autochthonous hepatitis A cases in asylum seekers. We also investigated molecular signatures of hepatitis A viruses sampled from asylum seekers to identify chains of transmission...
April 26, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441968/anaemia-control-and-the-interpretation-of-biochemical-tests-for-iron-status-in-children
#18
Thando P Gwetu, Meera K Chhagan, Myra Taylor, Shuaib Kauchali, Murray Craib
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is one of the world's most prevalent child health problems. Its control in Africa and other developing nations has been hindered by uncertainty regarding its cause. Anaemia control has been particularly problematic in regions where the non-iron deficiency causes of anaemia, are projected to be substantial. The implementation of effective interventions to reduce the anaemia prevalence, requires improved documentation on iron status and other causes of anaemia for target populations...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441927/utilisation-of-skilled-birth-attendants-over-time-in-nigeria-and-malawi
#19
Kilian N Atuoye, Jonathan A Amoyaw, Vincent Z Kuuire, Joseph Kangmennaang, Sheila A Boamah, Siera Vercillo, Roger Antabe, Meghan McMorris, Isaac Luginaah
Despite recent modest progress in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria and Malawi were still in the top 20 countries with highest rates of mortalities globally in 2015. Utilisation of professional services at delivery - one of the indictors of MDG 5 - has been suggested to reduce maternal mortality by 50%. Yet, contextual, socio-cultural and economic factors have served as barriers to uptake of such critical service. In this paper, we examined the impact of residential wealth index on utilisation of Skilled Birth Attendant in Nigeria (2003, 2008 and 2013), and Malawi (2000, 2004 and 2010) using Demographic and Health Survey data sets...
June 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441697/hypertension-management-in-a-population-of-older-adults-in-rural-south-africa
#20
Thiago Veiga Jardim, Sheridan Reiger, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Ryan G Wagner, Alisha Wade, Till W Bärnighausen, Joshua Salomon, Stephen Tollman, Thomas A Gaziano
OBJECTIVE: Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. METHODS: A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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