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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081230/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-children-at-enrollment-into-care-and-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-central-africa
#1
Adebola Adedimeji, Andrew Edmonds, Donald Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jean d'Amour Sinayobye, Martin Nduwimana, Patricia Lelo, Denis Nash, Kathryn Anastos, Marcel Yotebieng
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#2
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077869/age-extent-and-carbon-storage-of-the-central-congo-basin-peatland-complex
#3
Greta C Dargie, Simon L Lewis, Ian T Lawson, Edward T A Mitchard, Susan E Page, Yannick E Bocko, Suspense A Ifo
Peatlands are carbon-rich ecosystems that cover just three per cent of Earth's land surface, but store one-third of soil carbon. Peat soils are formed by the build-up of partially decomposed organic matter under waterlogged anoxic conditions. Most peat is found in cool climatic regions where unimpeded decomposition is slower, but deposits are also found under some tropical swamp forests. Here we present field measurements from one of the world's most extensive regions of swamp forest, the Cuvette Centrale depression in the central Congo Basin...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077112/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-hypertension-in-burkina-faso-a-countrywide-cross-sectional-study
#4
Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga, Tieba Millogo, Brice W Bicaba, Boukare Doulougou, Séni Kouanda
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (HBP) is an increasing public health issue for developing countries. HBP is an important contributing factor to many non-communicable diseases that were until very recently thought to be rare in developing countries. There is not enough evidence on its burden and risk factors in Africa. We report in this study on the prevalence and factors associated with HBP in the adult and active population of Burkina Faso from a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to Surveillance(STEPS) survey on the prevalence of major risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Burkina Faso...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077105/the-prevalence-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-farm-worker-community-in-the-boland-district-south-africa
#5
Maritza J Kruger, Theo A Nell
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, not much is known about MetS in farm working communities. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of the MetS in a farm working population from the Boland winelands district of the Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was followed among farm workers (aged 20-60 years) from surrounding wine estates. The questionnaires used described socio-demographic status, ethnic background, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise and daily medication...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077093/evaluation-of-the-point-of-care-becton-dickinson-veritor%C3%A2-rapid-influenza-diagnostic-test-in-kenya-2013-2014
#6
Linus K Ndegwa, Gideon Emukule, Timothy M Uyeki, Eunice Mailu, Sandra S Chaves, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bandika V Lewa, Francis K Muiruri, Peter Omoth, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. METHODS: Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076974/topological-organization-of-whole-brain-white-matter-in-hiv-infection
#7
Laurie M Baker, Sarah Cooley, Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, John A Joska, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Jodi Heaps-Woodruff, Lauren E Salminen, Robert H Paul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with neuroimaging alterations. However, little is known about the topological organization of whole-brain networks and the corresponding association with cognition. As such, we examined structural whole-brain white matter connectivity patterns and cognitive performance in 29 HIV+ young adults (mean age = 25.9) with limited or no HIV treatment history. HIV+ participants and demographically similar HIV- controls (n = 16) residing in South Africa underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing...
January 11, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076666/the-global-incidence-of-lip-oral-cavity-and-pharyngeal-cancers-by-subsite-in-2012
#8
Kevin D Shield, Jacques Ferlay, Ahmedin Jemal, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Anil K Chaturvedi, Freddie Bray, Isabelle Soerjomataram
By using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer publication Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents and GLOBOCAN, this report provides the first consolidated global estimation of the subsite distribution of new cases of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by country, sex, and age for the year 2012. Major geographically based, sex-based, and age-based variations in the incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite were observed. Lip cancers were highly frequent in Australia (associated with solar radiation) and in central and eastern Europe (associated with tobacco smoking)...
January 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074291/unaccompanied-refugee-minors-in-germany-attitudes-of-the-general-population-towards-a-vulnerable-group
#9
Paul L Plener, Rebecca C Groschwitz, Elmar Brähler, Thorsten Sukale, Jörg M Fegert
Germany saw an increase in numbers of refugees in 2015, with nearly a third being below the age of 18. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) present an especially vulnerable group. In addition to pre-flight and flight stress, the acculturation process can work as potential stressor, and we wanted to explore attitudes towards URM. We conducted a study in a representative sample (n = 2524) of the German population (ages 14 years or older) between January and March 2016. Only 22.8% of participants thought that Germany could accompany more URM...
January 10, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071965/standing-activity-intervention-and-motor-function-in-a-young-child-with-cerebral-palsy-a-case-report
#10
Olukemi Audu, Carol Daly
PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to fully justify the use of standing interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This case report describes the impact of an 8-week standing program on motor function in a child with severe CP living in western Africa. METHODS: The subject was diagnosed with ischemic - hypoxic encephalopathy shortly after birth and with CP at 12 months of age. Gross Motor Function Classification of CP was level IV. Early attempts at physical therapy were interrupted by limited access to medical services...
January 10, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071960/community-based-prevalence-study-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-rural-ethiopia
#11
Tadesse Gemechu, Hani Mahmoud, Eldryd Ho Parry, David Iw Phillips, Magdi H Yacoub
Background Chronic Rheumatic Heart disease (RHD) continues to be a health problem in many low and middle income countries and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Echocardiography has shown that the disease is far more widespread than may be detected by clinical assessment, but data are lacking on the prevalence and epidemiological features in rural Africa. Design Community-based prevalence survey Methods We used transthoracic echocardiography to carry out a population-based study of RHD in a rural area of Ethiopia...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068955/validation-of-the-10-item-centre-for-epidemiological-studies-depression-scale-ces-d-10-in-zulu-xhosa-and-afrikaans-populations-in-south-africa
#12
Emily Claire Baron, Thandi Davies, Crick Lund
BACKGROUND: The 10-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) is a depression screening tool that has been used in the South African National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), a national household panel study. This screening tool has not yet been validated in South Africa. This study aimed to establish the reliability and validity of the CES-D-10 in Zulu, Xhosa and Afrikaans. The CES-D-10's psychometric properties were also compared to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a depression screening tool already validated in South Africa...
January 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068930/self-reported-diabetes-during-pregnancy-in-the-south-african-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-extent-and-social-determinants
#13
Lumbwe Chola, Chipo Mutyambizi, Ronel Sewpaul, Whadi-Ah Parker, Zandile Mchiza, Demetre Labadarios, Charles Hongoro
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a serious and growing public health concern in South Africa, but its prevalence and distribution in pregnant women is not well known. Women diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy have a substantially greater risk of adverse health outcomes for both mother and child. This study aims to determine the prevalence and social determinants of diabetes during pregnancy in South Africa. METHODS: Data used in this study were from the 2012 South African National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey; a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067703/anesthesia-for-ambulatory-pediatric-surgery-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-pilot-study-in-burkina-faso
#14
Yvette B Kabré, Idriss S S Traoré, Flavien A R Kaboré, Bertille Ki, Alain I Traoré, Isso Ouédraogo, Emile Bandré, Albert Wandaogo, Nazinigouba Ouédraogo
BACKGROUND: Long surgical wait times and limited hospital capacity are common obstacles to surgical care in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Introducing ambulatory surgery might contribute to a solution to these problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of introducing ambulatory surgery into a pediatric hospital in SSA. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that took place over 6 months. It includes all patients assigned to undergo ambulatory surgery in the Pediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso...
January 5, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#15
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066837/age-specific-nomograms-for-follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-anti-mullerian-hormone-a-pilot-study-in-ile-ife-nigeria
#16
Omoladun Temitope Okunola, Olusegun Kayode Ajenifuja, Morebise Olabisi Loto, Afolabi Salawu, Oluseyi Stephen Omitinde, Joel Akande, Elizabeth Oke
BACKGROUND: Assessment of ovarian reserve is one of the steps in the management of infertile couples. Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are commonly used ovarian reserve markers in Africa. However, there is paucity of age-specific reference values for FSH and AMH among the African population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at conducting a pilot study for generation of age-specific nomograms for FSH and AMH among fertile women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria...
December 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065186/differential-effects-of-dietary-diversity-and-maternal-characteristics-on-linear-growth-of-children-aged-6-59-months-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis
#17
Dickson A Amugsi, Zacharie T Dimbuene, Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Blessing Mberu, Alex C Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential effects of dietary diversity (DD) and maternal characteristics on child linear growth at different points of the conditional distribution of height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from nationally representative cross-sectional samples of singleton children aged 0-59 months, born to mothers aged 15-49 years. The outcome variable was child HAZ. Quantile regression was used to perform the multivariate analysis...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064538/hiv-infection-among-children-and-adolescents-in-burundi-cameroon-and-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#18
Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Jamie E Newman, Martin Nduwimana, Helene Bukuru, Pierre Kariyo, Théodore Niyongabo, Marcel Mbaya, Henri Mukumbi, Nelly Kamgaing, Marie-Thérèse Obama, Wilfred Akam, Joseph Atibu, Modeste Kiumbu, J Hemingway-Foday
Evidence demonstrates a substantial HIV epidemic among children and adolescents in countries with long-standing generalized HIV epidemics, where availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services has historically been limited. The objective of this research was to explore factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and morbidity among HIV-infected surviving children 2-17 years of age attending HIV programs in Central Africa. Programmatic data from 404 children attending HIV programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were included in our evaluation...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063620/-the-virological-and-epidemiological-aspects-of-human-adenoviral-conjunctivitis-in-tunisia
#19
N Fedaoui, N Ben Ayed, A Ben Yahia, L Matri, L Nacef, H Triki
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the results of HAdV screening in conjunctival samples collected for over 14 years in Tunisia. A total of 282 conjunctival samples received between 2000 and 2013 were investigated. Detection and identification of genotype were performed by PCR-sequencing at the hexon gene; 64...
January 4, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062147/periprocedural-myocardial-infarction-during-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-an-academic-tertiary-centre-in-johannesburg
#20
Nqoba Tsabedze, Keir McCutcheon, Lancelot Mkhwanazi, Riaz Garda, Ahmed Vachiat, Rohan Ramjee, Jameel Moosa, Themba Maluleke, Gloria Mukeshimana, Saffiyyah Karolia, Dineo Mpanya, Pravin Manga
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is effective therapy for significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Despite medical and technological advances in PCI, periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) remains a common complication. The frequency and factors associated with PMI have been well investigated in the developed world, yet there is a paucity of data from the developing world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 153 adult patients undergoing PCI at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital from the 1st of February 2014 to 31st October 2014...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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