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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353153/productivity-losses-due-to-premature-mortality-from-cancer-in-brazil-russia-india-china-and-south-africa-brics-a-population-based-comparison
#1
Alison Pearce, Linda Sharp, Paul Hanly, Anton Barchuk, Freddie Bray, Marianna de Camargo Cancela, Prakash Gupta, Filip Meheus, You-Lin Qiao, Freddy Sitas, Shao-Ming Wang, Isabelle Soerjomataram
BACKGROUND: Over two-thirds of the world's cancer deaths occur in economically developing countries; however, the societal costs of cancer have rarely been assessed in these settings. Our aim was to estimate the value of productivity lost in 2012 due to cancer-related premature mortality in the major developing economies of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). METHODS: We applied an incidence-based method using the human capital approach...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#2
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352617/high-frequency-of-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansion-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-from-two-founder-populations-sharing-the-same-risk-haplotype
#3
Orly Goldstein, Mali Gana-Weisz, Beatrice Nefussy, Batel Vainer, Omri Nayshool, Anat Bar-Shira, Bryan J Traynor, Vivian E Drory, Avi Orr-Urtreger
We characterized the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion (RE) mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients of 2 distinct origins, Ashkenazi and North Africa Jews (AJ, NAJ), its frequency, and genotype-phenotype correlations. In AJ, 80% of familial ALS (fALS) and 11% of sporadic ALS carried the RE, a total of 12.9% of all AJ-ALS compared to 0.3% in AJ controls (odds ratio [OR] = 44.3, p < 0.0001). In NAJ, 10% of fALS and 9% of sporadic ALS carried the RE, a total of 9.1% of all NAJ-ALS compared to 1% in controls (OR = 9...
December 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351795/malaria-knowledge-and-bed-net-use-in-three-transmission-settings-in-southern-africa
#4
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Harry Hamapumbu, Edmore Mamini, James Lupiya, Jennifer C Stevenson, Sungano Mharakurwa, Mike Chaponda, Philip E Thuma, Lovemore Gwanzura, Shungu Munyati, Modest Mulenga, Douglas E Norris, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in endemic areas. Despite increasing availability, the use of ITNs remains limited in some settings. Poor malaria knowledge is a barrier to the widespread use of ITNs. The goal of this study was to assess the levels of malaria knowledge and evaluate factors associated with bed net use among individuals residing in three regions of southern Africa with different levels of malaria transmission and control...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351754/chronic-airflow-obstruction-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Thomas Zoller, Elirehema H Mfinanga, Tresphory B Zumba, Peter J Asilia, Edwin M Mutabazi, David Wimmersberger, Florian Kurth, Francis Mhimbira, Frederick Haraka, Klaus Reither
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a global problem and available data from sub-Saharan Africa is very limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional facility-based pilot study among patients and visitors to an urban and a rural primary healthcare facility was conducted in coastal Tanzania. The primary outcome was the prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction. RESULTS: The final analysis included 598 participants with valid post-bronchodilator spirometry...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351609/inequity-in-contraceptive-care-between-refugees-and-other-migrant-women-a-retrospective-study-in-dutch-general-practice
#6
Liselotte A D Raben, Maria E T C van den Muijsenbergh
Background: Female refugees are at high risk of reproductive health problems including unmet contraceptive needs. In the Netherlands, the general practitioner (GP) is the main entrance to the healthcare system and plays a vital role in the prescription of contraceptives. Little is known about contraceptive care in female refugees in primary care. Objective: To get insight into GP care related to contraception in refugees and other migrants compared with native Dutch women...
January 17, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351564/steatosis-in-south-african-women-how-much-and-why
#7
Nitien H Naran, Mark Haagensen, Nigel J Crowther
BACKGROUND: Globally, steatosis is the commonest type of liver pathology and is closely associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is common in urban African females but no data is available on hepatic fat content in this population group when compared to other ethnic groups. The aim of this study was therefore to compare hepatic fat content in woman from different ethnic groups in South Africa and to characterise the principle determinants of liver fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 106 (48 Indian, 29 African and 29 Caucasian) female volunteers aged 20-60 years and having no history of cardiometabolic disorders were recruited...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351077/molecular-and-morphological-characterisation-of-rhabdias-picardiae-junker-lhermitte-vallarino-et-bain-2010-nematoda-rhabdiasidae-from-delaland-s-river-frog-amietia-delalandii-dum%C3%A3-ril-et-bibron-1841-amphibia-pyxicephalidae-in-south-africa
#8
Roman Svitin, Yuriy Kuzmin, Louis du Preez
Rhabdias picardiae previously known from the Guttural Toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae) is described from a new host, Delaland's River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Pyxicephalidae). The species identification is confirmed by analysis of the COI gene sequence and morphological comparison with the original description. Morphological details of apical structures in adult parasitic R. picardiae, namely, the shape and position of lips, the number and position of external labial papillae, and the buccal capsule morphology are described using light and scanning electron microscopy...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350137/multiplex-pcr-based-next-generation-sequencing-and-global-diversity-of-seoul-virus-in-humans-and-rats
#9
Won-Keun Kim, Jin Sun No, Seung-Ho Lee, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Se Hun Gu, Sunhye Park, Seong Tae Jeong, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A Klein, Michael R Wiley, Gustavo Palacios, Jin-Won Song
Seoul virus (SEOV) poses a worldwide public health threat. This virus, which is harbored by Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus rats, is the causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which has been reported in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Defining SEOV genome sequences plays a critical role in development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against the unique worldwide hantavirus. We applied multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing to obtain SEOV genome sequences from clinical and reservoir host specimens...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349254/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-and-its-association-with-socio-demographic-and-hiv-risk-factors-in-south-africa-findings-of-the-2012-hiv-prevalence-incidence-and-behaviour-survey
#10
J C Mthembu, M L H Mabaso, G Khan, L C Simbayi
Background: In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. Methods: The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349225/intergenerational-differences-in-smoking-among-west-indian-haitian-latin-american-and-african-blacks-in-the-united-states
#11
Tod G Hamilton, Tiffany L Green
Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995-2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349220/adult-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa-zambia-where-do-adults-die
#12
Vesper H Chisumpa, Clifford O Odimegwu, Nicole De Wet
Place of death remains an issue of growing interest and debate among scholars as an indicator of quality of end-of-life care in developed countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, variations in place of death may suggest inequalities in access to and the utilization of health care services that should be addressed by public health interventions. Limited research exists on factors associated with place of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The study examines factors associated with the place of death among Zambian adults aged 15-59 years using the 2010-2012 sample vital registration with verbal autopsy survey (SAVVY) data, descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348548/the-global-epidemiology-of-bladder-cancer-a-joinpoint-regression-analysis-of-its-incidence-and-mortality-trends-and-projection
#13
Martin C S Wong, Franklin D H Fung, Colette Leung, Wilson W L Cheung, William B Goggins, C F Ng
We tested the hypotheses that the global incidence of bladder cancer was increasing but its mortality was reducing and its incidence was positively correlated with country-specific socioeconomic development. We retrieved data on age-standardized incidence and mortality rates/100,000 from the GLOBOCAN database in 2012. Temporal patterns were examined for 39 countries from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volumes I-X and other national registries. We evaluated the correlation between the incidence/mortality rates and Human Development Index (HDI)/ logarithmic values of Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347975/single-low-dose-primaquine-for-blocking-transmission-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-proposed-model-derived-age-based-regimen-for-sub-saharan-africa
#14
W Robert Taylor, Htee Khu Naw, Kathryn Maitland, Thomas N Williams, Melissa Kapulu, Umberto D'Alessandro, James A Berkley, Philip Bejon, Joseph Okebe, Jane Achan, Alfred Ngwa Amambua, Muna Affara, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre van Geertruyden, Muhindo Mavoko, Pascal Lutumba, Junior Matangila, Philipe Brasseur, Patrice Piola, Rindra Randremanana, Estrella Lasry, Caterina Fanello, Marie Onyamboko, Birgit Schramm, Zolia Yah, Joel Jones, Rick M Fairhurst, Mahamadou Diakite, Grace Malenga, Malcolm Molyneux, Claude Rwagacondo, Charles Obonyo, Endalamaw Gadisa, Abraham Aseffa, Mores Loolpapit, Marie-Claire Henry, Grant Dorsey, Chandy John, Sodiomon B Sirima, Karen I Barnes, Peter Kremsner, Nicholas P Day, Nicholas J White, Mavuto Mukaka
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization recommended blocking the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum with single low-dose primaquine (SLDPQ, target dose 0.25 mg base/kg body weight), without testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd), when treating patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. We sought to develop an age-based SLDPQ regimen that would be suitable for sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using data on the anti-infectivity efficacy and tolerability of primaquine (PQ), the epidemiology of anaemia, and the risks of PQ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (AHA) and clinically significant anaemia (CSA), we prospectively defined therapeutic-dose ranges of 0...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347849/joint-pain-within-adult-middle-aged-women-attending-a-community-clinic-in-a-peri-urban-area-in-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Roline Barnes, Jennifer Jelsma, Romy Parker
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of joint pain in women between the ages of 40 and 64 years who attended a community clinic in the Free State to provide micro-information for health care planners. METHODS: A sample of convenience was utilized in the cross-sectional survey. Health care workers were recruited to conduct the survey. Outcome measures included the Community-Oriented-Programme-For-The-Control-Of-Rheumatic-Disease questionnaire and European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions health related quality of life measure...
January 19, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347828/change-in-hiv-related-stigma-in-south-africa-between-2004-and-2016-a-cross-sectional-community-study
#16
Maretha J Visser
A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344084/the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-in-africa-a-scoping-review-of-its-application-and-validation
#17
REVIEW
Nikhat Hoosen, Eugene Lee Davids, Petrus J de Vries, Maylene Shung-King
Background: Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343268/time-homogeneous-markov-process-for-hiv-aids-progression-under-a-combination-treatment-therapy-cohort-study-south-africa
#18
Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu
BACKGROUND: As HIV enters the human body, its main target is the CD4 cell which it turns into a factory that produces millions of other HIV particles. These HIV particles target new CD4 cells resulting in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. A continuous depletion of CD4 cells results in opportunistic infections, for example tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study is to model and describe the progression of HIV/AIDS disease in an individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow up using a continuous time homogeneous Markov process...
January 18, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342308/chronic-kidney-disease-burden-among-african-migrants-in-three-european-countries-and-in-urban-and-rural-ghana-the-rodam-cross-sectional-study
#19
David N Adjei, Karien Stronks, Dwomoa Adu, Erik Beune, Karlijn Meeks, Liam Smeeth, Juliet Addo, Ellis Owuso-Dabo, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Matthias B Schulze, Ina Danquah, Joachim Spranger, Silver Bahendeka, Ama de-Graft Aikins, Charles Agyemang
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major burden among sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. However, differences in CKD prevalence between rural and urban settings in Africa, and upon migration to Europe are unknown. We therefore assessed the differences in CKD prevalence among homogenous SSA population (Ghanaians) residing in rural and urban Ghana and in three European cities, and whether conventional risk factors of CKD explained the observed differences. Furthermore, we assessed whether the prevalence of CKD varied among individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared with individuals without these conditions...
January 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342157/timing-of-maternal-death-levels-trends-and-ecological-correlates-using-sibling-data-from-34-sub-saharan-african-countries
#20
Leena Merdad, Mohamed M Ali
Millennium Development Goal 5 has not been universally achieved, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding whether maternal deaths occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperium is important to effectively plan maternal health programs and allocate resources. Our main research objectives are to (1) describe the proportions and rates of mortality for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods; (2) document how these trends vary by sub-region; and (3) investigate ecological correlations between these rates and maternal care interventions...
2018: PloS One
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