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Krista L Kaups
Consideration of the effects of aging on physicians' practice is crucial to addressing aging clinicians' competence, that is, their ability to practice with reasonable skill and safety. Given physician workforce shortages even in resource abundant countries, the establishment of a compulsory retirement age in the US is impractical and unlikely. Several US hospitals and institutions have sought to address concerns about competence by establishing mandatory age-linked testing and evaluation for physicians. However, these procedures have raised questions regarding age discrimination and test validity...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Bradley Genovese, Steven Yin, Sohail Sareh, Michael DeVirgilio, Laith Mukdad, Jessica Davis, Veronica J Santos, Peyman Benharash
With changes in work hour limitations, there is an increasing need for objective determination of technical proficiency. Electromagnetic hand-motion analysis has previously shown only time to completion and number of movements to correlation with expertise. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of hand-motion-tracking analysis in determining surgical skill proficiency. A nine-degree-of-freedom sensor was used and mounted on the superior aspect of a needle driver. A one-way analysis of variance and Welch's t test were performed to evaluate significance between subjects...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Marcia J Cooper, Leanne Mezzabotta, Joseph Murphy
PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine food and culinary skills and knowledge of dietetic students. METHODS: An online bilingual survey was created using Survey Monkey(TM) to explore the skills, knowledge, and perceptions of undergraduate dietetic students regarding food and cooking. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to compare skills and knowledge of food and culinary concepts. RESULTS: The final sample included second- (n = 22) and third-year (n = 22) students within the Baccalauréat specialisé en sciences de la nutrition program at the University of Ottawa...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Linda Govere, Ephraim M Govere
BACKGROUND: With the rapid growth of minority populations in the United States, the need to train healthcare providers to give culturally competent care has never been greater. Extensive research on cultural competence of healthcare providers has been conducted, but no systematic review specifically focused on the effect of cultural competence training on patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups. AIMS: To search and critically appraise published research articles that evaluated the effectiveness of cultural competence training of healthcare providers on improving patient satisfaction of clients from minority groups...
October 25, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Cheryl Fisher, Georgie Cusack, Kim Cox, Kathryn Feigenbaum, Gwenyth R Wallen
Organizations must ensure that nursing care delivery is based on best evidence. This article describes how a clinical research hospital used a competency-based approach to structure the development and execution of a strategic plan and integrated evidence-based practice concepts into the activities of nurses at all levels. The article will also describe the process for developing and implementing the competency across our department including outcomes achieved.
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Tavis Apramian, Sayra Cristancho, Chris Watling, Michael Ott, Lorelei Lingard
PURPOSE: Emerging research explores the educational implications of practice and procedural variation between faculty members. The potential effect of these variations on how surgeons make competence judgments about residents has not yet been thoroughly theorized. The authors explored how thresholds of principle and preference shaped surgeons' intraoperative judgments of resident competence. METHOD: This grounded theory study included reanalysis of data on the educational role of procedural variations and additional sampling to attend to their impact on assessment...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Yoon Soo Park, Matthew Lineberry, Abbas Hyderi, Georges Bordage, Kuan Xing, Rachel Yudkowsky
PURPOSE: Medical schools administer locally developed graduation competency examinations (GCEs) following the structure of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills that combine standardized patient (SP)-based physical examination and the patient note (PN) to create integrated clinical encounter (ICE) scores. This study examines how different subcomponent scoring weights in a locally developed GCE affect composite score reliability and pass-fail decisions for ICE scores, contributing to internal structure and consequential validity evidence...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
G Galeati, E Giaretta, A Zannoni, D Bucci, C Tamanini, M Forni, M Spinaci
Oxidative stress caused from in vitro culture contributes to inadequate oocyte maturation which leads to a poor embryo development. Therefore, it is important to protect oocytes and embryos against oxidative stress. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone), an antioxidant with various pharmacologic activities, on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of pig oocytes as well as on steroidogenesis of cumulus cells (CCs). Another objective was to determine the influence of Embelin on developmental competence of pig oocytes as well as the expression levels of three key genes (Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4) involved in the control of pluripotency in parthenogenetically activated embryos...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Molly Dawes, Chin-Chih Chen, Sharon K Zumbrunn, Meera Mehtaji, Thomas W Farmer, Jill V Hamm
This study examined the associations between teacher attunement to aggressive students and students' characteristics in a sample (n = 278) of youth in 5th-grade classrooms with the assumption that certain student characteristics may either prime or hinder teachers' attunement to aggressive students. Teacher attunement was measured as the agreement between teacher- and peer-nominations for students who start fights. Teachers rated their students on the following characteristics: academic competence, affiliation, popularity, internalizing behavior, and Olympian qualities...
October 25, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Friederike Barthels, Frank Meyer, Thomas Huber, Reinhard Pietrowsky
PURPOSE: Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic eating behaviour. METHOD: Female anorexic patients with low (n = 29) and pronounced (n = 13) orthorexic eating behaviour as well as a matched control group composed of healthy females (n = 30) were compared with regard to several aspects of disordered eating, hypochondriacal traits, food consumption frequency and fulfilment of basic psychological needs in terms of eating...
October 24, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Karsten A van Loon, Pim W Teunissen, Erik W Driessen, Fedde Scheele
BACKGROUND : Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) seek to translate essential physician competencies into clinical practice. Until now, it is not known whether EPA-based curricula offer enhanced assessment and feedback to trainees. OBJECTIVE : This study examined program directors' and senior residents' justifications for entrustment decisions and what role generic, cross-specialty competencies (such as communication skills, collaboration, and understanding health care systems) play in these decisions...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Aleš Ulrych, Nela Holečková, Jana Goldová, Linda Doubravová, Oldřich Benada, Olga Kofroňová, Petr Halada, Pavel Branny
BACKGROUND: Reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases is the primary mechanism for signal transduction in all living organisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a single Ser/Thr protein kinase, StkP, which plays a role in virulence, stress resistance and the regulation of cell wall synthesis and cell division. However, the role of its cognate phosphatase, PhpP, is not well defined. RESULTS: Here, we report the successful construction of a ΔphpP mutant in the unencapsulated S...
October 24, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Lisa J White, Daryl B Greenfield
A growing percentage of low-income children in the United States come from Spanish-speaking homes and are dual language learners (DLLs). Recent research shows that bilingual children, compared to monolinguals, have enhanced executive functioning (EF), a set of foundational cognitive skills that predict higher social-emotional competence and academic achievement in preschool and beyond. Although this association has been found among children of different backgrounds, no study to date has assessed whether bilingual Latino preschoolers from low-income backgrounds have higher EF than their monolingual peers and their emerging bilingual peers, respectively...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
Phil J Peacock, Anna Woodman, Wendy McCay, Sarah E Bates
INTRODUCTION: Non-pediatric trainees working in pediatrics in the UK are expected to attend newborn deliveries and provide initial newborn life support if needed. In Swindon, new junior doctors receive a 90-minute teaching session at the start of their pediatrics rotation, but the content has not previously been standardized, and it may be several weeks before a doctor attends a newborn delivery. Thus, the confidence and competence in newborn resuscitation of doctors attending deliveries can vastly vary...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Nita A Farahany
The goal of this study was to examine the growing use of neurological and behavioral genetic evidence by criminal defendants in US criminal law. Judicial opinions issued between 2005-12 that discussed the use of neuroscience or behavioral genetics by criminal defendants were identified, coded and analysed. Criminal defendants are increasingly introducing such evidence to challenge defendants' competency, the effectiveness of defense counsel at trial, and to mitigate punishment.
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Aravind T Reddy, Sowmya P Lakshmi, Raju C Reddy
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is now recognized as an important modulator of leukocyte inflammatory responses and function. Its immunoregulatory function has been studied in a variety of contexts, including bacterial infections of the lungs and central nervous system, sepsis, and conditions such as chronic granulomatous disease. Although it is generally believed that PPARγ activation is beneficial for the host during bacterial infections via its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, PPARγ agonists have also been shown to dampen the host immune response and in some cases exacerbate infection by promoting leukocyte apoptosis and interfering with leukocyte migration and infiltration...
2016: PPAR Research
Stephen M Fiore, Travis J Wiltshire
In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudia Chaufan, Andrew J Karter, Howard H Moffet, Judy Quan, Melissa M Parker, Jenna Kruger, Dean Schillinger, Alicia Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Language barriers negatively impact health care access and quality for US immigrants. Latinos are the second largest immigrant group and the largest, fastest growing minority. Health care systems need simple, low cost and accurate tools that they can use to identify physicians with Spanish language competence. We sought to address this need by validating a simple and low-cost tool already in use in a major health plan. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS: A web-based survey conducted in 2012 among physicians caring for patients in a large, integrated health care delivery system...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
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