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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#1
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544578/clinical-assessment-of-interdental-papilla-competency-parameters-in-the-esthetic-zone
#2
Karuna Joshi, C S Baiju, Himanshu Khashu, Sumidha Bansal, Isha B Maheswari
BACKGROUND: Interdental papilla occupies the space between two adjacent teeth. Its contour and health are regarded with utmost importance in esthetic dental therapy. The loss of papillary height can result in open gingival embrasures, phonetic problems, food impaction, and esthetic concerns: therefore in order to prevent its loss and to better understand the challenges of regenerating the lost gingival papillae, it is crucial to recognize the factors that influence papilla form. AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate various factors associated with the fill of interdental spaces by gingival papillae MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 interdental papillae in 30 patients were assessed with clinical and study models...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544096/getting-safely-through-the-shift-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-administrative-supervisor-role
#3
Susan H Weaver, Teri G Lindgren
AIM: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the administrative supervisors' perspective of their managerial practices and how these practices contribute to nurse and patient safety. BACKGROUND: The position of administrative supervisor, often referred to as house supervisor on the evening and night shifts, lacks empirical data supporting efficacy. METHOD: A focused ethnographic study was conducted with 30 administrative supervisors from acute care hospitals, using in-depth interviews and job descriptions...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543962/effects-of-meiotic-inhibitors-and-gonadotrophins-on-porcine-oocytes-in-vitro-maturation-fertilization-and-development
#4
M A Gil, A Nohalez, C A Martinez, J R Ake-Villanueva, F Centurion-Castro, C Maside, C Cuello, J Roca, I Parrilla, E A Martinez
This study evaluated the effect of three reversible meiotic inhibitors (MINs) and their interaction with gonadotrophins (Gns) on the meiotic maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. In experiment 1, the oocytes were matured for 22 hr in the presence or absence of dbcAMP (1 mM), cycloheximide (7 μM) or cilostamide (20 μM) with or without Gns, and for an additional 22 hr in the absence of MINs and Gns. At 22 hr of maturation, regardless of the presence of Gns, a higher proportion (p < ...
May 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543187/the-assessment-of-decision-making-competence-in-patients-with-depression-using-the-macarthur-competence-assessment-tools-a-systematic-review
#5
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Shi-Bin Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Xin Yu, Chee H Ng, Yu-Tao Xiang
PURPOSE: This is a systematic review of the usefulness of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tools (MacCAT) in assessing the decision-making competence in patients with depression. DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed. FINDINGS: Eleven studies met the search criteria. The decision-making capacity was impaired in 9-31% of the patients with depression. There was inconsistency regarding the differences of MacCAT scores between patients with depression and controls, while relatively large effect sizes were found on the Appreciation and Reasoning MacCAT subscales...
May 23, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542629/characteristics-of-candidate-genes-associated-with-embryonic-development-in-the-cow-evidence-for-a-role-for-wbp1-in-development-to-the-blastocyst-stage
#6
M Sofia Ortega, Justin J Kurian, Robert McKenna, Peter J Hansen
The goal was to gain understanding of how 12 genes containing SNP previously related to embryo competence to become a blastocyst (BRINP3, C1QB, HSPA1L, IRF9, MON1B, PARM1, PCCB, PMM2, SLC18A2, TBC1D24, TTLL3 and WBP1) participate in embryonic development. Gene expression was evaluated in matured oocytes and embryos. BRINP3 and C1QB were not detected at any stage. For most other genes, transcript abundance declined as the embryo developed to the blastocyst stage. Exceptions were for PARM1 and WBP1, where steady-state mRNA increased at the 9-16 cell stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542562/identification-and-characteristics-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-bovine-blastocysts-produced-in-vitro
#7
Edwin A Mellisho, Alejandra E Velásquez, María J Nuñez, Joel G Cabezas, Juan A Cueto, Claudio Fader, Fidel O Castro, Lleretny Rodríguez-Álvarez
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified within different body fluids and cell culture media. However, there is very little information on the secretion of these vesicles during early embryonic development. The aims of this work were first to demonstrate the secretion of extracellular vesicles by pre-implantation bovine embryos and second to identify and characterize the population of EVs secreted by bovine blastocysts during the period from day seven to nine of embryo culture and its correlation with further embryo development up to day 11...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542226/german-validation-of-quality-of-life-after-brain-injury-qolibri-assessment-and-associated-factors
#8
Nicole von Steinbüchel, Ruben G L Real, Nadine Sasse, Lindsay Wilson, Christiane Otto, Ryan Mullins, Robert Behr, Wolfgang Deinsberger, Ramon Martinez-Olivera, Wolfgang Puschendorf, Werner Petereit, Veit Rohde, Holger Schmidt, Stephan Sehmisch, Klaus Michael Stürmer, Klaus von Wild, Henning Gibbons
The consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are still poorly understood, and no TBI-specific instrument has hitherto been available. This paper describes in detail the psychometrics and validity of the German version of an internationally developed, self-rated HRQoL tool after TBI-the QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury). Factors associated with HRQoL, such as the impact of cognitive status and awareness, are specifically reported. One-hundred seventy-two participants after TBI were recruited from the records of acute clinics, most of whom having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 24-hour worst score and a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541869/teaming-up-for-asthma-control-epr-3-compliant-school-program-in-missouri-is-effective-and-cost-efficient
#9
Benjamin Francisco, Tammy Rood, Rebekah Nevel, Paul Foreman, Sherri Homan
INTRODUCTION: Teaming Up for Asthma Control (TUAC) is a work force development intervention to improve asthma control among children by increasing the competency of school nurses and delivering guideline-based education. We hypothesized that the knowledge and skills of participating school nurses would improve and that this change would positively affect students' asthma health and reduce health care utilization cost. METHODS: Asthma education for school nurses was provided online in a pretest/posttest format or in instructor-led groups...
May 25, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541241/stigma-and-self-esteem-a-case-of-hiv-positive-sex-workers
#10
G Kalemi, S Gkioka, P Tsapatsari, G Tzeferakos, T Kandri, M L Psarra, F Konstantopoulou, A Douzenis
Stigma associated with sex work and HIV can be easily recognized in public reactions towards the members of discriminated groups. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies examining the impact of discrimination to the self-esteem of individuals who suffer the coexistence of multiple stigmatizing conditions. In our case, the unprecedented stigmatization of sex workers through the media as a menace of public health as well as criminals due to their seropositivity should be examined with respect and scientificity...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541237/treatment-decision-making-capacity-in-hospitalized-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
N Bilanakis, V K Peritogiannis, Aik Vratsista
In contemporary medical ethics and clinical practice the autonomy of patients and their right to accept or refuse an offered treatment is acknowledged and respected. Prerequisite for the right of a patient to consent to any medical act is the capacity to make valid decisions regarding his/ her treatment. The objective of our study was to assess -for the first time in our country- treatment decision-making capacity of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia; to explore any possible association with demographic and clinical variables; and to compare treatment decision-making capacity of patients with schizophrenia with medical patients' capacity...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541109/an-exploration-of-the-6cs-as-a-set-of-values-for-nursing-practice
#12
Lesley Baillie
In 2012, after several high-profile cases of poor quality care in England and concerns about a lack of compassion and a need to refocus on values, the Department of Health in England published a new strategy for nursing, midwifery and care staff: Compassion in Practice. The strategy included the 6Cs (care, compassion, courage, communication, competence and commitment) and in the follow-on framework, produced by NHS England in 2016, the 6Cs were included again. This article explains the background to the 6Cs and highlights the other values frameworks that nurses and midwives must work within too...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541087/childhood-cognitive-ability-and-physical-activity-in-young-adulthood
#13
Satu M Kumpulainen, Kati Heinonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Minna K Salonen, Sture Andersson, Aulikki Lano, Dieter Wolke, Eero Kajantie, Johan G Eriksson, Katri Raikkonen
OBJECTIVE: Childhood cognitive ability is associated with lifestyle in adulthood, including self-reported physical activity (PA). We examined whether childhood cognitive ability is associated with objectively measured PA and sedentary time (ST) in young adulthood. METHOD: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n = 500) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence, and language comprehension at the age of 56 months yielding a general intelligence factor score; at the age of 25 years they wore omnidirectional accelerometers for 9 days (range = 4-10 days) measuring overall daily PA (counts per minute, cpm), ST, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (minutes), and completed a questionnaire on occupational, commuting, leisure-time conditioning and nonconditioning PA...
June 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539174/drug-metabolism-in-the-elderly-a-multifactorial-problem
#14
REVIEW
R H Waring, R M Harris, S C Mitchell
Whether or not an individual's drug metabolising capacity declines with advancing age is a vexing question. There is no clear evidence that drug metabolism itself ('the biologically-assisted chemical alteration of the administered parent molecule') is less efficient in healthy old age than at younger ages, whereas a decreased capacity may be associated with ill-health and frailty. However, elderly individuals do show a reduced enzyme induction capability and are less able to tolerate overdoses. It appears that the majority of deleterious clinical outcomes related to drug therapy in an elderly (usually ill or frail) population may be ascribed to various anatomical and physiological age-related changes...
June 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538983/assocation-of-a-surgical-task-during-training-with-team-skill-acquisition-among-surgical-residents-the-missing-piece-in-multidisciplinary-team-training
#15
Jessica L Sparks, Dustin L Crouch, Kathryn Sobba, Douglas Evans, Jing Zhang, James E Johnson, Ian Saunders, John Thomas, Sarah Bodin, Ashley Tonidandel, Jeff Carter, Carl Westcott, R Shayn Martin, Amy Hildreth
Importance: The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario. Objective: To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538961/validation-of-the-intelligibility-in-context-scale-for-jamaican-creole-speaking-preschoolers
#16
Karla N Washington, Megan M McDonald, Sharynne McLeod, Kathryn Crowe, Hubert Devonish
Purpose: To describe validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012a) and ICS-Jamaican Creole (ICS-JC; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012b) in a sample of typically developing 3- to 6-year-old Jamaicans. Method: One-hundred and forty-five preschooler-parent dyads participated in the study. Parents completed the 7-item ICS (n = 145) and ICS-JC (n = 98) to rate children's speech intelligibility (5-point scale) across communication partners (parents, immediate family, extended family, friends, acquaintances, strangers)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538919/expert-communities-and-interest-formation-in-the-brazilian-aids-program
#17
Regina Ferro do Lago, Nilson do Rosário Costa
This paper examines the role of the Technical Advisory Committee for antiretroviral therapy of the Brazilian AIDS program in mediating the decision-making process of including new antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the Unified Health System services by the end of the 2000s. We conducted documental analysis and interviews with key informants from the governmental sphere and professionals. The work features the Technical Advisory Committee as an "expert community", defined as a network of individuals with expertise and competence in a particular sphere and whose knowledge is relevant in critical public policy decision areas...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538445/a-national-survey-on-the-use-of-immersive-simulation-for-interprofessional-education-in-physical-therapist-education-programs
#18
Brad Stockert, Patricia J Ohtake
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition that collaborative practice among healthcare professionals is associated with improved patient outcomes and enhanced team functioning, but development of collaborative practitioners requires interprofessional education (IPE). Immersive simulation, a clinically relevant experience that deeply engages the learner in realistic clinical environments, is used increasingly for IPE. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of immersive simulation as a strategy for IPE in physical therapist (PT) education programs...
May 20, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538303/examining-fundamental-movement-competency-and-closed-chain-upper-extremity-dynamic-balance-in-swimmers
#19
Garrett S Bullock, Nate Brookreson, Amy M Knab, Robert J Butler
Bullock, GS, Brookreson, N, Knab, AM, and Butler, RJ. Examining fundamental movement competency and closed-chain upper-extremity dynamic balance in swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1544-1551, 2017-Abnormal fundamental movement patterns and upper-quarter dynamic balance are proposed mechanisms affecting athletic performance and injury risk. There are few studies investigating functional movement and closed-chain upper-extremity dynamic stability in swimmers. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in fundamental movement competency and closed-chain upper-extremity dynamic balance, using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Upper-Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-UQ), of high school (HS; n = 70) and collegiate (COL; n = 70) swimmers...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537945/making-sense-of-effective-partnerships-among-senior-leaders-in-the-national-health-service
#20
Mahima Mitra, Timothy Hoff, Paul Brankin, Sue Dopson
BACKGROUND: Changing health care systems depend on strong organizational leadership that realizes the collaborative potential of both physician and nonphysician leaders. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to seek insight into the everyday health care leader experience by examining 24 physician and nonphysician leaders working in the U.K. National Health Service. We explored (a) how they make sense of and act with respect to specific collaborative tensions in their interactions and (b) which aspects of their everyday leadership contexts heighten the probability for producing and resolving such tensions...
May 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
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