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Ravi Gupta, Cheol Woo Min, Katharina Kramer, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Ki-Hun Park, Yiming Wang, Iris Finkemeier, Sun Tae Kim
Phytohormones are central to the plant growth and development. Despite the advancement in our knowledge of hormone signaling, downstream targets and their interactions upon hormones action remain largely fragmented, especially at the protein and metabolite levels. With an aim to get new insight into the effects of two hormones, ethylene (ET) and abscisic acid (ABA), this study utilizes an integrated proteomics and metabolomics approach to investigate their individual and combined (ABA+ET) signaling in soybean leaves...
February 19, 2018: Proteomics
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Karuna Kapoor, Mohamed M Mira, Belay T Ayele, Tran-Nguyen Nguyen, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
During maize somatic embryogenesis, suppression of phytoglobins (Pgbs) reduced ABA levels leading to ethylene-induced programmed cell death in the developing embryos. These effects modulate embryonic yield depending on the cellular localization of specific phytoglobin gene expression. Suppression of Zea mays phytoglobins (ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2) during somatic embryogenesis induces programmed cell death (PCD) by elevating nitric oxide (NO). While ZmPgb1.1 is expressed in many embryonic domains and its suppression results in embryo abortion, ZmPgb1...
February 17, 2018: Planta
Fangyuan Bian, Jianrong Su, Wande Liu, Shuaifeng Li
Dormancy is an innate constraint on germination that occurs across all life forms. In this study, we investigated the seed dormancy release and germination characters of Taxus yunnanensis by exploring the seed morphology, permeability, germination inhibitors, endogenous hormones, and embryo germination in vitro during wet sand storage. Our results showed that seeds and embryos grew to a critical size to germination and permeability increased with the extension of storage. Seed coat and kernel methanol extracts reduced Brassica campestris seed vigor index...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan-Ling Yang, Min-Yi Chen, Heng-Kwong Tsao, Yu-Jane Sheng
Instead of forming a typical bilayer or monolayer membrane, both the bridge (I-shape) and loop (U-shape) conformations coexist in the planar membranes formed by ABA triblock copolymers in a selective solvent. The non-equilibrium and equilibrium relaxation dynamics of polymer conformations are monitored. The non-equilibrium relaxation time depends on the initial composition and increases with an increase in the immiscibility between A and B blocks. The equilibrium composition of the loop-shape polymer is independent of the initial composition and A-B immiscibility...
February 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hao Liu, Ying Gao, Xiaobo Song, Qingguo Ma, Junpei Zhang, Dong Pei
Background: Juglans is a difficult-to-root tree. In the present study, we successfully rejuvenated stock plants by grafting and then burying them horizontally. Results: Rooting rates of rejuvenated shoots were 98.1% 20 days after cutting. We recorded spatial and temporal variation in endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin A 3 (GA 3 ) and zeatin-riboside (ZR) under root induction. The four types of endohormones were mainly confined to the phloem sieve and companion cells (S&Cs) at the base of either rejuvenated or mature soft shoots...
2018: Plant Methods
Dequan Sun, Hashmath I Hussain, Zhifeng Yi, James E Rookes, Lingxue Kong, David M Cahill
An intracellular glutathione (GSH) responsive phytochemical delivery system based on thiol gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed and tested on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, monodispersed MSNs with particle diameters of ~20 nm and pore sizes of ~2.87 nm were synthesized and modified. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone, was entrapped in the mesopores of MSNs and then the pore entrances of MSNs were covered with decanethiol gatekeepers through GSH-cleavable disulfide linkages...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
S Wołoszczuk, M Banaszak
We investigate triblock-homopolymer blends of types A1BA2/A and A1BA2/B, using a lattice Monte Carlo method. While the simulated triblock chains are compositionally symmetric in terms of the A-to-B volume ratio, the A1 block is significantly shorter than the A2 block. For the pure A1BA2 melt and the A1BA2 solutions in selective solvent the phase behavior is relatively well known, including existence and stability of the interstitial micelles which were discovered in previous Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we study the stability of the interstitial micelles as a function of triblock volume fraction in selective homopolymers of either type A or type B, using two significantly different homopolymer chain lengths...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Juhyun Kim, Youngsung Joo, Jinseul Kyung, Myeongjune Jeon, Jong Yoon Park, Ho Gyun Lee, Doo Soo Chung, Eunju Lee, Ilha Lee
Ranunculus trichophyllus is an amphibious plant that produces thin and cylindrical leaves if grown under water but thick and broad leaves if grown on land. We found that such heterophylly is widely controlled by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene, which control terrestrial and aquatic leaf development respectively. Aquatic leaves produced higher levels of ethylene but lower levels of ABA than terrestrial leaves. In aquatic leaves, its distinct traits with narrow shape, lack of stomata, and reduced vessel development were caused by EIN3-mediated overactivation of abaxial genes, RtKANADIs, and accompanying with reductions of STOMAGEN and VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VDN7)...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Rui Miao, Meng Wang, Wei Yuan, Yan Ren, Ying Li, Na Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Herbert J Kronzucker, Weifeng Xu
Plant root responds to soil moisture gradients through hydrotropism and remodels root growth orientation chasing soil water, a process regarded as plant acclimation to a changing soil environment. Mechanisms underlying the root hydrotropic response, however, remain poorly understood. Here, hydrotropism was examined in 31 Arabidopsis ecotypes collected from different parts of the world and grown along moisture gradients in a specially designed soil-simulation system. More detailed comparative transcriptomic, ionomic profiling, and physiological analyses were carried out on three wild types, Ws (strongly hydrotropic), Col-0 (moderately hydrotropic), and C24 (weakly hydrotropic), and also in mutant lines showing disruptions in the root hydrotropic response...
February 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Denise Scuffi, Thomas Nietzel, Luciano Di Fino, Andreas J Meyer, Lorenzo Lamattina, Markus Schwarzländer, Ana M Laxalt, Carlos Garcia-Mata
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants participating in several stresses and developmental processes. L-cysteine desulfhydrase 1 (DES1), one of the enzymatic sources of H2S in plants, was shown to participate in ABA-induced stomatal closure. In this work we combined pharmacological and genetic approaches to elucidate the involvement of H2S in stomatal closure and the interplay between H2S and other second messengers of the guard cell signaling network, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phospholipase D (PLD)-derived phosphatidic acid (PA) in Arabidopsis...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology
Emel Timucin, Osman Ugur Sezerman
Magnesium deficiency increases susceptibility of plants towards heat stress. The correlation between magnesium levels and stress response has been studied at the physiological level, albeit the molecular explanation to this relationship remains elusive. Among diverse pathways implicated in the heat stress, the abscisic acid (ABA) signal modulates the heat stress response by magnesium dependent phosphatases (PP2Cs). Exclusively, sequestration of PP2Cs by ABA receptors (PYLs) in the heterodimer form activates the stress response through ABA responsive transcription factors...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Hon Weng Chang, Tai Boon Tan, Phui Yee Tan, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Yong Wang, Yonghua Wang, Imededdine Arbi Nehdi, Chin Ping Tan
Fish oil-in-water emulsions containing fish oil, thiol-modified β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) fibrils, chitosan and maltodextrin were fabricated using a high-energy method. The results showed that chitosan coating induced charge reversal; denoting successful biopolymers complexation. A significantly (p<0.05) larger droplet size and lower polydispersity index value, attributed to the thicker chitosan coating at the oil-water interface, were observed. At high chitosan concentrations, the cationic nature of chitosan strengthened the electrostatic repulsion between the droplets, thus conferring high oxidative stability and low turbidity loss rate to the emulsions...
March 2018: Food Research International
Carlos De Ollas, Vicent Arbona, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, Ian C Dodd
To determine whether drought-induced root jasmonates (JA, jasmonic acid and JA-Ile, jasmonic acid iso-leucine) accumulation affected shoot responses to drying soil, near isogenic wild type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Castlemart) and the def-1 mutant (which fails to accumulate jasmonates during water deficit) were self- and reciprocally-grafted. Rootstock hydraulic conductance was entirely rootstock-dependent and significantly lower in def-1, yet def-1 scions maintained a higher leaf water potential as the soil dried due to their lower stomatal conductance (gs)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yao Cheng, Xiuxiu Zhang, Tianyang Sun, Qiuying Tian, Wen-Hao Zhang
Seed germination is sensitive to salt stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) and Ca2+ are involved in the regulation of seed germination under salt stress. Ca2+ influx mediated by glutamate receptors (GLRs) plays important roles in many physiological processes in plants. Here, we investigated the correlation of GLRs, Ca2+ and ABA during seed germination in response to salt stress by using Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and T-DNA insertion knockout mutants of glutamate receptors homolog3.4. We demonstrated that atglr3...
February 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Liping Huang, MengYao Zhang, Jing Jia, Xixi Zhao, Xingxiu Huang, E Ji, Lan Ni, Mingyi Jiang
OsLEA5 acts as a co-regulator of a transcriptional factor ZFP36 to enhance the expression and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase OsAPX1 to regulate seed germination in rice, but it it unknown whether OsLEA5 is also crucial in plant seedlings under stress conditions. To confirm it, we generated OsLEA5-overexpression and -knockdown rice plants. We found that overexpression of OsLEA5 in rice plants enhanced the tolerance to drought and salt stress; in contrast, an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice plants were more sensitive to drought and salinity...
February 7, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Iva Pavlović, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Valerija Vujčić, Sandra Radić Brkanac, Hrvoje Lepeduš, Miroslav Strnad, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses affecting Brassica crop production. Here we present investigations into the physiological, biochemical, and hormonal components of the short-term salinity stress response in Chinese cabbage seedlings, with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis and metabolism of auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Upon salinity treatments (50-200 mM NaCl) IAA level was elevated in a dose dependent manner reaching 1.6-fold increase at the most severe salt treatment in comparison to the control...
February 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lei Han, Junlin Li, Man Jin, Yanhua Su
In Arabidopsis and certain other plant species, the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) of the clade A class have been demonstrated to act as negative regulators in ABA-induced stress responses, such as stomatal closure. The present study reports the identification of a PP2C ortholog from the ancient desert shrub Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f. (AmPP2C), which is functionally conserved over its counterparts reported from other plant species. AmPP2C was primarily expressed in leaves, with strong transcriptional accumulation being observed in the guard cells...
February 7, 2018: Gene
Fengli Zhao, Gang Li, Panpan Hu, Xia Zhao, Liangjie Li, Wei Wei, Jiayue Feng, Houcheng Zhou
As the second largest transcription factor family in plant, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, characterized by the conserved bHLH domain, plays a central regulatory role in many biological process. However, the bHLH transcription factor family of strawberry has not been systematically identified, especially for the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 113 bHLH transcription factors and described their chromosomal distribution and bioinformatics for the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jian-Jun Tao, Wei Wei, Wen-Jia Pan, Long Lu, Qing-Tian Li, Jin-Biao Ma, Wan-Ke Zhang, Biao Ma, Shou-Yi Chen, Jin-Song Zhang
Alfin-like (AL) is a small plant-specific gene family with prominent roles in root growth and abiotic stress response. Here, we aimed to identify novel stress tolerance AL genes from the stress-tolerant species Atriplex hortensis. Totally, we isolated four AhAL genes, all encoding nuclear-localized proteins with cis-element-binding and transrepression activities. Constitutive expression of AhAL1 in Arabidopsis facilitated plants to survive under saline condition, while expressing anyone of the other three AhAL genes led to salt-hypersensitive response, indicating functional divergence of AhAL family...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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