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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642773/infestation-of-broad-bean-vicia-faba-by-the-green-stink-bug-nezara-viridula-decreases-shoot-abscisic-acid-contents-under-well-watered-and-drought-conditions
#1
Luisa Ederli, Cecilia Brunetti, Mauro Centritto, Stefano Colazza, Francesca Frati, Francesco Loreto, Giovanni Marino, Gianandrea Salerno, Stefania Pasqualini
The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642770/interplay-between-carotenoids-abscisic-acid-and-jasmonate-guides-the-compatible-rice-meloidogyne-graminicola-interaction
#2
Tina Kyndt, Kamrun Nahar, Ashley Haeck, Ruben Verbeek, Kristof Demeestere, Godelieve Gheysen
In this study, we have characterized the role of carotenoids and chlorophyll in the compatible interaction between the sedentary root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne graminicola and the monocot model plant rice (Oryza sativa). Previous transcriptome data showed a differential expression of carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in nematode-induced giant cells and gall tissue. Metabolite measurement showed that galls indeed accumulate chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642254/redox-regulation-of-a-guard-cellsnf1-relatedprotein-kinase-in-brassica-napus-%C3%A2-an-oilseed-crop
#3
Menmeng Zhu, Tong Zhang, Wei Ji, Cecilia Silva-Sanchez, Wenyuan Song, Sarah M Assmann, Alice C Harmon, Sixue Chen
Kinase-mediated phosphorylation is a pivotal regulatory process in stomatal responses to stresses. Through a redox proteomics study, a sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK2.4) was identified to be redox regulated in Brassica napus guard cells upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. There are six genes encoding SnRK2.4 paralogs in B. napus Here we show that recombinant BnSnRK2.4-1C exhibited autophosphorylation activity and preferentially phosphorylated the N-terminal region of B. napus slow anion channel (BnSLAC1-NT) over generic substrates...
June 22, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641139/hormonal-profile-and-the-role-of-cell-expansion-in-the-germination-control-of-cerrado-biome-palm-seeds
#4
Daiane Souza Dias, Leonardo Monteiro Ribeiro, Paulo Sérgio Nascimento Lopes, Sergi Munné-Bosch, Queila Souza Garcia
Little information is currently available concerning the mechanisms controlling palm seed germination. We compared the anatomical and physiological aspects of seeds of two neotropical palm species showing different levels of dormancy. The seeds of Attalea vitrivir and Butia capitata were evaluated for the endogenous contents of hormones (ABA, GAs, CKs, BRs, IAA, JA, SA and the ethylene precursor ACC) in their cotyledonary petiole and operculum (structures involved in germination control), the force necessary to displace the operculum, endo-β-mannanase activities, and embryo cell elongation...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640834/overexpression-of-gmfdl19-enhances-tolerance-to-drought-and-salt-stresses-in-soybean
#5
Yuanyuan Li, Quanzhen Chen, Haiyang Nan, Xiaoming Li, Sijia Lu, Xiaohui Zhao, Baohui Liu, Changhong Guo, Fanjiang Kong, Dong Cao
The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the growth and developmental process as well as responds to various abiotic stresses, such as drought and high salinity. Our previous work identified GmFDL19, a bZIP transcription factor, as a flowering promoter in soybean, and the overexpression of GmFDL19 caused early flowering in transgenic soybean plants. Here, we report that GmFDL19 also enhances tolerance to drought and salt stress in soybean. GmFDL19 was determined to be a group A member, and its transcription expression was highly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and high salt stresses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639991/evaluation-of-a-nutritional-support-intervention-in-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-in-bamako-mali
#6
Julie Jesson, Aba Coulibaly, Mariam Sylla, Clémentine N'diaye, Fatoumata Dicko, David Masson, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. METHODS: All HIV-infected children <15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12/2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638069/global-profiling-of-phytohormone-dynamics-during-combined-drought-and-pathogen-stress-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-reveals-aba-and-ja-as-major-regulators
#7
Aarti Gupta, Hiroshi Hisano, Yuko Hojo, Takakazu Matsuura, Yoko Ikeda, Izumi C Mori, Muthappa Senthil-Kumar
Global transcriptome studies demonstrated the existence of unique plant responses under combined stress which are otherwise not seen during individual stresses. In order to combat combined stress plants use signaling pathways and 'cross talk' mediated by hormones involved in stress and growth related processes. However, interactions among hormones' pathways in combined stressed plants are not yet known. Here we studied dynamics of different hormones under individual and combined drought and pathogen infection in Arabidopsis thaliana by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based profiling...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637218/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-analysis-enables-identification-of-abiotic-stress-responsive-myb-transcription-factors-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta
#8
Meng-Bin Ruan, Xin Guo, Bin Wang, Yi-Ling Yang, Wen-Qi Li, Xiao-Ling Yu, Peng Zhang, Ming Peng
The myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor superfamily is the largest transcription factor family in plants, playing different roles during stress response. However, abiotic stress-responsive MYB transcription factors have not been systematically studied in cassava (Manihot esculenta), an important tropical tuber root crop. In this study, we used a genome-wide transcriptome analysis to predict 299 putative MeMYB genes in the cassava genome. Under drought and cold stresses, many MeMYB genes exhibited different expression patterns in cassava leaves, indicating that these genes might play a role in abiotic stress responses...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636365/sustainable-elastomers-from-renewable-biomass
#9
Zhongkai Wang, Liang Yuan, Chuanbing Tang
Sustainable elastomers have undergone explosive growth in recent years, partly due to the resurgence of biobased materials prepared from renewable natural resources. However, mounting challenges still prevail: How can the chemical compositions and macromolecular architectures of sustainable polymers be controlled and broadened? How can their processability and recyclability be enabled? How can they compete with petroleum-based counterparts in both cost and performance? Molecular-biomass-derived polymers, such as polymyrcene, polymenthide, and poly(ε-decalactone), have been employed for constructing thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs)...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#10
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634481/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rav-family-in-soybean-and-functional-identification-of-gmrav-03-involvement-in-salt-and-drought-stresses-and-exogenous-aba-treatment
#11
Shu-Ping Zhao, Zhao-Shi Xu, Wei-Jun Zheng, Wan Zhao, Yan-Xia Wang, Tai-Fei Yu, Ming Chen, Yong-Bin Zhou, Dong-Hong Min, You-Zhi Ma, Shou-Cheng Chai, Xiao-Hong Zhang
Transcription factors play vital roles in plant growth and in plant responses to abiotic stresses. The RAV transcription factors contain a B3 DNA binding domain and/or an APETALA2 (AP2) DNA binding domain. Although genome-wide analyses of RAV family genes have been performed in several species, little is known about the family in soybean (Glycine max L.). In this study, a total of 13 RAV genes, named as GmRAVs, were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted and analyzed the amino acid compositions, phylogenetic relationships, and folding states of conserved domain sequences of soybean RAV transcription factors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633353/modulating-role-of-ros-in-re-establishing-desiccation-tolerance-in-germinating-seeds-of-caragana-korshinskii-kom
#12
Long Peng, Sirui Lang, Yu Wang, Hugh W Pritchard, Xiaofeng Wang
In close agreement with visible germination, orthodox seeds lose desiccation tolerance (DT). This trait can be regained under osmotic stress, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, germinating seeds of Caragana korshinskii Kom. were investigated, focusing on the potential modulating roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the re-establishment of DT. Germinating seeds with 2 mm long radicles can be rendered tolerant to desiccation by incubation in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (-1...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632531/a-descriptive-survey-of-anesthesiology-residency-simulation-programs-how-are-programs-preparing-residents-for-the-new-american-board-of-anesthesiology-applied-certification-examination
#13
Robert S Isaak, Fei Chen, Harendra Arora, Susan M Martinelli, David A Zvara, Marjorie P Stiegler
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residency programs may need new simulation-based programs to prepare residents for the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) component of the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Primary Certification process. The design of such programs may require significant resources, including faculty time, expertise, and funding, as are currently needed for structured oral examination (SOE) preparation. This survey analyzed the current state of US-based anesthesiology residency programs regarding simulation-based educational programming for SOE and OSCE preparation...
June 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626890/transcriptomic-analysis-of-rice-aleurone-cells-identified-a-novel-abscisic-acid-response-element
#14
Kenneth A Watanabe, Arielle Homayouni, Lingkun Gu, Kuan-Ying Huang, Tuan-Hua David Ho, Qingxi J Shen
Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signaling. However, its consensus sequence, (ACGTG(G/T)C), is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA-sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function...
June 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626614/identification-of-two-cigads-from-caragana-intermedia-and-their-transcriptional-responses-to-abiotic-stresses-and-exogenous-abscisic-acid
#15
Jing Ji, Lingyu Zheng, Jianyun Yue, Xiamei Yao, Ermei Chang, Tiantian Xie, Nan Deng, Lanzhen Chen, Yuwen Huang, Zeping Jiang, Shengqing Shi
BACKGROUND: Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as a key enzyme in the γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form GABA. This pathway has attracted much interest because of its roles in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, and signaling in higher plants. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize genes encoding GADs from Caragana intermedia, an important nitrogen-fixing leguminous shrub. METHODS: Two full-length cDNAs encoding GADs (designated as CiGAD1 and CiGAD2) were isolated and characterized...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#16
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626466/identification-characterization-and-functional-validation-of-drought-responsive-micrornas-in-subtropical-maize-inbreds
#17
Jayaraman Aravind, Sharma Rinku, Banduni Pooja, Mittal Shikha, Shiriga Kaliyugam, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Arun Kumar, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Thirunavukkarasu Nepolean
MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation plays a crucial role in controlling drought tolerance. In the present investigation, 13 drought-associated miRNA families consisting of 65 members and regulating 42 unique target mRNAs were identified from drought-associated microarray expression data in maize and were subjected to structural and functional characterization. The largest number of members (14) was found in the zma-miR166 and zma-miR395 families, with several targets. However, zma-miR160, zma-miR390, zma-miR393, and zma-miR2275 each showed a single target...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626006/atairp2-e3-ligase-affects-aba-and-high-salinity-responses-by-stimulating-its-atp1-sdirip1-substrate-turnover
#18
Tae Rin Oh, Jong Hum Kim, Seok Keun Cho, Moon Young Ryu, Seong Wook Yang, Woo Taek Kim
AtAIRP2 is a cytosolic RING-type E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that positively regulates an ABA response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Yeast two-hybrid screening using AtAIRP2 as bait identified ATP1 (AtAIRP2 Target Protein 1) as a substrate of AtAIRP2. ATP1 was found to be identical to SDIRIP1, which was recently reported to be a negative factor in ABA signaling and a target protein of the RING E3 ligase SDIR1. ATP1 was accordingly renamed ATP1/SDIRIP1. A specific interaction between AtAIRP2 and ATP1/SDIRIP1 and ubiquitination of ATP1/SDIRIP1 by AtAIRP2 were demonstrated in vitro and in planta...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625876/mental-health-in-zimbabwe-a-health-systems-analysis
#19
Khameer Kidia, Debra Machando, Walter Mangezi, Reuben Hendler, Megan Crooks, Melanie Abas, Dixon Chibanda, Graham Thornicroft, Maya Semrau, Helen Jack
There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624683/drought-responsive-micrornas-in-two-barley-cultivars-differing-in-their-level-of-sensitivity-to-drought-stress
#20
Ehsan Mohseni Fard, Behnam Bakhshi, Reza Keshavarznia, Nava Nikpay, Maryam Shahbazi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of genes involved in the response to stress. Here, a comparison has been drawn between the miRNA profiles of a drought susceptible, 'Morocco 9-75', and a drought tolerant, 'Yousef', barley cultivars. Leaf water content, shoot dry matter and chlorophyll content decreased in 'Morocco 9-75' more considerably compared with 'Yousef' under drought stress. Furthermore, lower stomatal conductance and higher leaf temperature were observed in 'Morocco 9-75' compared with 'Yousef'...
June 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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