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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666162/two-abscisic-acid-responsive-plastid-lipase-genes-involved-in-jasmonic-acid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Kun Wang, Qiang Guo, John E Froehlich, Hope Lynn Hersh, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Gregg A Howe, Christoph Benning
Chloroplast membranes with their unique lipid composition are crucial for photosynthesis. Maintenance of the chloroplast membranes requires finely tuned lipid anabolic and catabolic reactions. Despite the presence of a large number of predicted lipid-degrading enzymes in the chloroplasts, their biological functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we described PLASTID LIPASE1 (PLIP1), a plastid phospholipase A1 that contributes to seed oil biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two putative PLIP1 paralogs, which we designated PLIP2 and PLIP3...
April 17, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660240/ros-signaling-and-stomatal-movement-in-plant-responses-to-drought-stress-and-pathogen-attack
#2
REVIEW
Junsheng Qi, Chun-Peng Song, Baoshan Wang, Jianmin Zhou, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Jian-Kang Zhu, Zhizhong Gong
Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660183/interaction-of-maternal-environment-and-allelic-differences-in-seed-vigour-genes-determines-seed-performance-in-brassica-oleracea
#3
Sajjad Awan, Steven Footitt, William E Finch-Savage
Seed vigour is a key trait essential for the production of sustainable and profitable crops. The genetic basis of variation in seed vigour has recently been determined in Brassica oleracea, but the relative importance of the interaction with parental environment is unknown. We produced seeds under a range of maternal environments, including global warming scenarios. Lines were compared that had the same genetic background, but different alleles (high and low vigour) at QTLs responsible for determining seed vigour by altering ABA content and sensitivity...
April 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659577/transcription-factor-hat1-is-a-substrate-of-snrk2-3-kinase-and-negatively-regulates-aba-synthesis-and-signaling-in-arabidopsis-responding-to-drought
#4
Wenrong Tan, Dawei Zhang, Huapeng Zhou, Ting Zheng, Yanhai Yin, Honghui Lin
Drought is a major threat to plant growth and crop productivity. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role in plant response to drought stress. Although ABA signaling-mediated drought tolerance has been widely investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana, the feedback mechanism and components negatively regulating this pathway are less well understood. Here we identified a member of Arabidopsis HD-ZIP transcription factors HAT1 which can interacts with and be phosphorylated by SnRK2s. hat1hat3, loss-of-function mutant of HAT1 and its homolog HAT3, was hypersensitive to ABA in primary root inhibition, ABA-responsive genes expression, and displayed enhanced drought tolerance, whereas HAT1 overexpressing lines were hyposensitive to ABA and less tolerant to drought stress, suggesting that HAT1 functions as a negative regulator in ABA signaling-mediated drought response...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658991/novel-de-novo-synthesized-phosphate-carrier-compound-aba-peg20k-pi20-suppresses-collagenase-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-and-prevents-colonic-anastomotic-leak-in-an-experimental-model
#5
M Wiegerinck, S K Hyoju, J Mao, A Zaborin, C Adriaansens, E Salzman, N H Hyman, O Zaborina, H van Goor, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that anastomotic leak can be caused by collagenolytic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis via an effect on wound collagen. In humans, E. faecalis is the organism cultured most commonly from a leaking anastomosis, and is not routinely eliminated by standard oral or intravenous antibiotics. Novel strategies are needed to contain the virulence of this pathogen when present on anastomotic tissues. METHODS: Polyphosphorylated polymer ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 was tested in mice for its ability to prevent anastomotic leak caused by collagenolytic E...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658925/measuring-gene-expression-in-bombarded-barley-aleurone-layers-with-increased-throughput
#6
Grace Uwase, Taylor P Enrico, David S Chelimo, Benjamin R Keyser, Russell R Johnson
The aleurone layer of barley grains is an important model system for hormone-regulated gene expression in plants. In aleurone cells, genes required for germination or early seedling development are activated by gibberellin (GA), while genes associated with stress responses are activated by abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms of GA and ABA signaling can be interrogated by introducing reporter gene constructs into aleurone cells via particle bombardment, with the resulting transient expression measured using enzyme assays...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657743/rapid-recalibration-of-speech-perception-after-experiencing-the-mcgurk-illusion
#7
Claudia S Lüttke, Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Floris P de Lange
The human brain can quickly adapt to changes in the environment. One example is phonetic recalibration: a speech sound is interpreted differently depending on the visual speech and this interpretation persists in the absence of visual information. Here, we examined the mechanisms of phonetic recalibration. Participants categorized the auditory syllables /aba/ and /ada/, which were sometimes preceded by the so-called McGurk stimuli (in which an /aba/ sound, due to visual /aga/ input, is often perceived as 'ada')...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657715/multimodal-underwater-adhesion-using-self-assembled-dopa-bearing-aba-triblock-copolymer-networks
#8
Xiaomin Tang, Christopher J Bettinger
Self-assembled mechanically robust Dopa-bearing triblock copolymer networks improve underwater adhesion through both energy dissipation and interfacial bonding. Polymer networks that incorporate energy dissipating motifs could improve the performance of high-performance wet adhesives rather than only by interfacial bonds.
January 28, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657147/longterm-safety-and-efficacy-of-subcutaneous-abatacept-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-5-year-results-from-a-phase-iiib-trial
#9
Mark C Genovese, César Pacheco-Tena, Arturo Covarrubias, Gustavo Leon, Eduardo Mysler, Mauro Keiserman, Robert M Valente, Peter Nash, J Abraham Simon-Campos, Jane Box, Clarence W Legerton, Evgeny Nasonov, Patrick Durez, Ayanbola Elegbe, Robert Wong, Xiaohui Li, Subhashis Banerjee, Rieke Alten
OBJECTIVE: To assess 5-year safety, tolerability, and efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) abatacept (ABA) in methotrexate (MTX)-refractory patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Abatacept Comparison of sub[QU]cutaneous versus intravenous in Inadequate Responders to methotrexatE (ACQUIRE) phase IIIb, randomized, double-dummy, multinational trial compared efficacy and safety of SC and intravenous (IV) ABA in patients with RA. In the initial 6-month double-blind (DB) period, patients received IV or SC ABA, plus MTX, and in the subsequent open-label longterm extension (LTE) period, all patients received SC ABA (125 mg/wk)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656220/synergistic-effect-of-the-combined-bio-fungicides-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine-and-chitooligosaccharide-in-controlling-grey-mould-botrytis-cinerea-in-tomatoes
#10
Guangzheng Sun, Qichao Yang, Ancheng Zhang, Jia Guo, Xinjie Liu, Yang Wang, Qing Ma
The antifungal properties and the induction of resistance by ε-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) and chitooligosaccharide (COS) were examined to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of the devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomatoes. As presented herein, this combined treatment (200 mg/L ε-PL + 400 mg/L COS) was found to have optimal in vitro antifungal activities, achieving an inhibition rate of 90.22%. In vivo assays with these combined bio-fungicides, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants, demonstrated good protection against severe grey mould...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653436/a-chloroplast-targeted-cabbage-dead-box-rna-helicase-brrh22-confers-abiotic-stress-tolerance-to-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants-by-affecting-translation-of-chloroplast-transcripts
#11
Ghazala Nawaz, Kwanuk Lee, Su Jung Park, Yeon-Ok Kim, Hunseung Kang
Although the roles of many DEAD-box RNA helicases (RHs) have been determined in the nucleus as well as in cytoplasm during stress responses, the importance of chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RHs in stress response remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the function of BrRH22, a chloroplast-targeted DEAD-box RH in cabbage (Brassica rapa), in abiotic stress responses. The expression of BrRH22 was markedly increased by drought, heat, salt, or cold stress and by ABA treatment, but was largely decreased by UV stress...
April 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652829/molecular-and-ultrastructural-mechanisms-underlying-yellow-dwarf-symptom-formation-in-wheat-after-infection-of-barley-yellow-dwarf-virus
#12
Wei Rong, Xindong Wang, Xifeng Wang, Sebastien Massart, Zengyan Zhang
Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651380/a-combined-pathway-of-organogenesis-and-somatic-embryogenesis-for-an-efficient-large-scale-propagation-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-cv-mejhoul
#13
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Ilham Belkoura, Boutaïna Mokhless, Souad Nour
An efficient regeneration system via a combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul. Adventitious buds were obtained from shoot-tip explants with a frequency of 53.3% after 9 months of culture: 6 months on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS/2) medium containing 14.2 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 13.4 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 µM 6-(dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), and 3 months on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648603/phyd-prevents-secondary-dormancy-establishment-of-seeds-exposed-to-high-temperature-and-is-associated-with-lower-pil5-accumulation
#14
Catherine Martel, Logan K Blair, Kathleen Donohue
Dormancy cycling controls the seasonal conditions under which seeds germinate, which strongly influence growth and survival of plants. Several endogenous and environmental signals affect the dormancy status of seeds. Factors such as time, light and temperature influence the balance between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), two phytohormones that play a key role in seed dormancy and germination. High temperatures have been shown to increase ABA level and prevent seed germination at high temperature, a process known as thermoinhibition...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643863/mutation-in-rice-abscisic-acid2-results-in-cell-death-enhanced-disease-resistance-altered-seed-dormancy-and-development
#15
Yongxiang Liao, Que Bai, Peizhou Xu, Tingkai Wu, Daiming Guo, Yongbin Peng, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaoshu Deng, Xiaoqiong Chen, Ming Luo, Asif Ali, Wenming Wang, Xianjun Wu
Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 ( lmm9150 ), exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643226/identification-of-a-bet-hedging-network-motif-generating-noise-in-hormone-concentrations-and-germination-propensity-in-arabidopsis
#16
Iain G Johnston, George W Bassel
Plants have evolved to exploit stochasticity to hedge bets and ensure robustness to varying environments between generations. In agriculture, environments are more controlled, and this evolved variability decreases potential yields, posing agronomic and food security challenges. Understanding how plant cells generate and harness noise thus presents options for engineering more uniform crop performance. Here, we use stochastic chemical kinetic modelling to analyse a hormone feedback signalling motif in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds that can generate tunable levels of noise in the hormone ABA, governing germination propensity...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642546/the-brown-midrib-leaf-bml-mutation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-causes-premature-leaf-senescence-and-the-induction-of-defense-responses
#17
Delara Akhter, Ran Qin, Ujjal Kumar Nath, Md Alamin, Xiaoli Jin, Chunhai Shi
Isolating and characterizing mutants with altered senescence phenotypes is one of the ways to understand the molecular basis of leaf aging. Using ethyl methane sulfonate mutagenesis, a new rice ( Oryza sativa ) mutant, brown midrib leaf ( bml ), was isolated from the indica cultivar 'Zhenong34'. The bml mutants had brown midribs in their leaves and initiated senescence prematurely, at the onset of heading. The mutants had abnormal cells with degraded chloroplasts and contained less chlorophyll compared to the wild type (WT)...
April 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629384/knowledge-attitudes-and-barriers-toward-research-the-perspectives-of-undergraduate-medical-and-dental-students
#18
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Nan Nitra Than, Htay Lwin, Mila Nu Nu Nu Htay, Khine Lynn Phyu, Adinegara Lutfi Abas
CONTEXT: Scientific research not only promotes health and combats diseases of an individual, but also it can strengthen the effectiveness of health systems. Hence, understanding of scientific methods becomes a crucial component in the medical profession. AIMS: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and barriers toward research among undergraduate medical and dental students. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 295 undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students from a private medical college in Malaysia...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625191/gsk3-like-kinases-are-a-class-of-positive-components-in-the-core-aba-signaling-pathway
#19
Haijiao Wang, Xuelu Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624627/influence-of-iatrogenic-gaps-cement-type-and-time-on-microleakage-of-cast-posts-using-spectrophotometer-and-glucose-filtration-measurements
#20
Ebtissam M Al-Madi, Samar A Al-Saleh, Reem I Al-Khudairy, Taibah W Aba-Hussein
PURPOSE: To determine the influence of iatrogenic gaps, type of cement, and time on microleakage of cast posts using spectrophotometer and glucose filtration measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each. Teeth were instrumented and obturated, and a cast post was fabricated. In addition to two control groups (positive and negative), a total of six groups were prepared: In four groups, an artificial 2- to 3-mm gap was created between post and residual gutta percha (GP), and two groups were prepared with intimate contact between post and residual GP...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
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