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Celine Guidoux, Jean-Jacques Hauw, Isabelle F Klein, Julien Labreuche, Claudine Berr, Charles Duyckaerts, Pierre Amarenco
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) include hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The objective of this study was to determine the autopsy prevalence of CAA and the potential overlap with other risk factors among patients who died from ICH and also the correlation of CAA with cerebral microbleeds. METHODS: We analyzed 81 consecutive autopsy brains from patients with ICH. Staining for CAA detection was performed. We used an age- and sex-matched control group of routine brain autopsies of nonneurological patients to determine the frequencies of CAA and hypertension...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Li-Ping Hou, Hongxing Chen, Chang-En Tian, Ye Liang, Rong-Rong Wu, Xing-Mei Zhang, Xu-Wen Fang, Cui-Ping Zhang, Jun-Jie Hu, Li-Ying Song, Yan-Qiu Liang, Daniel Schlenk, Lingtian Xie
Synthetic hormones in wastewater effluents released into the aquatic environments may interfere with the normal endocrine systems of fish in receiving streams. Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin widely used in oral contraceptives and frequently detected in wastewater effluents. In this study, adult female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were exposed to three environmentally relevant concentrations of norgestrel (NGT) (i.e., 3.6, 35.8, and 368.0 ng L-1) for 42 d, fin morphology, histology of the ovary, and reproductive behaviors were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Lorra Garey, Lorraine R Reitzel, Julie Neisler, Darla E Kendzor, Michael J Zvolensky, Clayton Neighbors, Daphne C Hernandez, Michael S Businelle
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional assessment of well-being and health status. Most previous work in this area assumes that HRQoL is a homogenous construct; however, it is possible HRQoL subgroups may exist. The purpose of the study was to characterize common classes of HRQoL among adult, homeless smokers, a particularly vulnerable group of the larger population, and to evaluate risk and protective factors of HRQoL class membership. METHODS: Homeless smokers (N = 456; 65...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Anna E Kågesten, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Danielle German, Robert Wm Blum
The need for early prevention approaches to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health is gaining attention, yet little is known about the sexual experiences of early adolescents aged 10-14 years. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data collected from 365 early adolescents in a Nairobi slum, we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups based on self-reported awareness about sex and involvement in romantic and sexual activities. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine the characteristics of each subgroup...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Audrey R C Elias, Kari J Harris, Paul C LaStayo, Ryan L Mizner
BACKGROUND: Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. HYPOTHESIS: Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ewa Z Gieysztor, Ludwika Sadowska, Anna M Choińska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
BACKGROUND: The angle of trunk rotation (ATR) is a measurement that allows an objective assessment of a growing child's spine. Early detection of trunk rotation prevents the progression of scoliosis. One of the factors that predispose children to the formation of faulty posture may be primitive reflexes, which should be integrated in the central nervous system (CNS) by the age of one year. If retained, primitive reflexes affect children's physical development as well as their development at school...
March 14, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Anabela G Silva, Pedro Sá Couto, Alexandra Queirós, Maritza Neto, Nelson P Rocha
STUDY DESIGN: cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe how pain at multiple body sites is associated after controlling for other predictive factors such as age, gender, sleeping hours, time spent in physical activity and time spent in screening based activities in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The prevalence of multisite pain in adolescents is high but studies investigating the patterns of association between painful body sites are scarce...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Hisayoshi Morioka, Osamu Itani, Maki Jike, Sachi Nakagome, Yuichiro Otsuka, Takashi Ohida
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors at birth that are predictive of subsequent injury among preschool children. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of population-based birth cohort data from the "Longitudinal Survey of Babies Born in the 21st Century" was performed from 2001 through 2007 in Japan (n = 47,015). The cumulative incidence and the total number of hospitalizations or examinations conducted at medical facilities for injury among children from birth up to the age of 5 years were calculated...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Emily Shava, Lauren E Lipira, Geetha G Beauchamp, Deborah J Donnell, Shahin Lockman, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the role of opiate dependency treatment in risky sexual behavior could help optimize interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT) of opiate dependency with buprenorphine/naloxone influenced risky sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected PWID and identified predictors of risky sexual behavior. METHODS: We used data from HPTN058, a randomized controlled trial of LT-MAT vs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Toshihiro Okamoto, Keika Hoshi, Kenji Fukada, Toshiyuki Kataoka, Akira Kumasaka, Nobuyuki Kaibuchi, Satoshi Fukuzawa, Tomohiro Ando
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the background factors related to the occurrence of complications in the early stages after dental implant placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 289 outpatients who received dental implants were retrospectively evaluated for the presence or absence of complications. Background factors, including age, sex, implant width, implant length, implant site, number of implants placed, Periotest values at the time of implant placement, presence/absence of systemic disease (particularly diabetes), and the use of anticoagulation therapy, were compared between patients with and without complications...
March 19, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Y H Lee, G G Song
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the all-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: We surveyed studies examining all-cause and/or cause-specific SMRs in patients with GCA compared to the general population, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and manual searches. We then performed a meta-analysis of all-cause, sex-specific, region-specific, and cause-specific SMRs in patients with GCA...
March 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Harissou Adamou, Ibrahim Amadou Magagi, Oumarou Habou, Ousseini Adakal, Kabirou Ganiou, Magagi Amadou
Background: To describe the aetiological and prognostic aspects of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction (AMIO) in children at Zinder National Hospital (Niger). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on a period to January 2013-June 2015. The database included all children under 15 years of age with a surgical diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for analysis. Results: AMIOs represent 21...
July 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Suresh Mohan, Neil Bhattacharyya
Objectives To recognize current opioid prescription patterns in otolaryngology and determine changes in rates of outpatient opioid prescribing over time. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of national survey database. Setting Ambulatory care settings in the United States. Subjects and Methods The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2006 to 2013 was analyzed for outpatient otolaryngology visits. The rate of opioid medication prescribing was determined with patient and visit characteristics associated with an opioid prescription, including corresponding diagnoses...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Janet Baack Kukreja, Qiuling Shi, Courtney M Chang, Mohamed A Seif, Brandon M Sterling, Ting-Yu Chen, Kelly M Creel, Ashish M Kamat, Colin P Dinney, Neema Navai, Jay B Shah, Xin Shelley Wang
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is a disease of the elderly that is associated with high morbidity in those treated with radical cystectomy. In this observational study of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, we analyzed and compared patient-reported outcomes from those treated with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) methods versus those who received traditional perioperative care. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent radical cystectomy at a high-volume tertiary care referral center from November 2013 to December 2016, when the ERAS concept was being introduced into postoperative care at our institution...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Thijs T Wingelaar, Paul Clarijs, Pieter-Jan Am van Ooij, Dave Aa Koch, Rob A van Hulst
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is an important part of dive medical examinations. Depending on the standard used to assess fitness to dive, different reference sets and fixed cut-off points are used. Reference values are part of an ongoing debate regarding the validity and accuracy related to different age groups, sex and ethnic backgrounds. The Global Lung Initiative (GLI) has provided an all-age reference set which corrects for sex and ethnicity (GLI-2012); this has had substantial impact on pulmonary medicine...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Hiroki Nishiwaki, Takeshi Hasegawa, Megumi Shinji, Fujio Matsuo, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hirofumi Makino, Fumihiko Koiwa, Akira Hishida
BACKGROUND: The practice patterns of exercise restrictions for patients with chronic kidney disease have not been adequately evaluated yet; thus, we examined them using a cross-sectional design and explored the factors related with those restrictions. METHODS: The Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort study was a multicentre cohort study of Japanese patients (age 20-75 years) living in Japan. We used the information in the questionnaire on the restriction of physical activities offered by physicians to the patients during enrolment...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Haroon Latif Khan, Shahzad Bhatti, Sana Abbas, Yousaf Latif Khan, Rosa Maria Marquez Gonzalez, Muhammad Aslamkhan, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin
Background: Despite its worldwide high occurrence, the obscurity regarding the description, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation remains provocative. It is well established that male premature ejaculatory dysfunction is an increasing problem due to spontaneous ejaculation across a variety of general and clinical subjects. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationships between trinucleotide repeats of the androgen receptor (AR), sex steroids, and pituitary hormones with sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reported with acquired premature ejaculation (PE)...
2018: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Yuan Cheng, Haiying Song, Xiaoqing Pan, Hong Xue, Yifei Wan, Tao Wang, Zhongmin Tian, Entai Hou, Ian R Lanza, Pengyuan Liu, Yong Liu, Purushottam W Laud, Kristie Usa, Yongcheng He, Mingyu Liang
Dietary salt intake has significant effects on arterial blood pressure and the development of hypertension. Mechanisms underlying salt-dependent changes in blood pressure remain poorly understood, and it is difficult to assess blood pressure salt-sensitivity clinically. Methods: We examined urinary levels of metabolites in 103 participants of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial after nearly 30 days on a defined diet containing high sodium (targeting 150 mmol sodium intake per day) or low sodium (50 mmol per day)...
2018: Theranostics
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