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botulinum neurotoxin type A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614835/botulinum-toxin-type-a-a-modulator-of-spinal-neuron-glia-interactions-under-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#1
REVIEW
Ewelina Rojewska, Anna Piotrowska, Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk, Joanna Mika
Neuropathic pain represents a significant clinical problem because it is a chronic condition often refractory to available therapy. Therefore, there is still a strong need for new analgesics. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a variety of clinical diseases associated with pain. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This review addresses the effects of BoNT/A on the relationship between glia and neurons under neuropathic pain...
April 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460161/saliva-changes-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-after-injection-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a
#2
Janne Tiigimäe-Saar, Tiia Tamme, Marika Rosenthal, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Pille Taba
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are compromised by poor oral condition due to oropharyngeal bradykinesia, dysphagia, and the side effects of treatment. Intrasalivary gland injections of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BNT-A) have been known to treat sialorrhea effectively in these patients. However, the decreased amount of saliva reduces self-cleaning ability that deteriorates oral hygiene and increases dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the oral microflora and saliva in patients with PD treated for sialorrhea by means of sonography-controlled BNT-A injections into the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands...
February 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449118/shot-by-a-gun-%C3%A2-missed-by-a-provider
#3
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407166/high-level-expression-and-immunochemical-characterization-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-f-light-chain
#4
Ritika Chauhan, Vinita Chauhan, Mula Kameshwar Rao, Dilip Chaudhary, Sameer Bhagyawant, Ram Kumar Dhaked
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic biological substances known. Their potential use as biological warfare agent results in their classification as category A biowarfare agent by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Presently, there are no approved detection system and pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although a toxoid vaccine is available for immuno-prophylaxis, vaccines cannot reverse the effect of pre-translocated toxin. Direct handling of the live BoNTs for developing detection and therapeutics may pose fatal danger...
January 30, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407164/inhibition-of-the-proteasome-partially-attenuates-atrophy-in-botulinum-neurotoxin-treated-skeletal-muscle
#5
Fraser E Houston, Brian A Hain, Stephen L Dodd
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is used as a therapeutic tool to induce chemical denervation of spastically contracted muscles, yet the neurotoxin can also cause skeletal muscle atrophy. The underlying proteolytic mechanisms that induce this atrophy remain unclear. Our previous work has highlighted increased ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) activity in soleus muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats following hind limb injection of BoNT/A, with the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20s proteasome the most active...
February 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396040/identification-of-a-botulinum-neurotoxin-like-toxin-in-a-commensal-strain-of-enterococcus-faecium
#6
Sicai Zhang, Francois Lebreton, Michael J Mansfield, Shin-Ichiro Miyashita, Jie Zhang, Julia A Schwartzman, Liang Tao, Geoffrey Masuyer, Markel Martínez-Carranza, Pål Stenmark, Michael S Gilmore, Andrew C Doxey, Min Dong
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by various Clostridium strains, are a family of potent bacterial toxins and potential bioterrorism agents. Here we report that an Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from cow feces carries a BoNT-like toxin, designated BoNT/En. It cleaves both VAMP2 and SNAP-25, proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, at sites distinct from known BoNT cleavage sites on these two proteins. Comparative genomic analysis determines that the E. faecium strain carrying BoNT/En is a commensal type and that the BoNT/En gene is located within a typical BoNT gene cluster on a 206 kb putatively conjugative plasmid...
January 26, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383480/prostatic-injection-of-botulinum-toxin-is-not-inferior-to-optimized-medical-therapy-in-the-management-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-due-to-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Grégoire Robert, Aurélien Descazeaud, Gilles Karsenty, Christian Saussine, Abdel-Rahmène Azzouzi, Alexandre de la Taille, François Desgrandchamps, Antoine Faix, Marc Fourmarier, Aurore Georget, Antoine Benard, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps
OBJECTIVE: To explore efficacy and safety of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (BoNT-A) prostatic injection in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phase 3 multicenter open-labeled study randomised patients to receive BoNT-A prostatic injection or optimized medical therapy. BoNT-A injection consisted in trans-rectal injections of 200 UI in the transitional zone of the prostate. Optimal medical therapy consisted in oral medication with any drug patented for LUTS...
January 30, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382036/botulinum-toxin-a-for-sialorrhoea-associated-with-neurological-disorders-evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-effect-of-treatment-and-the-number-of-glands-treated
#8
Domenico A Restivo, Mariangela Panebianco, Antonino Casabona, Sara Lanza, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Francesco Patti, Stefano Masiero, Antonio Biondi, Angelo Quartarone
Background: Sialorrhoea and drooling are disabling manifestations of different neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) injection on hypersalivation in 90 patients with neurological diseases of different aetiologies, and to define the minimum number of injected salivary glands to reduce sialorrhoea. Determining the minimum number of glands that need to be engaged in order to have a significant reduction in drooling may be very useful for establishing the minimum total dosage of BoNT/A that may be considered effective in the treatment of hypersalivation...
January 27, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376224/long-term-efficacy-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-treatment-for-essential-blepharospasm
#9
Seunghyun Lee, Sangrye Park, Helen Lew
PURPOSE: In the present study, we investigated the treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) administered for longer than 5 years to patients with essential blepharospasm. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients (male : female = 8 : 11) diagnosed with essential blepharospasm between March 2006 and July 2016 who underwent BoNT-A injections for over 5 years and were followed. Efficacy of 297 injections of Botox (n = 162), Meditoxin (n = 75), Hugel-tox (n = 40), or Dysport (n = 20) was based on the symptom improvement score at the final injection (-1, worse; 0, same; 1, better)...
January 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345721/sectioned-images-and-surface-models-of-a-cadaver-head-with-reference-to-botulinum-neurotoxin-injection
#10
Dong Sun Shin, Young Joo Shim, Bong Chul Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to elucidate the anatomical considerations with reference to botulinum neurotoxin Type A (BTX) injection, on sectioned images and surface models, using Visible Korean. These can be used for medical education and clinical training in the field of facial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serially sectioned images of the head were obtained from a cadaver. Significant anatomic structures in the sectioned images were outlined and assembled to create a surface model...
January 18, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344324/treatment-of-lateral-periorbital-lines-with-different-dilutions-of-incobotulinumtoxina
#11
Gabriele F Muti, Matteo Basso
BACKGROUND: IncobotulinumtoxinA is a botulinum neurotoxin type A that is free from complexing proteins and is used in various therapeutic indications and aesthetic medicine. It is approved for the treatment of glabellar frown lines in the United States. In Europe, it is also approved for the treatment of lateral periorbital lines (crow's feet) and for the combined treatment of upper facial lines, including glabellar frown lines, crow's feet, and horizontal forehead lines. METHODS: In the present study, incobotulinumtoxinA was injected at two different dilutions to treat female subjects aged 40 to 50 years who had moderate-to-severe lateral periorbital lines at maximum contraction according to a score of 2 or 3 points on the 5-point Merz Aesthetics Scales (MAS)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332140/identification-of-cross-reactive-antigens-of-c-botulinum-types-a-b-e-f-by-immunoproteomic-approach
#12
Arti Sharma, Sarkaraisamy Ponmariappan, Rani Sarita, Syed Imtiaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj, Sangeeta Shukla
Diseases triggered by microorganisms can be controlled by vaccines, which need neutralizing antigens. Hence, it is very crucial to identify extremely efficient immunogens for immune prevention. Botulism, a fatal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism and iatrogenic botulism are caused by botulinum toxin. Wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism are caused by primarily C...
May 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301587/foodborne-botulism-due-to-ingestion-of-home-canned-green-beans-two-case-reports
#13
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273248/substrate-cleavage-and-duration-of-action-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-fa-h-ha
#14
Sabine Pellett, William H Tepp, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type FA is the only known naturally occurring chimeric BoNT of domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F. BoNT/FA consists of an F5-like light chain (LC), a unique heavy chain (HC) translocation domain, and a HC receptor binding domain similar to BoNT/A1. Previous analyses of purified BoNT/FA have indicated a 5-10-fold greater potency in cultured human or rat neurons as compared to BoNT/A1 and a 400-500-fold greater potency compared to BoNT/B1. However, in vivo potency in mice was about 5-fold lower than BoNT/A1 or/B1...
December 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189775/visualizing-endocytic-recycling-and-trafficking-in-live-neurons-by-subdiffractional-tracking-of-internalized-molecules
#15
Merja Joensuu, Ramon Martínez-Mármol, Pranesh Padmanabhan, Nick R Glass, Nela Durisic, Matthew Pelekanos, Mahdie Mollazade, Giuseppe Balistreri, Rumelo Amor, Justin J Cooper-White, Geoffrey J Goodhill, Frédéric A Meunier
Our understanding of endocytic pathway dynamics is restricted by the diffraction limit of light microscopy. Although super-resolution techniques can overcome this issue, highly crowded cellular environments, such as nerve terminals, can also dramatically limit the tracking of multiple endocytic vesicles such as synaptic vesicles (SVs), which in turn restricts the analytical dissection of their discrete diffusional and transport states. We recently introduced a pulse-chase technique for subdiffractional tracking of internalized molecules (sdTIM) that allows the visualization of fluorescently tagged molecules trapped in individual signaling endosomes and SVs in presynapses or axons with 30- to 50-nm localization precision...
December 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170639/a-cell-line-for-detection-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b
#16
Aleksander Rust, Ciara Doran, Rosalyn Hart, Thomas Binz, Paul Stickings, Dorothea Sesardic, Andrew A Peden, Bazbek Davletov
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) type A and type B are commonly used as biopharmaceutics for neurological diseases, uniquely allowing months-long paralysis of target muscles. Their exquisite neuronal specificity is conferred by a multistep process of binding, internalization, cytosolic escape and cleavage of the neuron-specific proteins, SNAP-25 and vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs), ultimately to inhibit secretion of neurotransmitters. Currently the mouse lethality bioassay is the only available method for quality control testing of VAMP-cleaving botulinum products...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150297/prolonged-stretching-of-the-ankle-plantarflexors-elicits-muscle-tendon-adaptations-relevant-to-ankle-gait-kinetics-in-children-with-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#17
Teresa Martín Lorenzo, Eduardo Rocon, Ignacio Martínez Caballero, Ana Ramírez Barragán, Sergio Lerma Lara
Tissue related ankle hyper-resistance has been reported to contribute to equinus gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, ankle plantarflexor stretching programs have been developed in order to restore passive ankle dorsiflexion. Despite high quality evidence on the limited effects of stretching on passive joint mobility, further muscle-tendon adaptations have been reported which may impact gait performance. As such, children with spastic cerebral palsy subject to long-term manual static stretching achieved dorsiflexion gains through the reduction of muscle and fascicle strain whilst preserving tendon strain, and prolonged use of ankle-foot orthoses achieved similar dorsiflexion gains through increased tendon strain whilst preserving muscle and fascicle strain...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140753/a-mutated-recombinant-subunit-vaccine-protects-mice-and-guinea-pigs-against-botulinum-type-a-intoxication
#18
Chi Ho Yu, Dong Hyun Song, Jun Young Choi, Hae Eun Joe, Woo Hyeon Jeong, Gyeung Haeng Hur, Young Kee Shin, Seong Tae Jeong
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins to mammals. A toxoid vaccine was previously used for prevention of botulinum intoxication; however, this vaccine is no longer available. Currently, no approved botulinum vaccines are available from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recently, a recombinant host cell receptor-binding subunit created for use as a potential vaccine completed phase 2 clinical trials. The current study designed a vaccine candidate against BoNT type A (BoNT/A) using a structural design...
February 1, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126361/a-survey-of-the-current-practice-of-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin-injections-for-hemiplegic-shoulder-pain-in-the-uk
#19
Richard J Holmes, Louise A Connell
PURPOSE: To describe the current UK practice for the use of intramuscular Botulinum Toxin type A injections to treat hemiplegic shoulder pain. METHOD: A UK-based cross-sectional study using an online survey. Participants (n = 68) were medical and non-medical practitioners recruited via the membership of the British Society for Rehabilitation Medicine and the British Neurotoxin Network. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. RESULTS: The majority of respondents would consider Botulinum Toxin type A for hemiplegic shoulder pain (86...
November 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111119/direct-central-nervous-system-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin
#20
Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani
Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic benefit may exceed the duration of the peripheral neuroparalysis induced by the neurotoxin. In cellular and animal models, evidence demonstrates retrograde transport of catalytically active BoNT/A in projection neurons. This process of long-range trafficking is followed by transcytosis and action at second-order synapses...
October 31, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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