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botulinum neurotoxin type A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#1
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884737/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-alleviates-mechanical-hypersensitivity-associated-with-infraorbital-nerve-constriction-injury-in-rats
#2
Noboru Noma, Kosuke Watanabe, Yuka Sato, Yoshiki Imamura, Yumiko Yamamoto, Reio Ito, Mitsuru Maruno, Kohei Shimizu, Koichi Iwata
We investigated the effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) on mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with infraorbital nerve constriction (ION-CCI) in rats. ION-CCI rats received a subcutaneous BoNT-A injection into the whisker pad area on day 7 postoperatively and underwent pain assessment on days 14 and 21 postoperatively. Rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=5 each): ION-CCI+BoNT-A 20pg (low-dose group), ION-CCI+BoNT-A 200pg (high-dose group), ION-CCI+saline, and Sham. Mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated preoperatively (baseline) and on days 7, 14, and 21 postoperatively...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855161/an-integrative-approach-to-computational-modelling-of-the-gene-regulatory-network-controlling-clostridium-botulinum-type-a1-toxin-production
#3
Adaoha E C Ihekwaba, Ivan Mura, John Walshaw, Michael W Peck, Gary C Barker
Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), highly potent substances responsible for botulism. Currently, mathematical models of C. botulinum growth and toxigenesis are largely aimed at risk assessment and do not include explicit genetic information beyond group level but integrate many component processes, such as signalling, membrane permeability and metabolic activity. In this paper we present a scheme for modelling neurotoxin production in C. botulinum Group I type A1, based on the integration of diverse information coming from experimental results available in the literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806874/submolecular-recognition-regions-of-the-hn-domain-of-the-heavy-chain-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-by-t-cells-from-toxin-treated-cervical-dystonia-patients
#4
Minako Oshima, Philip Deitiker, Joseph Jankovic, M Zouhair Atassi
We have recently reported the submolecular T-cell recognition profile of the C-terminal half (HC, residues 855-1296) of the heavy (H) chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 25 BoNT-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients. In the current study, we describe the mapping of the T-cell responses of the patients to the N-terminal half (HN, residues 449-859) of the heavy chain by using 29 synthetic overlapping peptides encompassing the entire HN domain of BoNT/A...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773588/differences-in-active-range-of-motion-measurements-in-the-upper-extremity-of-patients-with-writer-s-cramp-compared-with-healthy-controls
#5
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Ejaz A Shamim, Pierre Diomi, Takaaki Hattori, Sanjay Pandey, Sherry Vorbach, Jung E Park, Tianxia Wu, Sungyoung Auh, Mark Hallett
STUDY DESIGN: Exploratory case-control study. INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. METHODS: Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers...
October 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764971/effect-of-electrical-stimulation-as-an-adjunct-to-botulinum-toxin-type-a-in-the-treatment-of-adult-spasticity-a-systematic-review
#6
Domenico Intiso, Andrea Santamato, Filomena Di Rienzo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electrical stimulation (ES) as an adjunct to BTX-A boosts botulinum activity and whether the combined therapeutic procedure is more effective than BTX-A alone in reducing spasticity in adult subjects. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and CINAHL from January 1966 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled studies (RCT) involving the combination of BTX-A and ES were considered...
October 21, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709895/multiplex-biosensing-based-on-highly-sensitive-magnetic-nanolabel-quantification-rapid-detection-of-botulinum-neurotoxins-a-b-and-e-in-liquids
#7
Alexey V Orlov, Sergey L Znoyko, Vladimir R Cherkasov, Maxim Petrovich Nikitin, Petr I Nikitin
We present a multiplex quantitative lateral flow (LF) assay for simultaneous on-site detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types A, B and E in complex matrices, which is innovative by virtually no sacrifice in performance while transition from the single-plex assays and by characteristics on the level of laboratory quantitative methods. The novel approach to easy multiplexing is realized via joining an on-demand set of single-plex LF strips, which employ magnetic nanolabels, into a miniature cylinder cartridge that mimics LF strip during all assay stages...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682175/adverse-drug-reactions-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-pharmaco-epidemiological-study-in-vigibase
#8
Jeanne Montastruc, Philippe Marque, Florence Moulis, Véronique Bourg, Valérie Lambert, Geneviève Durrieu, Jean-Louis Montastruc, François Montastruc
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using the World Health Organization global individual case safety report (ICSR) database, VigiBase. METHOD: We extracted all children ICSRs for ADRs with BoNT-A used as anti-spastic drug in CP recorded between 1995 and 2015 in VigiBase. We also performed a case/non-case method (disproportionality analysis) to assess the link between exposure to BoNT-A and each ADR of interest in children and adults, calculating reporting odds ratios (RORs)...
September 28, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669303/development-of-an-innovative-in-vitro-potency-assay-for-anti-botulinum-antitoxins
#9
Osnat Rosen, Eyal Ozeri, Ada Barnea, Alon Ben David, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxins are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. Therapy relies mostly on post-intoxication antibody treatment. The only accepted method to measure the potency of, and to approve, antitoxin preparations is the mouse lethality neutralization bioassay. However, this assay is time-consuming, labor-intensive, costly, and raises ethical issues related to the large numbers of laboratory animals needed. Until now, all efforts to develop an alternative in vitro assay have not provided a valid replacement to the mouse potency assay...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646276/the-munc18-1-domain-3a-hinge-loop-controls-syntaxin-1a-nanodomain-assembly-and-engagement-with-the-snare-complex-during-secretory-vesicle-priming
#10
Ravikiran Kasula, Ye Jin Chai, Adekunle T Bademosi, Callista B Harper, Rachel S Gormal, Isabel C Morrow, Eric Hosy, Brett M Collins, Daniel Choquet, Andreas Papadopulos, Frédéric A Meunier
Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A control SNARE-dependent neuroexocytosis and are organized in nanodomains on the plasma membrane of neurons and neurosecretory cells. Deciphering the intra- and intermolecular steps via which they prepare secretory vesicles (SVs) for fusion is key to understanding neuronal and hormonal communication. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a priming-deficient mutant lacking 17 residues of the domain 3a hinge-loop (Munc18-1(Δ317-333)) in PC12 cells engineered to knockdown Munc18-1/2 markedly prolonged SV docking...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626446/neutralization-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-e-by-a-humanized-antibody
#11
Yağmur Derman, Katja Selby, Sebastian Miethe, André Frenzel, Yvonne Liu, Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Arnaud Avril, Thibaut Pelat, Remi Urbain, Alexandre Fontayne, Philippe Thullier, Dorothea Sesardic, Miia Lindström, Michael Hust, Hannu Korkeala
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E)...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625900/predicting-improvement-in-writer-s-cramp-symptoms-following-botulinum-neurotoxin-injection-therapy
#12
Mallory Jackman, Mehdi Delrobaei, Fariborz Rahimi, S Farokh Atashzar, Mahya Shahbazi, Rajni Patel, Mandar Jog
INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Various assessments have been used to determine response prediction to BoNT-A, but not in the same population of patients. METHODS: A comprehensive assessment was employed to measure various symptom aspects...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602966/cosmetic-use-of-abobotulinumtoxina-in-men-considerations-regarding-anatomical-differences-and-product-characteristics
#13
Jason D Bloom, Jeremy B Green, Whitney Bowe, Erika von Grote, Alessandra Nogueira
The proportion of men seeking facial rejuvenation with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) products is increasing. The number of male patients treated in the 5-year period between 2009 and 2014 grew by 25%. There is little clinical data supporting gender-specific efficacy with regard to dosing and injection placement in men. To nurture the confidence associated with treatment of male patients, clinicians are in need of more informational materials to develop their evaluation and treatment strategies. Three BoNTA products are currently available in the United States (US) for treatment of the upper face...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579581/assessing-and-treating-pain-associated-with-stroke-multiple-sclerosis-cerebral-palsy-spinal-cord-injury-and-spasticity-evidence-and-recommendations-from-the-italian-consensus-conference-on-pain-in-neurorehabilitation
#14
Stefano Paolucci, Andrea Martinuzzi, Giorgio Scivoletto, Nicola Smania, Claudio Solaro, Irene Aprile, Michela Armando, Roberto Bergamaschi, Eliana Berra, Giulia Berto, Elena Carraro, Monica Cella, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Marcella Masciullo, Marco Molinari, Emanuela Pagliano, Cristiano Pecchioli, Laura Roncari, Monica Torre, Erika Trabucco, Gabriella Vallies, Paolo Zerbinati, Stefano Tamburin
Pain is a common and disabling symptom in patients with stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral palsy (CP), spinal cord injury (SCI) and other conditions associated with spasticity, but data on its prevalence, and natural history, as well as guidelines on its assessment and treatment in the field of neurorehabilitation, are largely lacking. The Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) searched and evaluated current evidence on the frequency, evolution, predictors, assessment, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with stroke, MS, CP, SCI and other conditions associated with spasticity...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556628/current-uses-of-botulinum-neurotoxins-in-plastic-surgery
#15
Marie E Noland, Donald H Lalonde, G Jackie Yee, Rod J Rohrich
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize the various types of botulinum toxins and their differences. 2. Identify current indications, both approved and off-label. 3. Inject botulinum toxin to counteract various natural aging processes, including facial descent and rhytides. SUMMARY: Botulinum neurotoxin is a naturally synthesized microbial protein that has been applied in the management of various disorders...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539490/botulinum-toxin-injection-for-treatment-of-chronic-anal-fissure-is-there-any-dose-dependent-efficiency-a-meta-analysis
#16
Adam Bobkiewicz, Wojciech Francuzik, Lukasz Krokowicz, Adam Studniarek, Witold Ledwosiński, Jacek Paszkowski, Michal Drews, Tomasz Banasiewicz
BACKGROUND: Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is a linear split of the anoderm. The minimally invasive management of CAF such as botulinum toxin (BT) injection is recommended. However, the exact efficient dose of BT, number of injections per session and the injection sites are still debatable. The aim of this analysis was to assess the dose-dependent efficiency of botulinum toxin injection for CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for terms: "anal fissure" AND "botulinum toxin...
December 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530616/incobotulinumtoxina-a-review-in-upper-limb-spasticity
#17
Yvette N Lamb, Lesley J Scott
Intramuscular incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) is indicated for the treatment or improvement of adult patients with upper limb spasticity (featured indication), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and glabellar lines. It is a highly purified formulation of botulinum toxin type A that inhibits acetylcholine signalling at neuromuscular junctions, reducing muscle hypertonia. This narrative review discusses the clinical use of incobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity and summarizes its pharmacological properties...
September 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527271/neurotoxins-from-clostridium-botulinum-serotype-a-isolated-from-the-soil-of-mendoza-argentina-differ-from-the-a-hall-archetype-and-from-that-causing-infant-botulism
#18
P Caballero, M Troncoso, S I Patterson, C López Gómez, R Fernandez, M A Sosa
The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484492/pre-clinical-study-of-a-novel-recombinant-botulinum-neurotoxin-derivative-engineered-for-improved-safety
#19
Edwin Vazquez-Cintron, Luis Tenezaca, Christopher Angeles, Aurelia Syngkon, Victoria Liublinska, Konstantin Ichtchenko, Philip Band
Cyto-012 is a recombinant derivative of Botulinum neurotoxin Type A (BoNT/A). It primarily differs from wild type (wt) BoNT/A1 in that it incorporates two amino acid substitutions in the catalytic domain of the light chain (LC) metalloprotease (E224 > A and Y366 > A), designed to provide a safer clinical profile. Cyto-012 is specifically internalized into rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and cleaves Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25), the substrate of wt BoNT/A, but exhibits slower cleavage kinetics and therefore requires a higher absolute dose to exhibit pharmacologic activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474721/systematic-assessment-of-nonproteolytic-clostridium-botulinum-spores-for-heat-resistance
#20
Ewelina Wachnicka, Sandra C Stringer, Gary C Barker, Michael W Peck
UNLABELLED: Heat treatment is an important controlling factor that, in combination with other hurdles (e.g., pH, aw), is used to reduce numbers and prevent the growth of and associated neurotoxin formation by nonproteolytic C. botulinum in chilled foods. It is generally agreed that a heating process that reduces the spore concentration by a factor of 10(6) is an acceptable barrier in relation to this hazard. The purposes of the present study were to review the available data relating to heat resistance properties of nonproteolytic C...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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