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Mohd Rizwan, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi, Kuldeep Singh
AIM: This study was carried out to record the sensitivity/resistance pattern of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae towards antimicrobial drugs prescribed to urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 bacteriologically proven simple UTI patients were included in the study, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects demographics, antibiotics prescribed, sensitivity pattern of antibiotics towards the urinary pathogens were recorded in drug utilization and documentation form...
March 12, 2018: Drug Research
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Aliakbar Rezaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mehdi Moghadampour, Mehrdad Halaji, Jamshid Faghri
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important bacterial species with the ability to produce OXA-type carbapenemases. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of OXA-type carbapenemases among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in three major hospitals of Isfahan. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 153 non-repeated strains of A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Al-Zahra, Imam Mousa Kazem, and Shariati hospitals from October 2015 to October 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was performed using the disk diffusion method...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Zahra Hashemizadeh, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Shahla Mansouri
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli, a species that is a leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is a major global public health concern. This study was designed to detect the differences in antibiotic resistance patterns, the production and type of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and the clonal relationships among E. coli isolates from UTIs and fecal samples. METHODS: Antibacterial resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
D Raszka, S Popelka, J Heřt, D Jahoda, I Landor, P Vavřík
Nocardiosis is a rare infection caused by the aerobic actinomycete of the Nocardia genus. In most cases, nocardiosis manifests as a lung infection or a bone lesion. Due to the nonspecific and mild clinical manifestations of nocardiosis, the establishment of definite diagnosis can be difficult. When antibiotic therapy is incorrectly targeted, only the symptoms of the disease are suppressed. The mainstay in the treatment of Nocardia osteomyelitis has so far been the combined surgical debridement with long-term, initially intravenous, antibiotic administration...
March 5, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Stephen Osei-Wusu, Michael Amo Omari, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Isaac Darko Otchere, Prince Asare, Audrey Forson, Jacob Otu, Martin Antonio, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
Background: Drug resistance surveillance is crucial for tuberculosis (TB) control. Therefore, our goal was to determine the prevalence of second-line anti-TB drug resistance among diverse primary drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates in Ghana. Materials and methods: One hundred and seventeen MTBC isolates with varying first-line drug resistance were analyzed. Additional resistance to second-line anti-TB drugs (streptomycin [STR], amikacin [AMK] and moxifloxacin [MOX]) was profiled using the Etest and GenoType MTBDRsl version 2...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Francesca Lucca, Margherita Guarnieri, Mirco Ros, Giovanna Muffato, Roberto Rigoli, Liviana Da Dalt
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen responsible of chronic colonization of the airways in Cystic Fibrosis patients. There are few European data about antibiotic susceptibility evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the period 2010-2013 in Cystic Fibrosis patients chronically colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to highlight the characteristics of this evolution in patients younger than 20 years...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Patrice Nordmann, Alain Mazé, Esther Culebras, Jan Dobias, Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel
The amikacin plus gentamicin-containing SuperAminoglycoside medium was developed for screening multiple-aminoglycoside resistance in Gram-negative bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii). It was evaluated using aminoglycoside-susceptible (n=12) and aminoglycoside-resistant (n=59) Gram-negative isolates, including 16S rRNA methylase producers (n=20). Its sensitivity and specificity of detection were, respectively, of 95% and 96% for detecting multiple aminoglycoside-resistant methylase producers...
February 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
S W Zuo, Z L Ni, Y B Yao, R S Yang, S K Wang, Y H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella and to provide a scientific basis for rational drug use and effective treatment of patients with brucellosis. Methods: A total of 41 Brucella strains were isolated from the blood of patients with brucellosis in 5 counties and 2 districts in Yuxi City, China from 2014 to 2016. The susceptibility to 23 antimicrobial drugs was tested using Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disk diffusion method and the sizes of antimicrobial rings were recorded. The susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Drug Susceptibility Testing Guideline (2009 version) ...
December 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Elisa Jiménez, Nicolás Valls, Patricio Astudillo, Cristian Valls, Gabriel Cavada, Alejandra Sandoval, Angélica Alegría, Gabriela Ortega, Daniela Núñez, Patricia Mena
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics (ATB) are drugs widely used in hospitalized newborns. The indiscriminate use of ATBs promote the rise of resistant bacteria to the most commonly indicated antimicrobials. In addition, ATB prescription presents associations to morbidity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, late sepsis and even death. All of the above leads to an increase in health care costs. AIM: To record and to evaluate trends of antibiotic use over time in hospitalized NB in the Neonatology Unit at Dr...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Flavio G Lipari, Abel H Zárate, Juan J García, Ana L Basquíera, Juan P Caeiro
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. RESULTS: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Gergely Hetényi, Janine Griesser, Simon Fontana, Anja Martinez Gutierrez, Helmut Ellemunter, Katharina Niedermayr, Péter Szabó, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
AIM: The aim of the study was to develop self-emulsifying delivery systems (SEDDS) exhibiting improved permeation rate for pulmonary delivery of amikacin for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Solubility of amikacin in lipids was improved by hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium myristyl sulfate. The complex was loaded into SEDDS. Drug-release studies were performed and the permeation properties of SEDDS through human CF mucus were examined...
February 28, 2018: Nanomedicine
Assiya El Kettani, Fakhreddine Maaloum, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Katfy, Nadia Harrar, Khalid Zerouali, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia are grave because of the multi-resistance of the organism to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures and to describe their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 from all Ibn Rochd University Hospital intensive care units; it was based on the exploitation of microbiology laboratory database (duplicates were excluded)...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Yun Cai, Deqing Yang, Jin Wang, Rui Wang
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) has become a major therapeutic problem worldwide. Combination therapy may be an alternative chemotherapeutic option. METHODS: Bioluminescent CRPA Xen5-D9 was developed in the present study. Minimum inhibitory concentration of amikacin (AMK) or cefoperazone/sulbactam (SCF) against CRPA Xen5-D9 was determined by microdilution method. CRPA Xen5-D9 was intraperitoneally injected to establish a mouse model of intraperitoneal infection...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Amal Oudghiri, Hind Karimi, Fouad Chetioui, Fathiah Zakham, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, My Driss Elmessaoudi, Amin Laglaoui, Imane Chaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global TB control. Although multi drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR- TB) prevalence and associated genetic mutations in Morocco are well documented, scarce information on XDR TB is available. Hence, the evaluation of pre-XDR and XDR prevalence, as well as the mutation status of gyrA, gyrB, rrs, tlyA genes and eis promoter region, associated with resistance to second line drugs, is of great value for better management of M/XDR TB in Morocco...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Deniz Aygün, Cezmi Doğan, Mustafa Hepokur, Osman Şevki Arslan, Haluk Çokuğraş, Yıldız Camcıoglu
Aim: Orbital tissue infections are common infections of childhood that can lead to severe complications. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the etiologic factors, diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment procedures in pediatric patients with orbital infections. Material and Methods: This study was performed retrospectively between January 2014 and December 2015 in Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit. Patients were studied for age, ophthalmologic examination features, laboratory and radiology results, treatment modalities, and the response to these treatments...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Kourosh Sadeghi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Farhad Najmeddin, Arezoo Ahmadi, Ebrahim Hazrati, Hooshyar Honarmand, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh
Introduction: To achieve target concentrations, the application of higher-than-standard doses of amikacin is proposed for the treatment of sepsis due to an increase in volume of distribution and clearance, but little data are available on aminoglycoside administration in critically ill elderly patients. Patients and methods: Forty critically ill elderly patients (aged over 65 years) who required amikacin therapy due to severe documented, or suspected gram-negative infections, were randomly assigned to two treatment groups...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
V Rico-Caballero, Safa Almarzoky Abuhussain, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Combination therapy is an attractive option for the treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections; however, limited data are available on combinations with ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T). The in vitro pharmacodynamic chemostat model was employed to compare human simulated exposures of C/T 3g q8h alone or in combination with amikacin 25 mg/kg daily or colistin 360 mg daily against four MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. C/T alone resulted in 24 hour CFU changes of -0.02±0.21, -1.81±0.55, -1...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ngoc Tuan Nguyen
Emulsifiers like polysorbate family, carboxymethyl cellulose are widely used in the preparation of drugs, vaccines, food, cosmetics, and skin care products. In this study, strain SP2 is isolated for the high-efficiency utilization of emulsifier as its sole carbon and energy source. Strain grows on the polysorbate family with generation time ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 h. It is sensitive to ampicillin, gentamicin, imipenem, penicillin, and vancomycin, but resistant to amikacin, cefoxitin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
February 24, 2018: Current Microbiology
Jun An, Xuejuan Bai, Mengqiu Gao, Naihui Chu, Hairong Huang, Hongyin Xu, Xiuping Zhang, Baoxia Li, Cailiu Huang, Haixia Cai, Fengqin Zhang, Yu Pang, Liang Li
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe trends in anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug prescribing of inpatients from 2011 to 2015 in a National TB Hospital. METHODS: We carried out this study in March 2016, which retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all inpatients diagnosed as tuberculosis between 2011 and 2015. We recorded the medication used for the treatment of TB during the inpatient period. RESULTS: A total of 11465 inpatients from Beijing Chest Hospital were enrolled in this analysis...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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