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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#1
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#2
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#3
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895017/molecular-investigation-of-resistance-to-second-line-injectable-drugs-in-multidrug-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-france
#4
Florence Brossier, Anne Pham, Christine Bernard, Alexandra Aubry, Vincent Jarlier, Nicolas Veziris, Wladimir Sougakoff
The second line injectable drugs (SLID, i.e. amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin) are key drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Mutations in rrs region 1400, tlyA and eis promoter are associated with resistance to SLID, to capreomycin and to kanamycin respectively. In this study, the sequencing data of SLID resistance-associated genes were compared to the results of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method for the SLID in 206 multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis collected in France...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#5
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890714/a-randomized-trial-of-the-amikacin-fosfomycin-inhalation-system-for-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-iasis-trial
#6
Marin H Kollef, Jean-Damien Ricard, Damien Roux, Bruno Francois, Eleni Ischaki, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Thierry Boulain, Zsolt Ivanyi, Gál János, Denis Garot, Firas Koura, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, George Dimopoulos, Antonio Torres, Wayne Danker, A Bruce Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Clinical failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria are common and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. METHODS: We assessed the safety and efficacy of the amikacin fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial VAP in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2 study between May 2013 and March 2016. We compared standard of care in each arm plus 300 mg amikacin/120 mg fosfomycin or placebo (saline), delivered by aerosol twice daily for 10 days (or to extubation if <10 days) via the investigational eFlow Inline System (PARI GmbH, Germany)...
November 24, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889501/endophthalmitis-after-clear-corneal-cataract-surgery-outcomes-over-two-decades
#7
Nicolas A Yannuzzi, Nancy Si, Nidhi Relhan, Ajay E Kuriyan, Thomas A Albini, Audina M Berrocal, Janet L Davis, William E Smiddy, Justin Townsend, Darlene Miller, Harry W Flynn
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features, causative organisms, and visual acuity (VA) outcomes associated with acute-onset endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery over the past two decades. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Clinical and microbiology records were reviewed for 63 eyes of 63 patients who presented to a tertiary referral center between 2006 and 2015 with culture-positive endophthalmitis occurring within 6 weeks of clear corneal cataract surgery...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889248/comprehensive-study-to-investigate-the-role-of-various-aminoglycoside-resistance-mechanisms-in-clinical-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Vajihe Sheikhalizadeh, Alka Hasani, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Akbar Hasani, Reza Ghotaslou, Hamid Reza Goli
Therapeutic resistance towards most of the current treatment regime by Acinetobacter baumannii has reduced the prescribing antibiotic pattern and option is being re-shifted towards more toxic agents including aminoglycosides. The present investigation aimed at to study various mechanisms towards aminoglycoside non-susceptibility in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The bacteria were subjected to genetic basis assessment for the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME), 16S rRNA methylase encoding genes and relative expression of AdeABC and AbeM efflux pumps in relation to their susceptibility to five aminoglycosides...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886041/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-before-and-after-initiation-of-inhaled-tobramycin-in-bulgaria
#9
Guergana Petrova, Tanya Strateva, Dimitrinka Miteva, Snezhina Lazova, Penka Perenovska
INTRODUCTION: In aim to achieve better infection control and possible eradication of the pathogens involved in chronic infections of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) scientists have developed a new way to administer antimicrobials - inhalation. The first and so far the only available inhalable antimicrobial in Bulgaria is inhaled tobramycin (TOBI), introduced in 2009. We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients before and after initiation of TOBI in the regular treatment regimen...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885285/emergence-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-due-to-arma-methylase-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-nepal
#10
S Shrestha, T Tada, B Shrestha, T Kirikae, H Ohara, B P Rijal, B M Pokhrel, J B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with hospital-acquired infections has been increasingly reported worldwide. 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides from hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the emergence of armA in A.baumannii species associated with nosocomial infection in a university hospital in Nepal...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868278/differences-in-vigibase%C3%A2-reporting-of-aminoglycoside-and-capreomycin-suspected-ototoxicity-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#11
Evans L Sagwa, Patrick C Souverein, Inês Ribeiro, Hubert G M Leufkens, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the use of streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin in tuberculosis (TB) treatment and the pharmacovigilance reporting of ototoxicity (deafness or hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo). Second, to analyze patient demographic and geographic factors that influence the reporting of ototoxicity in TB treatment. METHODS: A case/non-case disproportionality analysis of the VigiBase® individual case safety reports (ICSRs) of patients treated for TB using multidrug regimens that contain either of streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin...
November 20, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865260/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-virulence-genes-phylogenetic-groups-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diarrheic-and-healthy-camel-calves-in-tunisia
#12
Salma Bessalah, John Morris Fairbrother, Imed Salhi, Ghyslaine Vanier, Touhami Khorchani, Mouldi Mabrouk Seddik, Mohamed Hammadi
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857983/assessment-of-configurations-and-chemistries-of-bridged-nucleic-acids-containing-oligomers-as-external-guide-sequences-a-methodology-for-inhibition-of-expression-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#13
Alexis Jackson, Saumya Jani, Carol Davies Sala, Alfonso J C Soler-Bistué, Angeles Zorreguieta, Marcelo E Tolmasky
EGSs (external guide sequences) are short antisense oligoribonucleotides that elicit RNase P-mediated cleavage of a target mRNA, which results in inhibition of gene expression. EGS technology is used to inhibit expression of a wide variety of genes, a strategy that may lead to development of novel treatments of numerous diseases, including multidrug-resistant bacterial and viral infections. Successful development of EGS technology depends on finding nucleotide analogs that resist degradation by nucleases present in biological fluids and the environment but still elicit RNase P-mediated degradation when forming a duplex with a target mRNA...
March 2016: Biology Methods and Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855057/-sensitivity-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-infections-of-the-musculoskeletal-system
#14
Argenis Mata-Hernández, Adrián Huematzin Rivera-Villa, Adrián Miguel-Pérez, José Manuel Pérez-Atanasio, Rubén Torres-González
BACKGROUND: Infections of the musculoskeletal system are a devastating complication for patients, due to it's long rehabilitation process and even sometimes the removal of the implant, the chronicity of infection, is often due to lack of coverage in empirical antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective, observational, descriptive cohort study was performed. All cultures form musculoskeletal system infected patients reported of sensitivity and resistance of germs isolated were analyzed...
2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854148/first-detection-of-ges-5-carbapenemase-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate
#15
Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Katy Jeannot, Taghrid S El-Mahdy, Atef M Shibl, Wael Kattan, Patrick Plésiat, Patrice Courvalin
This study was conducted to investigate the molecular epidemiology of resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates collected at a hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January through December 2010. Twenty-seven A. baumannii were highly resistant (MIC90 > 256 μg/ml) to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam. Imipenem resistance was seen in 24 isolates, of which 18 had an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32 μg/mL. Ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and amikacin resistance was found in 93%, 52%, and 37% of all the isolates, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852074/impact-of-amikacin-on-pseudothrombocytopenia
#16
Payman Baradar Bokaei, Daniel Grabovsky, Nadine Shehata, Chen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851600/1966-amikacin-pharmacokinetics-during-high-dialysate-flow-on-continuous-venovenous-hemodialysis
#17
Alison Merkel, Cassandra Bellamy, Dan Negoianu, Christina Candeloro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850320/681-aerosolized-amikacin-as-adjunctive-therapy-of-vap-caused-by-mdr-gnb
#18
Chang Liu, Jianguo Li, Zhiyong Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848886/liposomes-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-the-role-of-formulation-and-inhalation-device-design
#19
Abdelbary Elhissi
Liposomes are established drug carriers for inhalation owing to their safety and ability to provide controlled drug release in the lung. These carriers can entrap a wide range of therapeutic molecules for delivery in large volumes to the peripheral airways using medical nebulizers. Pressurized metered inhalers (pMDIs), soft mist inhalers (SMIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) can deliver relatively small quantities of medication to the lung when compared to medical nebulizers which can deliver large volumes using simple liposome preparation techniques...
November 16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846235/population-based-drug-resistance-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-taiwan-2007-2014
#20
Pei-Hua Chuang, Mei-Hua Wu, Shin-Yuan Fan, Keng-Yu Lin, Ruwen Jou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of drug resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, we conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis using drug susceptibility testing (DST) results of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from 2007-2014 in Taiwan. METHODS: M. tuberculosis isolates collected from 1,331 MDR-TB cases were included in this survey. Treatment histories, age, sex, chest radiograph and bacteriological results of patients were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
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