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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#1
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715386/live-cell-imaging-of-platelet-degranulation-and-secretion-under-flow
#2
Arjan D Barendrecht, Johan J F Verhoef, Silvia Pignatelli, Gerard Pasterkamp, Harry F G Heijnen, Coen Maas
Blood platelets are essential players in hemostasis, the formation of thrombi to seal vascular breaches. They are also involved in thrombosis, the formation of thrombi that occlude the vasculature and injure organs, with life-threatening consequences. This motivates scientific research on platelet function and the development of methods to track cell-biological processes as they occur under flow conditions. A variety of flow models are available for the study of platelet adhesion and aggregation, two key phenomena in platelet biology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692777/simultaneous-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-megakaryocyte-polyploidy-and-a-labile-intracellular-protein-using-zinc-based-fixation
#3
Jacqueline M Gertz, Megan Meuser, Beth A Bouchard
Differentiating megakaryocytes undergo a unique endomitotic cell cycle leading to large polyploidal cells, which fragment to generate platelets, blood cells important for normal hemostasis. Simultaneous assessment of DNA content and cellular proteins by flow cytometry is a useful tool to study megakaryocyte differentiation and to define expression of proteins important for megakaryocyte development and platelet formation. The usefulness of zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF), a non-crosslinking method of cell fixation that permits downstream analysis of nucleic acids (Jensen et al...
July 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690013/peptides-derived-from-plasma-proteins-released-by-bothropasin-a%C3%A2-metalloprotease-present-in-the-bothrops-jararaca-venom
#4
Cristiane Castilho Fernandes Silva, Milene Cristina Menezes, Miryam Palomino, Ana Karina Oliveira, Leo Kei Iwai, Marcella Faria, Fernanda Vieira Portaro
Viperid snake venoms contain proteases that affect hemostasis by degrading important proteins such as those that participate in the coagulation cascade. The Bothrops jararaca venom presents as its main components metallo and serine proteases, which comprise around 65% of the venom composition. Bothropasin is a hemorrhagic metalloprotease from the B. jararaca venom which causes disruption of the basement membrane of the vascular endothelium, resulting in bleeding. Although the bothropasin ability to degrade plasmatic and extracellular matrix proteins in vitro has been described, the primary sequence of the released peptides is unknown...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638582/an-overview-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-general-consideration-and-genetic-screening-approach-in-diagnosis-of-early-onset-subsets
#5
REVIEW
Shahram Nemati, Shahram Teimourian
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the consequence of an aberrant hemostasis of the immune cells at the gut mucosal border. Based on clinical manifestation, laboratory tests, radiological studies, endoscopic and histological features, this disease is divided into three main types including Crohn's disease (CD), Ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBDunclassified (IBD-U). IBD is frequently presented in adults, but about 20% of IBD cases are diagnosed during childhood called pediatric IBD (PIBD). Some patients in the latter group emerge the first symptoms during infancy or under 5 years of age named infantile and very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD), respectively...
April 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622139/immune-regulation-and-functions-of-eicosanoid-lipid-mediators
#6
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Bioactive lipids regulate most physiological processes, from digestion to blood flow and from hemostasis to labor. Lipid mediators are also involved in multiple pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity or asthma. The pathological roles of lipid mediators are based on their intricate involvement in the immune system, which comprises source and target cells of these mediators. Based on their biosynthetic origin, bioactive lipids can be grouped into different classes (e.g. sphingolipids, formed from sphingosine or eicosanoids, formed from arachidonic acid)...
June 15, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581694/abnormal-von-willebrand-factor-secretion-factor-viii-stabilization-and-thrombus-dynamics-in-type-2n-von-willebrand-disease-mice
#7
Laura L Swystun, Ilinca Georgescu, Jeff Mewburn, Meghan Deforest, Kate Nesbitt, Kassandra Hebert, Courtney Dwyer, Christine Brown, Colleen Notley, David Lillicrap
BACKGROUND: von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) circulate as a non-covalent complex with VWF serving as the carrier for FVIII. VWF indirectly influences secondary hemostasis by stabilizing FVIII and transporting it to the site of primary hemostasis. Type 2N von Willebrand disease involves impaired binding of VWF to FVIII, resulting in decreased plasma levels of FVIII. OBJECTIVES: In these studies, we characterize the impact of three type 2N VWD variants (R763A, R854Q, R816W) on VWF secretion, FVIII stabilization, and thrombus formation in a murine model...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566882/platelets-in-liver-disease-cancer-and-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Tomohiro Kurokawa, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508290/crispr-cas9-mediated-somatic-and-germline-gene-correction-to-restore-hemostasis-in-hemophilia-b-mice
#9
Cong Huai, Chenqiang Jia, Ruilin Sun, Peipei Xu, Taishan Min, Qihan Wang, Chengde Zheng, Hongyan Chen, Daru Lu
Hemophilia B (HB) is an X-linked disorder caused by defects of F9 encoded coagulation factor IX, which is an ideal model for gene therapy. Most existing HB gene therapies are based on viral mediated gene supplementation, which could increase immunoreaction. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 system was used for gene correction in an F9 mutant HB mouse model in both adult mice (in vivo) and in germline cells (ex vivo). In vivo, naked Cas9-sgRNA plasmid and donor DNA were delivered to HB mice livers to recover the mutation via hydrodynamic tail vein (HTV) injection...
May 15, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474978/angiographic-analysis-of-vascular-integrity-after-percutaneous-closure-using-prostar-xl-device-during-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#10
Fabien Lareyre, Juliette Raffort, Carine Dommerc, Mohamed Benhammamia, François Bourlon, Yacoub Habib, Claude Mialhe
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous closure devices are commonly used to achieve hemostasis during endovascular procedures including transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of our study was to investigate the quality of the percutaneous femoral arterial closure by Prostar XL device using a systematic peroperative angiographic control at the end of TAVI procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventeen consecutive patients (mean age: 84 [6.5]; 112 women and 105 men) undergoing TAVI with percutaneous transfemoral access were prospectively registered in our center...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414670/diulafoy-s-lesion-an-uncanny-etiology-of-gastrointestinal-bleed
#11
V Gasia, O Lamendola
INTRODUCTION: Dieulafoy's lesion is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening, condition. It accounts for 1-2 percent of acute gastrointestinal (GI); bleeding. CASE: A 99-year-old woman was initially admitted due to left lower extremity cellulitis related to chronic venous stasis ulcer and was receiving broad-spectrum IV antibiotics. Upon admission to the medical floor, she had an episode of hematemesis and multiple bowel movements with black-tarry stools...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398222/preparation-characterization-and-properties-of-alginate-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-composite-microparticles
#12
Zongrui Tong, Yu Chen, Yang Liu, Li Tong, Jiamian Chu, Kecen Xiao, Zhiyu Zhou, Wenbo Dong, Xingwu Chu
Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca(2+) and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA...
April 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376316/association-between-protein-c-levels-and-mortality-in-patients-with-advanced-prostate-lung-and-pancreatic-cancer
#13
I T Wilts, B A Hutten, J C M Meijers, C A Spek, H R Büller, P W Kamphuisen
INTRODUCTION: Procoagulant factors promote cancer progression and metastasis. Protein C is involved in hemostasis, inflammation and signal transduction, and has a protective effect on the endothelial barrier. In mice, administration of activated protein C reduced experimental metastasis. We assessed the association between protein C and mortality in patients with three types of cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients with advanced prostate, non-small cell lung or pancreatic cancer, who participated in the INPACT trial (NCT00312013)...
March 7, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341374/cardiorenal-disease-connection-during-post-menopause-the-protective-role-of-estrogen-in-uremic-toxins-induced-microvascular-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Jiayi Pei, Magdalena Harakalova, Hester den Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp, Dirk J Duncker, Marianne C Verhaar, Folkert W Asselbergs, Caroline Cheng
Female gender, post-menopause, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and (CKD linked) microvascular disease are important risk factors for developing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Enhancing our understanding of the interrelation between these risk factors could greatly benefit the identification of new drug targets for future therapy. This review discusses the evidence for the protective role of estradiol (E2) in CKD-associated microvascular disease and related HFpEF. Elevated circulating levels of uremic toxins (UTs) during CKD may act in synergy with hormonal changes during post-menopause and could lead to coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction in HFpEF...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289478/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-and-acceleration-of-epigenetic-aging-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#15
Abhay Raina, Xiaoping Zhao, Megan L Grove, Jan Bressler, Rebecca F Gottesman, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley, Myriam Fornage
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration, which represents the deviation of the DNA methylation-predicted age from the chronologic age. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional observational study of 713 African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, aged 51-73 years, estimates of predicted age were obtained based on two algorithms (Hannum et al...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192448/differential-inhibitory-action-of-apixaban-on-platelet-and-fibrin-components-of-forming-thrombi-studies-with-circulating-blood-and-in-a-platelet-based-model-of-thrombin-generation
#16
Lluis Pujadas-Mestres, Irene Lopez-Vilchez, Eduardo Arellano-Rodrigo, Joan Carles Reverter, Antonio Lopez-Farre, Maribel Diaz-Ricart, Juan Jose Badimon, Gines Escolar
INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. METHODS: We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067070/warfarin-affects-acute-inflammatory-response-induced-by-subcutaneous-polyvinyl-sponge-implantation-in-rats
#17
Ivana Mirkov, Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Jelena Demenesku, Marina Ninkov, Dina Mileusnic, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski
PURPOSE: Warfarin (WF) is an anticoagulant which also affects physiological processes other than hemostasis. Our previous investigations showed the effect of WF which gained access to the organism via skin on resting peripheral blood granulocytes. Based on these data, the aim of the present study was to examine whether WF could modulate the inflammatory processes as well. To this aim the effect of WF on the inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous sponge implantation in rats was examined...
January 25, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895733/improved-laparoscopic-nephron-sparing-surgery-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-based-on-the-precise-anatomy-of-the-nephron
#18
Gang Guo, Wei Cai, Xu Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate a method of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery (LNSS) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on the precise anatomy of the nephron, and to decrease the incidence of hemorrhage and urinary leakage. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 31 patients who presented to the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (Beijing, China) were treated for RCC. The mean tumor size was 3.4±0.7 cm in diameter (range, 1.2-6.0 cm). During surgery, the renal artery was blocked, and subsequently, an incision in the renal capsule and renal cortex was performed, at 3-5 mm from the tumor edge...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766055/platelets-and-platelet-adhesion-molecules-novel-mechanisms-of-thrombosis-and-anti-thrombotic-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, Naadiya Carrim, Miguel Antonio Dias Neves, Thomas McKeown, Tyler W Stratton, Rodrigo Matos Pinto Coelho, Xi Lei, Pingguo Chen, Jianhua Xu, Xiangrong Dai, Benjamin Xiaoyi Li, Heyu Ni
Platelets are central mediators of thrombosis and hemostasis. At the site of vascular injury, platelet accumulation (i.e. adhesion and aggregation) constitutes the first wave of hemostasis. Blood coagulation, initiated by the coagulation cascades, is the second wave of thrombin generation and enhance phosphatidylserine exposure, can markedly potentiate cell-based thrombin generation and enhance blood coagulation. Recently, deposition of plasma fibronectin and other proteins onto the injured vessel wall has been identified as a new "protein wave of hemostasis" that occurs prior to platelet accumulation (i...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734034/circumventing-furin-enhances-factor-viii-biological-activity-and-ameliorates-bleeding-phenotypes-in-hemophilia-models
#20
Joshua I Siner, Benjamin J Samelson-Jones, Julie M Crudele, Robert A French, Benjamin J Lee, Shanzhen Zhou, Elizabeth Merricks, Robin Raymer, Timothy C Nichols, Rodney M Camire, Valder R Arruda
Processing by the proprotein convertase furin is believed to be critical for the biological activity of multiple proteins involved in hemostasis, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). This belief prompted the retention of the furin recognition motif (amino acids 1645-1648) in the design of B-domain-deleted FVIII (FVIII-BDD) products in current clinical use and in the drug development pipeline, as well as in experimental FVIII gene therapy strategies. Here, we report that processing by furin is in fact deleterious to FVIII-BDD secretion and procoagulant activity...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
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