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Amy Y Tsou, Jonathan R Treadwell
BACKGROUND: Systematic review (SR) abstracts are important for disseminating evidence syntheses to inform medical decision making. We assess reporting quality in SR abstracts using PRISMA for Abstracts (PRISMA-A), Cochrane Handbook, and Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality guidance. METHODS: We evaluated a random sample of 200 SR abstracts (from 2014) comparing interventions in the general medical literature. We assessed adherence to PRISMA-A criteria, problematic wording in conclusions, and whether "positive" studies described clinical significance...
October 20, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
Yao Cheng, Jie Xia, Mingliang Lai, Nansheng Cheng, Sirong He
BACKGROUND: The use of surgical drains has been considered mandatory after pancreatic surgery. The role of prophylactic abdominal drainage to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatic surgery is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage after pancreatic surgery, compare the effects of different types of surgical drains, and evaluate the optimal time for drain removal. SEARCH METHODS: For the initial version of this review, we searched the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1946 to 9 April 2015), Embase (1980 to 9 April 2015), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 9 April 2015), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 9 April 2015)...
October 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amanpreet Kaur, Marie R Webster, Ashani T Weeraratna
Although the clinical landscape of melanoma is improving rapidly, metastatic melanoma remains a deadly disease. Age remains one of the greatest risk factors for melanoma, and patients older than 55 have a much poorer prognosis than younger individuals, even when the data are controlled for grade and stage. The reasons for this disparity have not been fully uncovered, but there is some recent evidence that Wnt signalling may have a role. Wnt signalling is known to have roles both in cancer progression as well as in organismal ageing...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Matt Williams, Peter Treasure, David Greenberg, Andrew Brodbelt, Peter Collins
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that surgeons who perform more operations have better outcomes. However, in patients with brain tumours, all of the evidence comes from the USA. METHODS: We examined all English patients with an intracranial neoplasm who had an intracranial resection in 2008-2010. We included surgeons who performed at least six operations over 3 years, and at least one operation in the first and last 6 months of the period. RESULTS: The analysis data set comprised 9194 operations, 163 consultant neurosurgeons and 30 centres...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Prunella Blinman, Linda Mileshkin, Pearly Khaw, Geraldine Goss, Carol Johnson, Anne Capp, Susan Brooks, Gerard Wain, Ilka Kolodziej, Anne-Sophie Veillard, Rachel O'Connell, Carien L Creutzberg, Martin R Stockler
BACKGROUND: To determine the minimum survival benefits that patients, and their clinicians, judged sufficient to make adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) worthwhile, in addition to pelvic radiotherapy, for women with high risk and advanced stage endometrial cancer. METHODS: Eighty-three participants in the PORTEC-3 trial completed a time trade-off questionnaire before and after adjuvant therapy; 44 of their clinicians completed it once only. The questionnaire used four hypothetical scenarios including baseline survival times without ACT of 5 and 8 years, and baseline survival rates at 5 years without ACT of 50 and 65%...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Aurélie Moskal, Heinz Freisling, Graham Byrnes, Nada Assi, Michael T Fahey, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Anne Tjønneland, Kristina En Petersen, Christina C Dahm, Camilla Plambeck Hansen, Aurélie Affret, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Claire Cadeau, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Khalid Iqbal, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Androniki Naska, Giovanna Masala, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Sabina Sieri, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Petra H Peeters, Bas H Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dagrun Engeset, Idlir Licaj, Guri Skeie, Eva Ardanaz, Genevieve Buckland, José M Huerta Castaño, José R Quirós, Pilar Amiano, Elena Molina-Portillo, Anna Winkvist, Robin Myte, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Inge Huybrechts, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Heather Ward, Marc J Gunter, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Elisabeth Waldmann, Georg Heinze, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Irina GessI, Daniela Sallinger, Philip Jeschek, Martha Britto-Arias, Petra Salzl, Elisabeth Fasching, Bernd Jilma, Michael Kundi, Michael Trauner, Monika Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of (pre)cancerous colorectal lesions are higher in men than in women, although transition rates from advanced lesions to cancer is similar in both sexes. Our aim was to investigate whether the sex-specific difference in incidence of premalignant colorectal lesions might be explained by the impact of risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysing health check-up examinations and screening colonoscopies performed within a national quality assurance program...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Meinolf Karthaus, Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz, Laurent Mineur, Henry Letocha, Richard Greil, Josef Thaler, Eva Fernebro, Kelly S Oliner, Michael Boedigheimer, Brian Twomey, Ying Zhang, Gaston Demonty, Claus-Henning Köhne
BACKGROUND: To investigate tumour biomarker status and efficacy of first-line panitumumab+FOLFIRI for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC). METHODS: 154 patients received first-line panitumumab + FOLFIRI every 14 days. Primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). Data were analysed by tumour RAS (KRAS/NRAS) and BRAF status, and baseline amphiregulin (AREG) expression. RESULTS: Objective responses occurred more frequently in RAS wild type (WT) (59%) vs RAS mutant (MT) (41%) mCRC and in RAS WT/BRAF WT (68%) vs RAS or BRAF MT (37%) disease...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Katharina T Prochazka, Thomas Melchardt, Florian Posch, Konstantin Schlick, Alexander Deutsch, Christine Beham-Schmid, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Gary, Daniel Neureiter, Eckhard Klieser, Richard Greil, Peter Neumeister, Alexander Egle, Martin Pichler
BACKGROUND: Blood-based parameters are gaining increasing interest as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma uric acid levels in patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL. METHODS: The clinical course of 539 DLBCL patients, diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2013 at two Austrian high-volume centres with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy was evaluated retrospectively...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Yoshio Nakamura, Shigehisa Kitano, Akira Takahashi, Arata Tsutsumida, Kenjiro Namikawa, Keiji Tanese, Takayuki Abe, Takeru Funakoshi, Noboru Yamamoto, Masayuki Amagai, Naoya Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: An anti-programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibody, nivolumab, is one of the most effective drugs for advanced melanoma. Tumor cell-derived or immune cell-derived markers and clinical predictors such as serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cutaneous adverse events, have already been described as prognostic factors for advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab. We sought to identify further clinical predictors that can be determined in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical findings of 98 consecutive patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma treated with nivolumab, at the National Cancer Center Hospital or at Keio University Hospital, in Tokyo, Japan, between July 2014 and July 2016...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Antonin Levy, Christophe Massard, Jean-Charles Soria, Eric Deutsch
PURPOSE: To assess preliminary safety and efficacy results of the anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (anti-PD-L1) durvalumab in combination with radiotherapy (RT) in an expansion cohort of patients included in a phase 1/2 trial at our institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from patients who received concurrent palliative RT with durvalumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks via intravenous infusion) were analysed in terms of safety (CTCAE v4.0) and efficacy (RECIST v1.1 and tumour growth rate [TGR])...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Zhe Wang, A Dessa Sadovnick, Anthony L Traboulsee, Jay P Ross, Cecily Q Bernales, Mary Encarnacion, Irene M Yee, Madonna de Lemos, Talitha Greenwood, Joshua D Lee, Galen Wright, Colin J Ross, Si Zhang, Weihong Song, Carles Vilariño-Güell
Identifying rare genetic variants that drive the onset of disease is challenging, even before considering the additional genetic and environmental influences that likely exist in complex diseases. We recently published a study proposing a rare variant in the NR1H3 gene (p.R415Q, rs61731956) as responsible for the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) in two multi-incident families (Wang et al., 2016). This publication has generated much discussion, and fortunately the possibility to validate a finding or prove it spurious can occur rapidly in genetic studies...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Eric Vallabh Minikel, Daniel G MacArthur
It has recently been reported that an NR1H3 missense variant, R415Q, causes a novel familial form of multiple sclerosis (Wang et al., 2016a). This claim is at odds with publicly available data from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC; The allele frequency of R415Q is not significantly higher in cases (0.024%-0.049%) than in ExAC population controls (0.031%), whereas if R415Q conferred even 50% lifetime risk of developing MS, it would be hundreds of times more common in cases than in controls...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
(no author information available yet)
A recent study by Wang et al. (2016a) claims that the low-frequency variant NR1H3 p.Arg415Gln is sufficient to cause multiple sclerosis in certain individuals and determines a patient's likelihood of primary progressive disease. We sought to replicate this finding in the International MS Genetics Consortium (IMSGC) patient collection, which is 13-fold larger than the collection of Wang et al. (2016a), but we find no evidence that this variant is associated with either MS or disease subtype. Wang et al. (2016a) also report a common variant association in the region, which we show captures the association the IMSGC reported in 2013...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Katherine R Storrs
"Grid cells" encode an animal's location and direction of movement in 2D physical environments via regularly repeating receptive fields. Constantinescu et al. (2016) report the first evidence of grid cells for 2D conceptual spaces. The work has exciting implications for mental representation and shows how detailed neural-coding hypotheses can be tested with bulk population-activity measures.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Douglas H Schultz, Michael W Cole
Spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity and connectivity are thought to support cognition and behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Shine et al. (2016) describe a possible mechanism responsible for fluctuations in the human brain's network architecture that are related to rapid shifts in cognitive state.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Xaq Pitkow
In this issue of Neuron, Orbán et al. (2016) test whether the brain represents probabilities by sampling: do neurons interpret the world by generating causal explanations of sense data and quickly sample different interpretations over time? Orbán et al. (2016) find agreement between this model's predictions and neural data.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Rufin Vogels
New research published in Neuron describes assignment of cortical layer to single neurons recorded in awake monkeys. Applying the procedure to perirhinal cortex, Koyano et al. (2016) found marked and unsuspected differences among layers in the coding of associative memory signals.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
In this issue of Neuron, Younts et al. (2016) demonstrate that activation of presynaptic CB1 receptors by retrograde endocannabinoid signaling stimulates protein synthesis in axon terminals to induce long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory transmission.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Jessica M Meves, Binhai Zheng
In this issue of Neuron, Tedeschi et al. (2016) describe the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha2delta2 as a developmental switch from axon elongation to synapse formation and transmission that doubles as a suppressor of axon regeneration, providing a molecular clue for the synaptic stabilization hypothesis of CNS regeneration failure.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
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