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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332739/gdf9-affects-the-development-and-tight-junction-functions-of-immature-bovine-sertoli-cells
#1
K Tang, L Wang, Y Jin, W Yang, L Yang
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) superfamily are critical regulators of germ cell development that act as extracellular ligands of the signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, apoptosis and other aspects of cell behaviour. As a member of the TGF-β superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and the ovulation rate in females; however, its role in the testis has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GDF9 and its receptor genes BMPRII and ALK5 in prepuberal bovine Sertoli cells (SCs)...
March 23, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332063/decreased-interaction-between-zo-1-and-occludin-is-involved-in-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-transplanted-epiphora-submandibular-glands
#2
Chong Ding, Xin Cong, Xue-Ming Zhang, Sheng-Lin Li, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu
Tight junctions (TJs) in salivary epithelium play an important role in regulating saliva secretion. Autologous transplantation of submandibular glands (SMGs) is an effective method to treat severe dry eye syndrome. However, epiphora occurs in some patients 6 months after transplantation. We previously found that the acinar TJs are enlarged in rabbit SMGs after long-term transplantation, but the exact TJ components involved in the epiphora are still unknown. Here, we found that the mRNA and protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin were increased in the transplanted SMGs obtained from epiphora patients, while other TJs were unchanged...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331230/dentin-sialoprotein-facilitates-dental-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-and-dentin-formation
#3
Wentong Li, Lei Chen, Zhuo Chen, Lian Wu, Junsheng Feng, Feng Wang, Lisa Shoff, Xin Li, Kevin J Donly, Mary MacDougall, Shuo Chen
Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) is a dentin extracellular matrix protein. It is involved in dental mesenchymal cell lineages and dentin formation through regulation of its target gene expression. DSP mutations cause dentin genetic diseases. However, mechanisms of DSP in controlling dental mesenchymal cell differentiation are unknown. Using DSP as bait, we screened a protein library from mouse odontoblastic cells and found that DSP is a ligand and binds to cell surface receptor, occludin. Further study identified that the C-terminal DSP domain(aa 363-458) interacts with the occludin extracellular loop 2(aa 194-241)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#4
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327343/astilbin-from-engelhardtia-chrysolepis-enhances-intestinal-barrier-functions-in-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#5
Tatsuo Nakahara, Yosuke Nishitani, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
Astilbin, which is one of polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Engelhardtia chrysolepis HANCE (Chinese name, huang-qui), is available as the effective component in food and cosmetics because of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The tight junction (TJ) proteins, which protect the body from foreign substances, are related to adhesion between a cell and a cell. Previously, the enhancement of TJ's functions induced by aglycones of flavonoids has been demonstrated, but the effects of the glycosides such as astilbin have not been observed yet...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323272/constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-females-have-normal-colonic-barrier-and-secretory-function
#6
Stephanie A Peters, Shoko Edogawa, Wendy J Sundt, Roy B Dyer, Daniel A Dalenberg, Amelia Mazzone, Ravinder J Singh, Natalie Moses, Thomas C Smyrk, Christopher Weber, David R Linden, Wallace K MacNaughton, Jerrold R Turner, Michael Camilleri, David A Katzka, Gianrico Farrugia, Madhusudan Grover
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is associated with changes in intestinal barrier and secretory function. METHODS: A total of 19 IBS-C patients and 18 healthy volunteers (all females) underwent saccharide excretion assay (0.1 g (13)C mannitol and 1 g lactulose), measurements of duodenal and colonic mucosal barrier (transmucosal resistance (TMR), macromolecular and Escherichia coli Bio-Particle translocation), mucosal secretion (basal and acetylcholine (Ach)-evoked short-circuit current (Isc)), in vivo duodenal mucosal impedance, circulating endotoxins, and colonic tight junction gene expression...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322937/snail-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-enhances-p-gp-mediated-multi-drug-resistance-in-hcc827-cells
#7
Takumi Tomono, Kentaro Yano, Takuo Ogihara
Overexpression and/or activation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which mediates efflux transport of various anti-cancer drugs in cancer cells, are associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR). On the other hand, malignant cancer cells frequently undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), thereby acquiring high migratory mobility and invasive ability. Snail is a transcriptional factor that represses multiple other factors, and its overexpression is a trigger of EMT. Since both P-gp and Snail are involved in malignant evolution of cancer, in this work, we evaluated whether or not EMT induced by overexpression of Snail influences P-gp expression and/or activity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317363/-periodontal-inflammation-affects-the-mechanical-and-immune-barrier-functions-of-mice-gut
#8
Xie Meilian, Yu Ting, Zhuo Ying, Huang Xin, Xie Baoyi, Xuan Dongying, Zhang Jincai
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of periodontal inflammation on the functions of gut barrier (ecological barrier, mechanical barrier, and immune barrier) in mice. METHODS: Twenty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into perio-dontitis (P) or control (C) groups. The P group was subjected under a 10-day ligation with Porphyromonas gingivalis to induce periodontitis, whereas the C group was ligated with sham. Maxillae were obtained to assess alveolar bone loss...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301218/retinal-pathology-is-associated-with-increased-blood-retina-barrier-permeability-in-a-diabetic-and-hypercholesterolaemic-pig-model-beneficial-effects-of-the-lppla2-inhibitor-darapladib
#9
Nimish K Acharya, Xin Qi, Eric L Goldwaser, George A Godsey, Hao Wu, Mary C Kosciuk, Theresa A Freeman, Colin H Macphee, Robert L Wilensky, Venkat Venkataraman, Robert G Nagele
Using a porcine model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia, we previously showed that diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a chronic increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in the cerebral cortex, leading to selective binding of immunoglobulin G and deposition of amyloid-beta1-42 peptide in pyramidal neurons. Treatment with Darapladib (GlaxoSmithKline, SB480848), an inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2, alleviated these effects. Here, investigation of the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia on the pig retina revealed a corresponding increased permeability of the blood-retina barrier coupled with a leak of plasma components into the retina, alterations in retinal architecture, selective IgG binding to neurons in the ganglion cell layer, thinning of retinal layers due to cell loss and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in Müller cells, all of which were curtailed by treatment with Darapladib...
March 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297801/-effect-of-curcumin-on-intestinal-mucosal-mechanical-barrier-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
H T Hou, Y M Qiu, H W Zhao, D H Li, Y T Liu, Y Z Wang, S H Su
Objective: To investigate the effect of curcumin on intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, model group, and curcumin intervention group. The rats in the model group and the curcumin intervention group were given high-fat feed for 16 weeks, and those in the curcumin intervention group were given curcumin 200 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289145/irf6-promotes-keratinocyte-differentiation-in-response-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#11
Jennifer Huynh, Glen M Scholz, Jiamin Aw, Eric C Reynolds
We recently demonstrated that the expression of the Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) transcription factor in oral keratinocytes was stimulated by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis Here, we have established that IRF6 promotes the differentiation of oral keratinocytes in response to P. gingivalis This was evidenced by the IRF6-dependent upregulation of specific markers of keratinocyte terminal differentiation (e.g. Involucrin, IVL; Keratin 13, KRT13), together with additional transcriptional regulators of keratinocyte differentiation, including Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) and Ovo-like zinc finger 1 (OVOL1)...
March 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287613/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-xist-increases-blood-tumor-barrier-permeability-and-inhibits-glioma-angiogenesis-by-targeting-mir-137
#12
H Yu, Y Xue, P Wang, X Liu, J Ma, J Zheng, Z Li, Z Li, H Cai, Y Liu
Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis...
March 13, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279791/methionine-hydroxy-analogue-improves-intestinal-immunological-and-physical-barrier-function-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#13
Fei-Yu Pan, Pei Wu, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA) enhances the defense against enteritis occurrence via improving intestinal barrier function in fish. After 630 young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (259.70 ± 0.47 g) fed six graded levels of MHA (0, 2.4, 4.4, 6.4, 8.5 and 10.5 g/kg diet) and one dl-methionine group (6.4 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, 15 fish from each treatment were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal MHA enhanced the capacity of fish against enteritis emergence, which might be related to the positive effects of MHA on intestinal immunological and physical barrier function in fish...
March 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275187/tight-junction-protein-occludin-is-a-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-entry-factor
#14
Xiaolei Luo, Longjun Guo, Jian Zhang, Yunfei Xu, Weihong Gu, Li Feng, Yue Wang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, has caused huge economic losses in pig-producing countries. Although it was long believed to replicate in the intestinal epithelium using aminopeptidase N as a receptor, the mechanisms of PEDV infection are not fully characterized. In this study, we found that PEDV infection of epithelial cells resulted in the disruption of the tight junctional distribution of occludin to the intracellular localization. Overexpression of occludin in target cells makes them more susceptible for PEDV infection, whereas ablation of occludin expression using siRNA in target cells significantly reduces their susceptibility to virus infection...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264905/perforin-expression-by-cd8-t-cells-is-sufficient-to-cause-fatal-brain-edema-during-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#15
Matthew Huggins, Holly L Johnson, Fang Jin, Aurelie N'Songo, Lisa M Hanson, Stephanie J LaFrance, Noah S Butler, John T Harty, Aaron J Johnson
Human cerebral malaria (HCM) is a serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The most severe outcomes for patients include coma, permanent neurological deficits, and death. Recently, a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in humans identified brain swelling as the most prominent predictor of fatal HCM. Therefore, in this study we sought to define the mechanism controlling brain edema through the use of the murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model. Specifically, we investigated the ability of CD8 T cells to initiate brain edema during ECM...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260798/geniposide-ameliorates-tnbs-induced-experimental-colitis-in-rats-via-reducing-inflammatory-cytokine-release-and-restoring-impaired-intestinal-barrier-function
#16
Bin Xu, Yan-Li Li, Ming Xu, Chang-Chun Yu, Meng-Qiao Lian, Ze-Yao Tang, Chuan-Xun Li, Yuan Lin
Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259408/variants-of-%C3%AE-casofensin-a-bioactive-milk-peptide-differently-modulate-the-intestinal-barrier-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-studies-in-rats
#17
Jérémie Bruno, Aurélie Nicolas, Sandra Pesenti, Jessica Schwarz, Jean-Luc Simon, Joëlle Léonil, Pascale Plaisancié
β-Casofensin is a bioactive milk peptide that modulates the intestinal barrier, particularly through its action on goblet cells. β-Casofensin corresponds to fragment (f) 94-123 of the bovine β-casein (β-CN) A2 variant. Fifteen genetic variants of bovine β-CN (A1-3, B-G, H1-2, I-L) are known, of which the A2, A1, and B forms are the most common. These variants differ from each other by the substitution of one or more AA, some of which are localized in f94 to 123. The aim of our study was to compare the intestinal effects of β-casofensin A2 and its 3 main variants: A1, A3, and B...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252026/moderate-dietary-protein-restriction-alters-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-improves-ileal-barrier-function-in-adult-pig-model
#18
Peixin Fan, Ping Liu, Peixia Song, Xiyue Chen, Xi Ma
This study was conducted to investigate impacts of dietary protein levels on gut bacterial community and gut barrier. The intestinal microbiota of finishing pigs, fed with 16%, 13% and 10% crude protein (CP) in diets, respectively, were investigated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The ileal bacterial richness tended to decrease when the dietary protein concentration reduced from 16% to 10%. The proportion of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 in ileum significantly decreased, whereas Escherichia-Shigella increased with reduction of protein concentration...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251704/ochratoxin-a-cytotoxicity-on-madin-darby-canine-kidney-cells-in-the-presence-of-alpha-tocopherol-effects-on-cell-viability-and-tight-junctions
#19
E Fusi, C Giromini, R Rebucci, L Pinotti, V Caprarulo, F Cheli, F Vitari, C Domeneghini, A Baldi
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxic fungi metabolite that affects animal and human health. At the cellular level, OTA is able to alter functions and viability by several mechanisms of action. Several strategies to counteract its toxicity have been studied. We investigated the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting OTA oxidative damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by pre-incubating the cells for 3 hr with the antioxidant (1 nm, 10 μm) and then adding OTA (0-1.2 μg/ml) for the following 24 hr...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250758/propofol-protects-against-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-disruption-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Li-Jie Xie, Jin-Xiu Huang, Jian Yang, Fen Yuan, Shuang-Shuang Zhang, Qi-Jing Yu, Ji Hu
Propofol has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects on the injured spinal cord. However, the effect of propofol on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated whether propofol could maintain the integrity of the BSCB. Spinal cord IRI (SCIRI) was induced in rabbits by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 minutes. Propofol, 30 mg/kg, was intravenously infused 10 minutes before aortic clamping as well as at the onset of reperfusion...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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