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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421423/the-effects-of-direct-fed-microbial-supplementation-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-on-growth-performance-intestinal-immune-status-and-epithelial-barrier-gene-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#1
U Gadde, S T Oh, Y S Lee, E Davis, N Zimmerman, T Rehberger, Hyun S Lillehoj
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine, and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Zero-day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments: basal diet (CON); basal diet supplemented with either antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD); or probiotics, namely, B. subtilis strain 1781 (PB1), a combination of B...
April 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396819/rab11-fip1-phosphorylation-by-mark2-regulates-polarity-in-mdck-cells
#2
Rebecca McRae, Lynne A Lapierre, Elizabeth H Manning, James R Goldenring
MARK2/Par1b/EMK1, a serine/threonine kinase, is required for correct apical/basolateral membrane polarization in epithelial cells. However, the specific substrates mediating MARK2 action are less well understood. We have now found that MARK2 phosphorylates Rab11-FIP1B/C at serine 234 in a consensus site similar to that previously identified in Rab11-FIP2. In MDCK cells undergoing repolarization after a calcium switch, antibodies specific for pS234-Rab11-FIP1 or pS227-Rab11-FIP2 demonstrate that the spatial and temporal activation of Rab11-FIP1 phosphorylation is distinct from that for Rab11-FIP2...
2017: Cellular Logistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387750/bmp6-regulates-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-human-sertoli-cells-via-smad2-3-and-cyclin-d1-pathway-and-dach1-and-tfap2a-activation
#3
Hong Wang, Qingqing Yuan, Min Sun, Minghui Niu, Liping Wen, Hongyong Fu, Fan Zhou, Zheng Chen, Chencheng Yao, Jingmei Hou, Ruinan Shen, Qisheng Lin, Wenjie Liu, Ruobing Jia, Zheng Li, Zuping He
Sertoli cells are essential for regulating normal spermatogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying human Sertoli cell development remain largely elusive. Here we examined the function and signaling pathways of BMP6 in regulating human Sertoli cells. RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blots revealed that BMP6 and its multiple receptors were expressed in human Sertoli cells. CCK-8 and EDU assays showed that BMP6 promoted the proliferation of Sertoli cells. Conversely, BMP6 siRNAs inhibited the division of these cells...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376304/origins-of-pdz-binding-specificity-a-computational-and-experimental-study-using-nherf1-and-the-parathyroid-hormone-receptor
#4
Tatyana Mamonova, Qiangmin Zhang, Mintu Chandra, Brett Collins, Edward K Sarfo, Zimei Bu, Kunhong Xiao, Alessandro Bisello, Peter A Friedman
Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF1) is a scaffolding protein containing two PSD95/discs large/ZO1 (PDZ) domains that modifies signaling, trafficking, and function of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), a Family B G-protein coupled receptor. PTHR and NHERF1 bind through a PDZ-ligand recognition mechanism. We show that PTH elicits phosphorylation of Thr591 in the canonical -ETVM binding motif of PTHR. Conservative substitution of Thr591 with Cys does not affect PTH(1-34)-induced cAMP production or PTHR binding to NHERF1...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251704/ochratoxin-a-cytotoxicity-on-madin-darby-canine-kidney-cells-in-the-presence-of-alpha-tocopherol-effects-on-cell-viability-and-tight-junctions
#5
E Fusi, C Giromini, R Rebucci, L Pinotti, V Caprarulo, F Cheli, F Vitari, C Domeneghini, A Baldi
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxic fungi metabolite that affects animal and human health. At the cellular level, OTA is able to alter functions and viability by several mechanisms of action. Several strategies to counteract its toxicity have been studied. We investigated the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting OTA oxidative damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by pre-incubating the cells for 3 hr with the antioxidant (1 nm, 10 μm) and then adding OTA (0-1.2 μg/ml) for the following 24 hr...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169360/loss-of-dlg5-promotes-breast-cancer-malignancy-by-inhibiting-the-hippo-signaling-pathway
#6
Jie Liu, Juan Li, Pingping Li, Yaochun Wang, Zheyong Liang, Yina Jiang, Jing Li, Chen Feng, Ruiqi Wang, He Chen, Can Zhou, Jianmin Zhang, Jin Yang, Peijun Liu
Discs Large Homolog 5 (DLG5) plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. Recent research showed that DLG5 is decreased in Yes-associated protein (YAP)-overexpressing cells. However, the exact relationship between DLG5 and YAP is not clear. In this study, we showed that loss of DLG5 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting the Hippo signaling pathway and increasing nuclear YAP expression. Furthermore, depletion of DLG5 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and disrupted epithelial cell polarity, which was associated with altered expression of Scribble, ZO1, E-cadherin and N-cadherin and their mislocalization...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061478/mitotic-control-of-human-papillomavirus-genome-containing-cells-is-regulated-by-the-function-of-the-pdz-binding-motif-of-the-e6-oncoprotein
#7
Elizabeth K Marsh, Craig P Delury, Nicholas J Davies, Christopher J Weston, Mohammed A L Miah, Lawrence Banks, Joanna L Parish, Martin R Higgs, Sally Roberts
The function of a conserved PDS95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) binding motif (E6 PBM) at the C-termini of E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types contributes to the development of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, using a primary human keratinocyte-based model of the high-risk HPV18 life cycle, we identify a novel link between the E6 PBM and mitotic stability. In cultures containing a mutant genome in which the E6 PBM was deleted there was an increase in the frequency of abnormal mitoses, including multinucleation, compared to cells harboring the wild type HPV18 genome...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054340/fingolimod-confers-neuroprotection-through-activation-of-rac1-after-experimental-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-rat-pups
#8
William B Rolland, Paul R Krafft, Tim Lekic, Damon Klebe, Julia LeGrand, Abby Jones Weldon, Liang Xu, John H Zhang
Fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonist, is clinically available to treat multiple sclerosis and is showing promise in treating stroke. We investigated if fingolimod provides long-term protection from experimental neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), aiming to support a potential mechanism of acute fingolimod-induced protection. GMH was induced in P7 rats by infusion of collagenase (0.3 U) into the right ganglionic eminence. Animals killed at 4 weeks post-GMH received low- or high-dose fingolimod (0...
March 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943290/isolation-characterization-and-establishment-of-spontaneously-immortalized-cell-line-hrpe-2s-with-stem-cell-properties
#9
Hoda Shams Najafabadi, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samiei, Hamid Ahmadieh, Ehsan Ranaei Pirmardan, Maryam Masoomi
The retinal pigment epithelium is a monolayer of highly specialized pigmented cells located between the neural retina and the Bruch's membrane of the choroid. RPE cells play a crucial role in the maintenance and function of the underlying photoreceptors. This study introduces a spontaneously arising human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, HRPE-2S, which was isolated from primary RPE cell culture of 2 days old male donor. We characterized morphology and functional properties of the new cell line. The immortalized cell line was maintained in culture for more than 70 passages and 240 divisions...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741287/establishment-of-epithelial-attachment-on-titanium-surface-coated-with-platelet-activating-peptide
#10
Shiho Sugawara, Masahiko Maeno, Cliff Lee, Shigemi Nagai, David M Kim, John Da Silva, Masazumi Nagai, Hisatomo Kondo
The aim of this study was to produce epithelial attachment on a typical implant abutment surface of smooth titanium. A challenging complication that hinders the success of dental implants is peri-implantitis. A common cause of peri-implantitis may results from the lack of epithelial sealing at the peri-implant collar. Histologically, epithelial sealing is recognized as the attachment of the basement membrane (BM). BM-attachment is promoted by activated platelet aggregates at surgical wound sites. On the other hand, platelets did not aggregate on smooth titanium, the surface typical of the implant abutment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722368/brain-on-a-chip-model-enables-analysis-of-human-neuronal-differentiation-and-chemotaxis
#11
Onur Kilic, David Pamies, Emily Lavell, Paula Schiapparelli, Yun Feng, Thomas Hartung, Anna Bal-Price, Helena T Hogberg, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Andre Levchenko
Migration of neural progenitors in the complex tissue environment of the central nervous system is not well understood. Progress in this area has the potential to drive breakthroughs in neuroregenerative therapies, brain cancer treatments, and neurodevelopmental studies. To a large extent, advances have been limited due to a lack of controlled environments recapitulating characteristics of the central nervous system milieu. Reductionist cell culture models are frequently too simplistic, and physiologically more relevant approaches such as ex vivo brain slices or in situ experiments provide little control and make information extraction difficult...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645110/identification-of-novel-transplantable-gpcr-recycling-motif-for-drug-discovery
#12
Mohammed M Nooh, Salvatore Mancarella, Suleiman W Bahouth
β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) agonists and antagonists are widely used in the treatment of major cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and hypertension. The β1-AR like other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are endocytosed in response to intense agonist activation. Recycling of the agonist-internalized β1-AR is dependent on its carboxy-terminal type-1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO1 (PDZ) and on phospho-serine(312) in the third intracellular loop of the β1-AR. Progressive elongation of the β1-AR at its C-tail inactivated the PDZ-biding domain and inhibited the recycling of the β1-AR...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602775/epithelialization-of-mouse-ovarian-tumor-cells-originating-in-the-fallopian-tube-stroma
#13
Yuanyuan Hua, Pui-Wah Choi, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Allen C Ng, Winston P Kuo, Shu-Kay Ng, Daniela M Dinulescu, Martin M Matzuk, Ross S Berkowitz, Shu-Wing Ng
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595347/a-molecular-code-for-endosomal-recycling-of-phosphorylated-cargos-by-the-snx27-retromer-complex
#14
Thomas Clairfeuille, Caroline Mas, Audrey S M Chan, Zhe Yang, Maria Tello-Lafoz, Mintu Chandra, Jocelyn Widagdo, Markus C Kerr, Blessy Paul, Isabel Mérida, Rohan D Teasdale, Nathan J Pavlos, Victor Anggono, Brett M Collins
Recycling of internalized receptors from endosomal compartments is essential for the receptors' cell-surface homeostasis. Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) cooperates with the retromer complex in the recycling of proteins containing type I PSD95-Dlg-ZO1 (PDZ)-binding motifs. Here we define specific acidic amino acid sequences upstream of the PDZ-binding motif required for high-affinity engagement of the human SNX27 PDZ domain. However, a subset of SNX27 ligands, such as the β2 adrenergic receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, lack these sequence determinants...
October 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559491/overexpression-of-plastin-3-in-sertoli-cells-disrupts-actin-microfilament-bundle-homeostasis-and-perturbs-the-tight-junction-barrier
#15
Nan Li, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
Throughout the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, actin microfilaments arranged as bundles near the Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the Sertoli cell-cell interface that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) undergo extensive re-organization by converting between bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to give plasticity to the F-actin network. This is crucial to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. Herein, we sought to examine changes in the actin microfilament organization at the Sertoli cell BTB using an in vitro model since Sertoli cells cultured in vitro is known to establish a functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo...
April 2016: Spermatogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554602/characterization-of-a-spontaneously-generated-murine-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-cell-line-a-model-for-in-vitro-experiments
#16
Ehsan Ranaei Pirmardan, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samiei, Hamid Ahmadieh, Seyed Javad Mowla, Razie Ezzati, Marzieh Naseri
Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells' functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells' (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC)...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226313/coxsackievirus-and-adenovirus-receptor-a-tight-junction-protein-in-peri-implantation-mouse-embryos
#17
Yeong Seok Oh, Won Heum Nah, Bomi Choi, Seok Hyun Kim, Myung Chan Gye
To understand the role of Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a tight junction (TJ) protein, in peri-implantation embryos, developmental expression of CAR and its role in paracellular permeability were examined in mouse embryos. Splice variants for transmembrane CAR, Car1, Car2, and Car3 mRNA, were expressed from 2-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages onward, respectively, whereas mRNA for soluble CAR was expressed in MII oocytes and 4-cell stage onward. On Western blot, ∼46 kDa CAR proteins were detected in blastocysts...
July 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181702/pathogenic-mechanisms-in-blastocystis-spp-interpreting-results-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
REVIEW
Sitara S R Ajjampur, Kevin S W Tan
Blastocystis spp. are commonly reported intestinal protists but whose clinical significance remains controversial. Infections have ranged from asymptomatic carriage to non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms and have also been linked to irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria in some patient populations. In vitro studies showed that both parasite and parasite lysates have damaging effects on intestinal epithelial cells causing apoptosis and degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO1, resulting in increased intestinal permeability...
December 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164517/changes-in-inflammatory-cytokines-accompany-deregulation-of-claudin-11-resulting-in-inter-sertoli-tight-junctions-in-varicocele-rat-testes
#19
Yeong Seok Oh, Nam Hee Jo, Jong Kwan Park, Myung Chan Gye
PURPOSE: To elucidate the changes that occur in the blood-testis barrier during varicocele we examined changes in Cldn11 (claudin-11), an element of the blood-testis barrier, as well as steroidogenesis and proinflammatory cytokines in a model of varicocele rat testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats with experimentally induced varicocele were sacrificed 4 weeks after operation. Testicular histology and blood testosterone concentrations were examined. The expression of tight junctions, steroidogenic enzymes, apoptosis and immune cell markers, and proinflammatory cytokines in the testes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999811/circulating-tight-junction-proteins-mirror-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-leukaemia-central-nervous-system-metastasis
#20
Jing-Cheng Zhu, Meng-Ya Si, Ya-Zhen Li, Huan-Zhu Chen, Zhi-Cheng Fan, Qing-Dong Xie, Xiao-Yang Jiao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of circulating tight junction (TJ) proteins as biomarkers reflecting of leukaemia central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. TJs [claudin5 (CLDN5), occludin (OCLN) and ZO-1] concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 45 leukaemia patients. Serum ZO-1 was significantly higher (p < 0.05), but CSF ZO-1 levels were not significantly higher in the CNS leukaemia (CNSL) compared to the non-CNSL. The CNSL patients also had a lower CLDN5/ZO1 ratio in both serum and CSF than in non-CNSL patients (p < 0...
March 21, 2016: Hematological Oncology
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