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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741287/establishment-of-epithelial-attachment-on-titanium-surface-coated-with-platelet-activating-peptide
#1
Shiho Sugawara, Masahiko Maeno, Cliff Lee, Shigemi Nagai, David M Kim, John Da Silva, Masazumi Nagai, Hisatomo Kondo
The aim of this study was to produce epithelial attachment on a typical implant abutment surface of smooth titanium. A challenging complication that hinders the success of dental implants is peri-implantitis. A common cause of peri-implantitis may results from the lack of epithelial sealing at the peri-implant collar. Histologically, epithelial sealing is recognized as the attachment of the basement membrane (BM). BM-attachment is promoted by activated platelet aggregates at surgical wound sites. On the other hand, platelets did not aggregate on smooth titanium, the surface typical of the implant abutment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722368/brain-on-a-chip-model-enables-analysis-of-human-neuronal-differentiation-and-chemotaxis
#2
Onur Kilic, David Pamies, Emily Lavell, Paula Schiapparelli, Yun Feng, Thomas Hartung, Anna Bal-Price, Helena T Hogberg, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Andre Levchenko
Migration of neural progenitors in the complex tissue environment of the central nervous system is not well understood. Progress in this area has the potential to drive breakthroughs in neuroregenerative therapies, brain cancer treatments, and neurodevelopmental studies. To a large extent, advances have been limited due to a lack of controlled environments recapitulating characteristics of the central nervous system milieu. Reductionist cell culture models are frequently too simplistic, and physiologically more relevant approaches such as ex vivo brain slices or in situ experiments provide little control and make information extraction difficult...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645110/identification-of-novel-transplantable-gpcr-recycling-motif-for-drug-discovery
#3
Mohammed M Nooh, Salvatore Mancarella, Suleiman W Bahouth
β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) agonists and antagonists are widely used in the treatment of major cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and hypertension. The β1-AR like other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are endocytosed in response to intense agonist activation. Recycling of the agonist-internalized β1-AR is dependent on its carboxy-terminal type-1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO1 (PDZ) and on phospho-serine(312) in the third intracellular loop of the β1-AR. Progressive elongation of the β1-AR at its C-tail inactivated the PDZ-biding domain and inhibited the recycling of the β1-AR...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602775/epithelialization-of-mouse-ovarian-tumor-cells-originating-in-the-fallopian-tube-stroma
#4
Yuanyuan Hua, Pui-Wah Choi, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Allen C Ng, Winston P Kuo, Shu-Kay Ng, Daniela M Dinulescu, Martin M Matzuk, Ross S Berkowitz, Shu-Wing Ng
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout...
September 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595347/a-molecular-code-for-endosomal-recycling-of-phosphorylated-cargos-by-the-snx27-retromer-complex
#5
Thomas Clairfeuille, Caroline Mas, Audrey S M Chan, Zhe Yang, Maria Tello-Lafoz, Mintu Chandra, Jocelyn Widagdo, Markus C Kerr, Blessy Paul, Isabel Mérida, Rohan D Teasdale, Nathan J Pavlos, Victor Anggono, Brett M Collins
Recycling of internalized receptors from endosomal compartments is essential for the receptors' cell-surface homeostasis. Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) cooperates with the retromer complex in the recycling of proteins containing type I PSD95-Dlg-ZO1 (PDZ)-binding motifs. Here we define specific acidic amino acid sequences upstream of the PDZ-binding motif required for high-affinity engagement of the human SNX27 PDZ domain. However, a subset of SNX27 ligands, such as the β2 adrenergic receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, lack these sequence determinants...
October 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559491/overexpression-of-plastin-3-in-sertoli-cells-disrupts-actin-microfilament-bundle-homeostasis-and-perturbs-the-tight-junction-barrier
#6
Nan Li, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
Throughout the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, actin microfilaments arranged as bundles near the Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the Sertoli cell-cell interface that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) undergo extensive re-organization by converting between bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to give plasticity to the F-actin network. This is crucial to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. Herein, we sought to examine changes in the actin microfilament organization at the Sertoli cell BTB using an in vitro model since Sertoli cells cultured in vitro is known to establish a functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo...
April 2016: Spermatogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554602/characterization-of-a-spontaneously-generated-murine-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-cell-line-a-model-for-in-vitro-experiments
#7
Ehsan Ranaei Pirmardan, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Shahram Samiei, Hamid Ahmadieh, Seyed Javad Mowla, Razie Ezzati, Marzieh Naseri
Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells' functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells' (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC)...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226313/coxsackievirus-and-adenovirus-receptor-a-tight-junction-protein-in-peri-implantation-mouse-embryos
#8
Yeong Seok Oh, Won Heum Nah, Bomi Choi, Seok Hyun Kim, Myung Chan Gye
To understand the role of Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), a tight junction (TJ) protein, in peri-implantation embryos, developmental expression of CAR and its role in paracellular permeability were examined in mouse embryos. Splice variants for transmembrane CAR, Car1, Car2, and Car3 mRNA, were expressed from 2-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages onward, respectively, whereas mRNA for soluble CAR was expressed in MII oocytes and 4-cell stage onward. On Western blot, ∼46 kDa CAR proteins were detected in blastocysts...
July 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181702/pathogenic-mechanisms-in-blastocystis-spp-interpreting-results-from-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#9
Sitara S R Ajjampur, Kevin S W Tan
Blastocystis spp. are commonly reported intestinal protists but whose clinical significance remains controversial. Infections have ranged from asymptomatic carriage to non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms and have also been linked to irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria in some patient populations. In vitro studies showed that both parasite and parasite lysates have damaging effects on intestinal epithelial cells causing apoptosis and degradation of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO1, resulting in increased intestinal permeability...
May 12, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164517/changes-in-inflammatory-cytokines-accompany-deregulation-of-claudin-11-resulting-in-inter-sertoli-tight-junctions-in-varicocele-rat-testes
#10
Yeong Seok Oh, Nam Hee Jo, Jong Kwan Park, Myung Chan Gye
PURPOSE: To elucidate the changes that occur in the blood-testis barrier during varicocele we examined changes in Cldn11 (claudin-11), an element of the blood-testis barrier, as well as steroidogenesis and proinflammatory cytokines in a model of varicocele rat testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats with experimentally induced varicocele were sacrificed 4 weeks after operation. Testicular histology and blood testosterone concentrations were examined. The expression of tight junctions, steroidogenic enzymes, apoptosis and immune cell markers, and proinflammatory cytokines in the testes were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26999811/circulating-tight-junction-proteins-mirror-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-leukaemia-central-nervous-system-metastasis
#11
Jing-Cheng Zhu, Meng-Ya Si, Ya-Zhen Li, Huan-Zhu Chen, Zhi-Cheng Fan, Qing-Dong Xie, Xiao-Yang Jiao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of circulating tight junction (TJ) proteins as biomarkers reflecting of leukaemia central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. TJs [claudin5 (CLDN5), occludin (OCLN) and ZO-1] concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 45 leukaemia patients. Serum ZO-1 was significantly higher (p < 0.05), but CSF ZO-1 levels were not significantly higher in the CNS leukaemia (CNSL) compared to the non-CNSL. The CNSL patients also had a lower CLDN5/ZO1 ratio in both serum and CSF than in non-CNSL patients (p < 0...
March 21, 2016: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972693/decreased-mrna-levels-of-cardiac-cx43-and-zo1-in-sudden-cardiac-death-related-to-coronary-atherosclerosis-a-pilot-study
#12
Ye Xue, Rui Zhao, Si-Hao Du, Dong Zhao, Dong-Ri Li, Jing-Tao Xu, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most frequent cause of sudden unexplained death in forensic practice. The most common cause of SCD is coronary artery disease related to coronary atherosclerosis. Previous study suggested the possible application of connexin 43 (Cx43) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO1) immunostaining in the early diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. However, there appears to be insufficient data with regard to their mRNA levels. The present study investigated the cardiac mRNA levels of Cx43 and ZO1, using forensic autopsy materials consisting of 41 control cases without any disease or structural abnormality of the heart (group 1), 32 deaths due to acute ischemic heart disease related to coronary atherosclerosis without apparent myocardial necrosis (group 2), and 29 traumatic deaths with coronary atherosclerosis (group 3)...
July 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26800519/expression-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-hotair-correlates-with-disease-progression-in-bladder-cancer-and-is-contained-in-bladder-cancer-patient-urinary-exosomes
#13
Claudia Berrondo, Jonathan Flax, Victor Kucherov, Aisha Siebert, Thomas Osinski, Alex Rosenberg, Christopher Fucile, Samuel Richheimer, Carla J Beckham
Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26790645/polyglucosan-molecules-induce-mitochondrial-impairment-and-apoptosis-in-germ-cells-without-affecting-the-integrity-and-functionality-of-sertoli-cells
#14
Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, Cynthia Tapia, Roxana González-Stegmaier, Ilona I Concha, Juan Carlos Slebe
Glycogen is the main storage form of glucose; however, the accumulation of glycogen-like glucose polymers can lead to degeneration and cellular death. Previously, we reported that the accumulation of glycogen in testis of transgenic animals overexpressing a constitutively active form of glycogen synthase enhances the apoptosis of pre-meiotic male germ cells and a complete disorganization of the seminiferous tubules. Here we sought to further identify the effects of glycogen storage in cells from the seminiferous tubules and the mechanism behind the pro-apoptotic activity induced by its accumulation...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26678661/microrna-203-modulates-the-radiation-sensitivity-of-human-malignant-glioma-cells
#15
Ji Hyun Chang, Yeo Hyun Hwang, David J Lee, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Hong-Gyun Wu, In Ah Kim
PURPOSE: We investigated whether miR-203 could modulate the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and which target gene(s) could be involved. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three human malignant glioma (MG) cell lines and normal human astrocytes were transfected with control microRNA, pre-miR-203, or antisense miR-203. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR), clonogenic assays, immunofluorescence, and invasion/migration assays were performed. To predict the target(s), bioinformatics analyses using microRNA target databases were performed...
February 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648843/tpa-deficiency-in-mice-leads-to-rearrangement-in-the-cerebrovascular-tree-and-cerebroventricular-malformations
#16
Christina Stefanitsch, Anna-Lisa E Lawrence, Anna Olverling, Ingrid Nilsson, Linda Fredriksson
The serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is used as a thrombolytic agent in the management of ischemic stroke, but concerns for hemorrhagic conversion greatly limits the number of patients that receive this treatment. It has been suggested that the bleeding complications associated with thrombolytic tPA may be due to unanticipated roles of tPA in the brain. Recent work has suggested tPA regulation of neurovascular barrier integrity, mediated via platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-C/PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) signaling, as a possible molecular mechanism affecting the outcome of stroke...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26583326/blue-light-induced-retinal-lesions-intraretinal-vascular-leakage-and-edema-formation-in-the-all-cone-mouse-retina
#17
P Geiger, M Barben, C Grimm, M Samardzija
Little is known about the mechanisms underlying macular degenerations, mainly for the scarcity of adequate experimental models to investigate cone cell death. Recently, we generated R91W;Nrl(-/-) double-mutant mice, which display a well-ordered all-cone retina with normal retinal vasculature and a strong photopic function that generates useful vision. Here we exposed R91W;Nrl(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice to toxic levels of blue light and analyzed their retinas at different time points post illumination (up to 10 days)...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293574/unraveling-the-role-of-huntingtin-in-breast-cancer-metastasis
#18
Morgane S Thion, John R McGuire, Cristovao M Sousa, Laetitia Fuhrmann, Julien Fitamant, Sophie Leboucher, Sophie Vacher, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Ivan Bièche, Agnès Bernet, Patrick Mehlen, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Sandrine Humbert
BACKGROUND: Huntingtin (HTT) is mutated in Huntington's disease but is ubiquitously expressed, and mutant HTT influences cancer progression. We investigated wild-type HTT function during breast cancer. METHODS: We analyzed HTT and ZO1 expression as well as the HTT phosphoserine 421-activated form (S421-P-HTT) in human breast cancer tissues by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We performed in vitro migration and invasion assays as well as in vivo tail vein injections of the metastatic 4T1 cells in BALB/c mice (n = 11 per group)...
October 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26124920/chronic-inflammation-is-it-the-driver-or-is-it-paving-the-road-for-malignant-transformation
#19
Kambiz Afrasiabi, Yi-Hong Zhou, Angela Fleischman
Chronic inflammation in well-defined mouse models such as Giα2 knock out mouse has been shown to trigger formation and expansion of hypoxic niches and also leads to up regulation of NFĸB, offering cells which have adapted their genetic machinery to hypoxia a unique survival advantage. These adapted cells have been shown to acquire stem cell-like capabilities as shown by up regulation of stem cell markers. Such long lived cells become permanent residents in sub mucosa and acquire a malignant phenotype from long-term exposure to noxious environmental agents due to a barrier defect secondary to down regulation of barrier proteins such as Zo1 and Occludin...
May 2015: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25996807/a-role-for-novel-lipid-interactions-in-the-dynamic-recruitment-of-snx27-to-the-t-cell-immune-synapse
#20
María Tello-Lafoz, Rajesh Ghai, Brett Collins, Isabel Mérida
SNX27 is a member of the sorting nexin family that plays an important role in the recycling of receptors from endosomes to the cell surface. In addition to a PX (Phox homology) domain that regulates its endosomal localization, SNX27 has a unique PDZ (Psd-95/Dlg/ZO1) domain and an atypical FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin) domain that both function to bind short peptide sequence motifs in the cytoplasmic domains of the cargo receptors. Using the T cell immune synapse (IS) as a model for polarized protein recycling, we recently identified an additional mechanism that enhances SNX27 localization to the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC)...
2014: Bioarchitecture
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