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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926541/major-unanswered-questions-in-the-clinical-gout-field
#1
Lisa K Stamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although gout is one of the most common forms of inflammatory arthritis, it has been relatively neglected until recently. Despite progress in many areas of pathophysiology and genetics of gout and the development of new urate lowering therapies, there remain a number of unanswered clinical questions. With the resurgence of interest in gout it is important to recognize key aspects of gout management that remain challenging and require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The unanswered clinical issues outlined in this review are basic aspects of gout management that clinicians treating people with gout face on a daily basis and include when urate lowering therapy should be commenced, the most appropriate target serum urate, use of prophylaxis when starting urate lowering therapy and the most appropriate urate lowering therapy, particularly for those with chronic kidney disease...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925487/a-novel-safer-conception-counseling-toolkit-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-in-kisumu-kenya
#2
Joelle Brown, Betty Njoroge, Eliud Akama, Brooke Breitnauer, Anna Leddy, Lynae Darbes, Richard Omondi, Okeoma Mmeje
Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics...
December 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925080/technological-innovation-for-peripheral-venipuncture-ultrasound-training
#3
Andrey Maciel de Oliveira, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach Danski, Edivane Pedrolo
Objective: to evaluate the training of nurses in the use of ultrasound in peripheral venipuncture. Method: descriptive research of quantitative approach performed with nurses as part of an analytical cross-sectional study in two patient care centers: an intensive care unit and an adult emergency center. Results: the results showed contributions of training for professional skill and visibility of nurses, requiring, however, more time for complete assimilation of this technological innovation as a safer clinical practice...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924321/a-unified-ligand-electronic-parameter-based-on-13-c-nmr-spectroscopy-of-n-heterocyclic-carbene-complexes
#4
Qiaoqiao Teng, Han Vinh Huynh
The properties and reactivities of transition metal complexes are rooted in the stereoelectronic properties of their ligands. While the bulk of a ligand can be easily evaluated and compared by the drawing of its Lewis structure, prediction on the electronic contributions is often less straightforward. Thus, several electronic parameters have been developed for the experimental evaluation of ligands throughout the years. This article accounts for the most recent one developed by the Huynh group, which employs (13)C NMR spectroscopy to determine ligand donor strengths using N-heterocyclic carbene complexes...
December 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923404/combined-femoral-and-sciatic-nerve-block-versus-femoral-and-local-infiltration-anesthesia-for-pain-control-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Jian Li, Xinlian Deng, Tao Jiang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the effect of combined femoral and sciatic nerve block (SNB) versus femoral and local infiltration anesthesia (LIA) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched from their inception to 15 June 2016. Articles comparing combined femoral and SNB versus femoral and LIA for pain control were eligible for this meta-analysis...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923196/environmental-preconditioning-rejuvenates-adult-stem-cells-proliferation-and-chondrogenic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Ming Pei
Adult stem cells are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. Unfortunately, due to donor age and ex vivo expansion, stem cell senescence becomes a huge hurdle for these cells to be used clinically. Increasing evidence indicates that environmental preconditioning is a powerful approach in promoting stem cells' ability to resist a harsh environment post-engraftment, such as hypoxia and inflammation. However, few reports organize and evaluate the literature regarding the rejuvenation effect of environmental preconditioning on stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation capacity, which are important variables for stem cell based tissue regeneration...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923155/user-preferences-and-willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-experimental-evidence-from-rural-tanzania
#7
Zachary Burt, Robert M Njee, Yolanda Mbatia, Veritas Msimbe, Joe Brown, Thomas F Clasen, Hamisi M Malebo, Isha Ray
Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol...
November 25, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922213/quantitative-maldi-ms-binding-assays-an-alternative-to-radiolabeling
#8
Maxime Rossato, Guillaume Miralles, Céline M'Kadmi, Mathieu Maingot, Muriel Amblard, Bernard Mouillac, Didier Gagne, Jean Martinez, Gilles Subra, Christine Enjalbal, Sonia Cantel
Radiolabeling of ligands is still the gold standard in the study of high-affinity receptor-ligand interactions. In an effort toward safer and simpler alternatives to the use of radioisotopes, we developed a quantitative and highly sensitive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method that relies on the use of chemically tagged ligands designed to be specifically detectable when present as traces in complex biological mixtures such as cellular lysates. This innovative technology allows easy, sensitive detection and accurate quantification of analytes at the sub-nanomolar level...
December 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921140/cocaine-administration-dose-dependently-increases-sexual-desire-and-decreases-condom-use-likelihood-the-role-of-delay-and-probability-discounting-in-connecting-cocaine-with-hiv
#9
Matthew W Johnson, Evan S Herrmann, Mary M Sweeney, Robert S LeComte, Patrick S Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Although cocaine use has been linked to sexual HIV risk behavior for decades, the direct effects of cocaine on sexual desire and sexual decision-making are unexamined. Research suggests delay discounting (devaluation of future outcomes) and probability discounting (devaluation of uncertain outcomes) play roles in condom use decisions. This study examined the effect of cocaine administration on sexual desire, hypothetical condom use, and discounting tasks. METHODS: This double-blind, within-subjects study compared the effects of 0, 125, and 250 mg/70 kg oral cocaine HCl in 12 cocaine users...
December 5, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921088/intra-uterine-extra-amniotic-versus-vaginal-misoprostol-for-termination-of-second-trimester-miscarriage-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Abo Bakr Abbas Mitwaly, Ahmed Mohamed Abbas, Mohamed Sayed Abdellah
BACKGROUND: Termination of pregnancy in the second trimester using prostaglandins has been shown to be safe and effective. Misoprostol has multiple routes of administration; oral, vaginal, buccal, rectal and sublingual. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of intrauterine extra-amniotic and vaginal misoprostol in a dose of 200 microgram every 4 hours for the termination of pregnancy in cases of second trimester miscarriage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized open labeled clinical trial included 180 women with missed miscarriage in gestational age between 13 and 24 wks...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920715/intra-arterial-mechanical-thrombectomy-an-effective-treatment-for-ischemic-stroke-caused-by-endocarditis
#11
Olafur Sveinsson, Lars Herrman, Staffan Holmin
Patients with stroke secondary to infectious endocarditis have a high in-hospital morbidity and mortality, with only one-third becoming functionally independent. Infective endocarditis is usually considered a relative contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. We describe 3 consecutive cases of acute middle cerebral artery occlusion due to infective endocarditis, who were all successfully treated with intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy using the Solitaire device. From this limited experience, mechanical thrombectomy could be used as an effective acute treatment for ischemic stroke in patients with infective endocarditis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920584/evaluation-management-and-prevention-of-lower-extremity-youth-ice-hockey-injuries
#12
REVIEW
Charles A Popkin, Brian M Schulz, Caroline N Park, Thomas S Bottiglieri, T Sean Lynch
Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919396/think-time-a-novel-approach-to-analysis-of-clinicians-behavior-after-reduction-of-drug-drug-interaction-alerts
#13
Richard Schreiber, Julia A Gregoire, Jacob E Shaha, Steven H Shaha
OBJECTIVES: Pharmacologic interaction alerting offers the potential for safer medication prescribing, but research reveals persistent concerns regarding alert fatigue. Research studies have tried various strategies to resolve this problem, with low overall success. We examined the effects of targeted alert reduction on clinician behavior in a resource constrained hospital. METHODS: A physician and a pharmacy informaticist reduced alert levels of several drug-drug interactions (DDI) that clinicians almost always overrode with approval from and knowledge of the medical staff...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919191/phytotherapeutic-approach-a-new-hope-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-induced-cellular-disorders-autophagic-and-apoptotic-cell-death
#14
Durgesh Nandini Das, Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prajna Paramita Naik, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Niharika Sinha, Sujit K Bhutia
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise the major class of cancer-causing chemicals and are ranked ninth among the chemical compounds threatening to humans. Moreover, interest in PAHs has been mainly due to their carcinogenic property, these compounds are genotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. Polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have the capacity to convert procarcinogens into carcinogens, which is an imperative factor contributing to individual susceptibility to cancer development...
December 5, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918113/genome-wide-dna-methylation-variations-upon-exposure-to-engineered-nanomaterials-and-their-implications-in-nanosafety-assessment
#15
Yue Chen, Ming Xu, Jie Zhang, Juan Ma, Ming Gao, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu, Sijin Liu
Sublethal exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) induces the alteration of various cellular processes due to DNA methylation changes. DNA methylation variations represent a more sensitive fingerprint analysis of the direct and indirect effects that may be overlooked by traditional toxicity assays, and an understanding of the structure-activity relationship of DNA methylation upon ENMs would open a new path for their safer design.
December 5, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917465/warm-reactive-immunoglobulin-g-autoantibodies-and-laboratory-testing-best-practices-review-of-the-literature-and-survey-of-current-practice
#16
REVIEW
Alyssa Ziman, Claudia Cohn, Patricia M Carey, Nancy M Dunbar, Mark K Fung, Andreas Greinacher, Simon Stanworth, Nancy M Heddle, Meghan Delaney
BACKGROUND: Warm-reactive autoantibodies (WAAs) are the most common cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and can also be present without clinically significant hemolysis. WAAs complicate immunohematological testing, yet there is no commonly accepted approach to laboratory evaluation and red blood cell (RBC) selection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched PubMed/Cochrane Central for articles that described testing methodology and blood selection for patients with WAAs...
December 4, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917268/effects-of-the-genium-knee-system-on-functional-level-stair-ambulation-perceptive-and-economic-outcomes-in-transfemoral-amputees
#17
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Matthew M Wernke, Stephanie L Carey, Rebecca M Miro, Derek J Lura, Bryce S Sutton
Compared to non-microprocessor knees, the C-Leg microprocessor knee (MPK) is bioenergentically and economically more efficient and safer for transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients. The Genium MPK has demonstrated improvements in perceived function, knee kinematics, and physical functional performance compared to C-Leg. Clinical and health economic analyses have not been conducted with the Genium knee system. The purpose of this study was to determine if laboratory determined benefits of Genium are detectable using common clinical assessments and if there are economic benefits associated with its use...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917016/the-portapotty-experiment-neoliberal-approaches-to-the-intertwined-epidemics-of-opioid-related-overdose-and-hiv-hcv-and-why-we-need-cultural-anthropologists-in-the-south-bronx
#18
Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Ric Curtis, Faustino Fuentes, Ed Manchess, Alexis Del Rio-Cumba, Alex S Bennett
The following report from the field focuses on the authors' collective efforts to operate an ad hoc safer injection facility (SIF) out of portapotties (portable toilets) in an area of the South Bronx that has consistently experienced some of the highest overdose morbidity and mortality rates in New York City over the past decade (New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2011, 2015, 2016). Safer injection facilities (also known as supervised injection facilities, drug consumption rooms, etc.) operating outside the US provide a legal, hygienic, and supervised environment for individuals to use drugs in order to minimize the likelihood of fatal overdose and the spread of blood-borne infections while reducing public injection...
December 2016: Dialectical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916736/the-history-of-the-pulmonary-diffusing-capacity-for-nitric-oxide-dl-no
#19
Colin Dr Borland, Hervé Guénard
The DL,NO (TL,NO) had its unexpected origins in the Paris "events" of 1968 and the unsuccessful efforts of the UK tobacco industry in the 1970's to create a "safer cigarette". Adoption of the technique has been slow due to the instability of NO in air, lack of standardisation of the technique and lack of agreement as to whether DL,NO is equal to or merely reflects membrane diffusing capacity (DM.) With the availability of inexpensive analysers, standardisation of the technique and publication of reference equations we believe that its worldwide use will increase...
December 1, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916421/protective-potential-of-averrhoa-bilimbi-fruits-in-ameliorating-the-hepatic-key-enzymes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Surya B Kurup, Mini S
BACK GROUND: Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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