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S Sini, D Deepa, S Harikrishnan, N Jayakumari
Although high-density lipoprotein is atheroprotective, it can become dysfunctional in chronic inflammatory conditions and increase cardiovascular risk. We previously demonstrated that HDL from subjects with documented coronary artery disease is dysfunctional and is pro-oxidant/proinflammatory in macrophages. Here we examined the influence of dysfunctional/proinflammatory HDL (piHDL) on lipid accumulation in human macrophages, in comparison to functional HDL (nHDL). Exposure of macrophages to piHDL, in contrast to nHDL, resulted in oxidative stress and marked uptake of lipids from piHDL, leading to the formation of foam cell phenotype as noted by oil red O staining with concomitant increase in total cellular cholesterol content...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ilaria Crivellari, Claudia Sticozzi, Giuseppe Belmonte, Ximena M Muresan, Franco Cervellati, Alessandra Pecorelli, Carlotta Cavicchio, Emanuela Maioli, Christos C Zouboulis, Mascia Benedusi, Carlo Cervellati, Giuseppe Valacchi
For its critical location, the skin represents the major interface between the body and the environment, therefore is one of the major biological barriers against the outdoor environmental stressors. Among the several oxidative environmental stressors, cigarette smoke (CS) has been associated with the development and worsening of many skin pathologies such as acne, dermatitis, delayed wound healing, aging and skin cancer. In our previous work we have demonstrated that CS is able to affect genes involved in skin cholesterol trafficking, among which SRB1, a receptor involved in the uptake of cholesterol from HDL, seems to be very susceptible to the oxidative stress induced by CS...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Takuya Kikuchi, Kana Orihara, Fusaka Oikawa, Song-Iee Han, Motoko Kuba, Kanako Okuda, Aoi Satoh, Yoshinori Osaki, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Takashi Matsuzaka, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Motohiro Sekiya, Naoya Yahagi, Hiroaki Suzuki, Hirohito Sone, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Nobuhiro Yamada, Hitoshi Shimano
OBJECTIVE: The transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by Creb3l3) is highly expressed in the liver and small intestine. Hepatic CREBH contributes to glucose and triglyceride metabolism by regulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) expression. However, the intestinal CREBH function remains unknown. METHODS: To investigate the influence of intestinal CREBH on cholesterol metabolism, we compared plasma, bile, fecal, and tissue cholesterol levels between wild-type (WT) mice and mice overexpressing active human CREBH mainly in the small intestine (CREBH Tg mice) under different dietary conditions...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Line S Bisgaard, Christina K Mogensen, Alexander Rosendahl, Helena Cucak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Salka E Rasmussen, Tanja X Pedersen
Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE-/- mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206(high)CD11c(low) profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Juwen C DuBois, A George Smulian
The Histoplasma capsulatum sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), Srb1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), leucine zipper DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that possess a unique tyrosine (Y) residue instead of an arginine (R) residue in the bHLH region. We have determined that Srb1 message levels increase in a time dependent manner during growth under oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). To further understand the role of Srb1 during infection and hypoxia, we silenced the gene encoding Srb1 using RNA interference (RNAi); characterized the resulting phenotype, determined its response to hypoxia, and its ability to cause disease within an infected host...
2016: PloS One
Sara E Thomas, Earl H Harrison
The xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, are dietary carotenoids that selectively accumulate in the macula of the eye providing protection against age-related macular degeneration. To reach the macula, carotenoids cross the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Xanthophylls and β-carotene mostly associate with HDL and LDL, respectively. HDL binds to cells via a scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1)-dependent mechanism, while LDL binds via the LDL receptor. Using an in-vitro, human RPE cell model (ARPE-19), we studied the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake into the RPE by evaluating kinetics of cell uptake when delivered in serum or isolated LDL or HDL...
October 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Ying Zhang, Bin Liao, Miaoling Li, Min Cheng, Yong Fu, Qing Liu, Qi Chen, Hongduan Liu, Yibing Fang, Gen Zhang, Fengxu Yu
AIM: The aim of this study was to explore whether transmembrane flow shear stress could regulate eNOS expression and mediate endothelial cell function via SR-B1 signaling transduction. METHODS: Parallel-plate flow chamber was used to impose laminar shear stress and evaluate the effect of shear stress upon human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of SR-B1 and eNOS at both RNA and protein levels was detected under different dynamic conditions...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
R Gardinal, G D Calomeni, N R B Cônsolo, C S Takiya, J E Freitas, J R Gandra, T H A Vendramini, H N Souza, F P Rennó
OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of coated slow-release urea on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, blood glucose and urea concentration (Exp 1), and average daily gain (ADG; Exp 2) of steers. METHODS: Exp 1: Eight ruminally fistulated steers [503±28.5 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into a d 4×4 Latin square design and assigned to treatments: control (CON), feed grade urea (U2), polymer-coated slow-release urea A (SRA2), and polymer-coated slow-release urea B (SRB2)...
January 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Steven Jones, Annie Boisvert, Andrada Naghi, Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Peter Greimel, Toshihide Kobayashi, Vassilios Papadopoulos, Martine Culty
Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that in-utero exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen Genistein (GEN), and plasticizer DEHP, induces short- and long-term alterations in testicular gene and protein expression different from individual exposures. These studies identified fetal and adult Leydig cells as sensitive targets for low dose endocrine disruptor (ED) mixtures. To further investigate the direct effects and mechanisms of toxicity of GEN and DEHP, MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells were exposed in-vitro to varying concentrations of GEN and MEHP, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP...
April 29, 2016: Toxicology
Mei Ha, Xie Guan, Li Wei, Peng Li, Min Yang, Changjiang Liu
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has reproductive toxicity and can affect male reproductive development. In order to clarify adverse effects of DEHP on testicular physiology and testosterone production, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed daily with DEHP by gavage for 30days; TM3 cells (mouse Leydig cell line) were treated with DEHP for 24h after pretreatment with vitamin C or U0126. Results indicated that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis was disturbed and serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels were decreased following DEHP exposure...
September 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ana V Banko, Ivana B Lazarevic, Miljan M Folic, Vojko B Djukic, Andja M Cirkovic, Danijela Z Karalic, Maja D Cupic, Tanja P Jovanovic
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, especially in the undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT, World Health Organization type III), which is the dominant histopathological type in high-risk areas. The major EBV oncogene is latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). LMP1 gene shows variability with different tumorigenic and immunogenic potentials. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) regulates progression of EBV-related tumors; however, the influence of EBNA1 sequence variability on tumor pathogenesis is controversial...
2016: PloS One
Colby S Shemesh, Rosie Z Yu, Hans J Gaus, Punit P Seth, Eric E Swayze, Frank C Bennett, Richard S Geary, Scott P Henry, Yanfeng Wang
To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) for ION-353382, an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1) mRNA, using alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), murinoglobulin double-knockout (DKO), and wild-type mice. Wild-type and DKO homozygous mice were administered a single subcutaneous injection of ION-353382 at 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg. Mice were sacrificed at 72 h with plasma and organs harvested. Both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine ASO exposure with real-time PCR for SRB1 expression...
August 2016: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Ying Zhang, Yanhong Si, Lei Zhai, Shoudong Guo, Jilong Zhao, Hui Sang, Xiaofei Pang, Xue Zhang, Anbin Chen, Shucun Qin
Previously, we found that Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (COT) decreases athero-susceptibility in lipoproteins and the aorta of guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet, and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the present study, we investigated the effect of COT in reducing lipid accumulation and promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in vivo and vitro. Healthy male mice were treated with high-fat diet alone, high-fat diet with COT (10.0 g/kg/d), or general fodder for 6 weeks. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, non-HDL-C, and (3)H-cholesterol in plasma, liver, bile, and feces were determined...
June 2016: Lipids
Anne-Marie Saillenfait, Dieynaba Ndiaye, Jean-Philippe Sabaté, Flavien Denis, Guillaume Antoine, Alain Robert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Delphine Moison
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered deltamethrin, at doses 0.1, 1, 5 or 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , or di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP) (250 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) ), by gavage, from gestational day 13 to 19. Maternal toxicity was observed at 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , as evidenced by transient clinical signs of neurotoxicity and reductions in body weight, body weight gain and corrected weight gain. Deltamethrin had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of post-implantation loss, fetal weight or anogenital distance in the male fetuses...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Kent R Wehmeier, William Kurban, Chandrikha Chandrasekharan, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Arshag D Mooradian, Michael J Haas
Hip fracture and myocardial infarction cause significant morbidity and mortality. In vivo studies raising serum cholesterol levels as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF α manifest bone loss and atherosclerotic vascular disease, suggesting that abnormalities of cholesterol transport may contribute to osteoporosis. We used the mouse osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) to investigate the effects of TNF α on the expression of cholesterol acceptor proteins such as apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and apolipoprotein E (apo E), as well as on the cholesterol transporters ATP-binding cassette-1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1), and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36)...
2016: Calcified Tissue International
Peer Ha Timmers, Diego A Suarez-Zuluaga, Minke van Rossem, Martijn Diender, Alfons Jm Stams, Caroline M Plugge
The occurrence of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and trace methane oxidation (TMO) was investigated in a freshwater natural gas source. Sediment samples were taken and analyzed for potential electron acceptors coupled to AOM. Long-term incubations with (13)C-labeled CH4 ((13)CH4) and different electron acceptors showed that both AOM and TMO occurred. In most conditions, (13)C-labeled CO2 ((13)CO2) simultaneously increased with methane formation, which is typical for TMO. In the presence of nitrate, neither methane formation nor methane oxidation occurred...
June 2016: ISME Journal
Akihiro Michihara, Mayuko Mido, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yurika Mizutani
A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Rolando Paciello, Richard A Urbanowicz, Gennaro Riccio, Emanuele Sasso, C Patrick McClure, Nicola Zambrano, Jonathan K Ball, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Claudia De Lorenzo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and liver carcinoma and new therapies based on novel targets are needed. The tight junction protein claudin 1 (CLDN-1) is essential for HCV cell entry and spread, and anti-CLDN-1 rat and mouse mAbs are safe and effective in preventing and treating HCV infection in a human liver chimeric mouse model. To accelerate translation of these observations into a novel approach to treat HCV infection and disease in humans, we screened a phage display library of human single-chain antibody fragments by using a panel of CLDN-1-positive and -negative cell lines and identified phage specifically binding to CLDN-1...
January 2016: Journal of General Virology
Juwen C DuBois, Rajamouli Pasula, Jessica E Dade, A George Smulian
Although there is growing understanding of the microenvironmental conditions fungal pathogens encounter as they colonize their host, nothing is known about Histoplasma capsulatum's response to hypoxia. Here we characterized hypoxia during murine histoplasmosis using an in vivo hypoxia detection agent, Hypoxyprobe-2 (HP-2); and analyzed H. capsulatum's transcriptional profile in response to in vitro hypoxia. Immunohistopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed distinct regions of hypoxia during infection...
January 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Giuseppe Valacchi, Claudia Sticozzi, Giuseppe Belmonte, Franco Cervellati, Alessandra Pecorelli, Cinzia Signorini, Silvia Leoncini, Lucia Ciccoli, Claudio De Felice, Floriana Della Ragione, Francesco Scalabri, Federico Marracino, Michele Madonna, Maurizio D'Esposito, Hayek Joussef, Franco Cervellati, Filosa Stefania
The modulation of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor B1 (SRB1) was evaluated in skin fibroblasts isolated from Rett syndrome (RTT) patients, a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting almost exclusively females associated in up to 95% of cases to de novo loss-of-function mutations in the X-chromosome-linked gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Patients showed an altered plasma lipid profile, while their skin fibroblasts showed a dramatic reduction in SRB1 (immunogold, Western blot and immunohistochemistry)...
October 2014: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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