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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049920/factors-associated-with-vision-related-quality-of-life-among-the-adult-population-living-in-nagorno-karabagh
#1
T Harutyunyan, A Giloyan, V Petrosyan
OBJECTIVES: Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems causing significant suffering, disability, loss of productivity, and diminishing quality of life for millions of people. This study explored the factors associated with the overall vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and its different domains in the adult population of Nagorno Karabakh and assessed the independent contribution of specific eye diseases to VRQoL. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
October 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049389/endemic-chronic-wasting-disease-causes-mule-deer-population-decline-in-wyoming
#2
Melia T DeVivo, David R Edmunds, Matthew J Kauffman, Brant A Schumaker, Justin Binfet, Terry J Kreeger, Bryan J Richards, Hermann M Schätzl, Todd E Cornish
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049387/quantifying-the-strength-of-quorum-sensing-crosstalk-within-microbial-communities
#3
Kalinga Pavan T Silva, Prithiviraj Chellamuthu, James Q Boedicker
In multispecies microbial communities, the exchange of signals such as acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) enables communication within and between species of Gram-negative bacteria. This process, commonly known as quorum sensing, aids in the regulation of genes crucial for the survival of species within heterogeneous populations of microbes. Although signal exchange was studied extensively in well-mixed environments, less is known about the consequences of crosstalk in spatially distributed mixtures of species...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049333/synchrotron-imaging-and-markov-chain-monte-carlo-reveal-tooth-mineralization-patterns
#4
Daniel R Green, Gregory M Green, Albert S Colman, Felicitas B Bidlack, Paul Tafforeau, Tanya M Smith
The progressive character of tooth formation records aspects of mammalian life history, diet, seasonal behavior and climate. Tooth mineralization occurs in two stages: secretion and maturation, which overlap to some degree. Despite decades of study, the spatial and temporal pattern of elemental incorporation during enamel mineralization remains poorly characterized. Here we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate mineralization patterns from an ontogenetic series of sheep molars (n = 45 M1s, 18 M2s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049267/variation-among-pediatric-orthopaedic-surgeons-when-treating-medial-epicondyle-fractures
#5
Meghan Hughes, Karan Dua, Nathan N O'Hara, Brian K Brighton, Theodore J Ganley, William L Hennrikus, Martin J Herman, Joshua E Hyman, J Todd Lawrence, Charles T Mehlman, Kenneth J Noonan, Norman Y Otsuka, Richard M Schwend, M Wade Shrader, Brian G Smith, Paul D Sponseller, Joshua M Abzug
BACKGROUND: Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049020/comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-prevalence-of-chronic-diseases-and-health-behaviors-for-small-geographic-areas-boston-validation-study-2013
#6
Yan Wang, James B Holt, Xingyou Zhang, Hua Lu, Snehal N Shah, Daniel P Dooley, Kevin A Matthews, Janet B Croft
INTRODUCTION: Local health authorities need small-area estimates for prevalence of chronic diseases and health behaviors for multiple purposes. We generated city-level and census-tract-level prevalence estimates of 27 measures for the 500 largest US cities. METHODS: To validate the methodology, we constructed multilevel logistic regressions to predict 10 selected health indicators among adults aged 18 years or older by using 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; we applied their predicted probabilities to census population data to generate city-level, neighborhood-level, and zip-code-level estimates for the city of Boston, Massachusetts...
October 19, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048974/strengthening-the-working-alliance-through-a-clinician-s-familiarity-with-the-12-step-approach
#7
Cory B Dennis, Brian D Roland, Barry M Loneck
BACKGROUND: The working alliance plays an important role in the substance use disorder treatment process. Many substance use disorder treatment providers incorporate the 12-Step approach to recovery into treatment. With the 12-Step approach known among many clients and clinicians, it may well factor into the therapeutic relationship. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how, from the perspective of clients, a clinician's level of familiarity with and in-session time spent on the 12-Step approach might affect the working alliance between clients and clinicians, including possible differences based on a clinician's recovery status...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048959/a-community-level-sodium-reduction-intervention-boston-2013-2015
#8
Carolyn J Brooks, Jessica Barrett, James Daly, Rebekka Lee, Nineequa Blanding, Anne McHugh, David Williams, Steven Gortmaker
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a community-level sodium-reduction intervention in Boston, Massachusetts. Reducing sodium in the food offerings of community settings may help reduce hypertension disparities. METHODS: We examined changes in the proportion of prepackaged foods with greater than 200 milligrams of sodium in 7 hospitals, 8 YMCAs, 4 community health centers, and 2 organizations serving homeless populations. Research assistants documented prepackaged items in cafeterias, kiosks, and vending machines before and after the intervention (2013-2015)...
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048726/trends-in-inequalities-in-child-stunting-in-south-asia
#9
Aditi Krishna, Iván Mejía-Guevara, Mark McGovern, Victor Aguayo, S V Subramanian
We analysed socio-economic inequalities in stunting in South Asia and investigated disparities associated with factors at the individual, caregiver, and household levels (poor dietary diversity, low maternal education, and household poverty). We used time-series analysis of data from 55,459 children ages 6-23 months from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan (1991-2014). Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, birth order, and place of residency, examined associations between stunting and multiple types of socio-economic disadvantage...
October 19, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#10
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048508/characterizing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-antiretroviral-therapy-interruption-and-resulting-disease-progression-using-population-level-data-in-british-columbia-1996-2015
#11
Linwei Wang, Jeong Eun Min, Xiao Zang, Paul Sereda, Richard P Harrigan, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Suboptimal retention is among the biggest challenges to realize the full benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to describe ART interruption patterns and identify determinants of disease progression while off ART in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: With population-level data on ART utilization and laboratory testing in British Columbia (1996-2015), we described the timing, frequency, and duration of ART interruptions (a gap of ≥90 days in ART dispensation records)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048419/a-cross-sectional-quantitative-analysis-of-the-natural-history-of-farber-disease-an-ultra-orphan-condition-with-rheumatologic-and-neurological-cardinal-disease-features
#12
Matthias Zielonka, Sven F Garbade, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Markus Ries
PurposeFarber disease (OMIM 22800) is an ultrarare progressive multisystemic neurodevelopmental storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid ceramidase (AC). Hard clinical end points for future clinical trials remain to be defined.MethodsWe quantitatively analyzed published cases with Farber disease (N = 96). The main outcome variables were survival and diagnostic delay. As a potential predictor of survival, the influence of residual AC enzyme activity was investigated. The analysis was performed in compliance with STROBE criteria...
October 19, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048350/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-on-environmental-noise-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Gordana Ristovska, Payam Dadvand
Introduction: Three recent systematic reviews suggested a relationship between noise exposure and adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the World Health Organization (WHO) noise guidelines and conduct an updated systematic review of environmental noise, specifically aircraft and road traffic noise and birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, being small for gestational age and congenital malformations. Materials and methods: We reviewed again all the papers on environmental noise and birth outcomes included in the previous three systematic reviews and conducted a systematic search on noise and birth outcomes to update previous reviews...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048301/beyond-the-big-five-the-role-of-extrinsic-life-aspirations-in-compulsive-buying
#14
José M Otero-López, Estíbaliz Villardefrancos Pol, Cristina Castro Bolaño
BACKGROUND: The integration of units of differing natures which are found in different parts of some multilevel personality models is one of the most thought-provoking paths in contemporary research. In the field of compulsive buying, little is known about the interrelationships between the comparative and stable units such as personality traits (basic tendencies or Level I units) and goals (a kind of middle-level unit) which are more related to motivational processes and intentions governing people’s behavior...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047374/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-the-subclinical-impairments-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study-in-central-south-china
#15
Ya-Qin Wang, Chang-Fa Wang, Ling Zhu, Hong Yuan, Liu-Xin Wu, Zhi-Heng Chen
BACKGROUND: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) is related to a low cardiovascular disease risk profile. This study aimed to investigate CVH metrics with both the biomarkers and markers of subclinical impairments of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in subjects from central south China. METHODS: The ideal CVH score (non-smoking status; ideal body mass index; regular physical activity; healthy diet; and an optimal serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose profile; 1 point for each; total score: 0-7) was collected from 3009 participants without a history of CVDs...
October 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047357/effects-of-inbreeding-and-other-systematic-effects-on-fertility-of-black-forest-draught-horses-in-germany
#16
Maarit Müller-Unterberg, Sandra Wallmann, Ottmar Distl
BACKGROUND: The Black Forest Draught horse (BFDH) is an endangered German coldblood breed with its origin in the area of the Black Forest in South Germany. In this retrospective study, the influence of the inbreeding coefficient on foaling rates was investigated using records from ten breeding seasons. Due to the small population size of BFDH, the level of inbreeding is increasing and may have an effect on foaling rates.The data of the present study included all coverings reported for 1024 BFDH mares in the years 2001-2009...
October 18, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047239/a-gender-specific-association-between-self-reported-snoring-and-hemoglobin-a1c-levels-in-a-general-population-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Young Hoon Lee, Sun Seog Kweon, Jin Su Choi, Hae Sung Nam, Kyeong Soo Park, Seong Woo Choi, Su Hyun Oh, Sun A Kim, Min Ho Shin
PURPOSE: We explored whether a gender difference was evident in terms of the associations of snoring with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels in a healthy population without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 2706 males and 4080 females who participated in the baseline survey of the Namwon Study. In terms of self-reported snoring frequency, participants were classified as non-snorers or occasional (1-3 days/week), frequent (4-6 days/week), or constant (7 days/week) snorers...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047234/lung-cancer-risk-and-residential-exposure-to-air-pollution-a-korean-population-based-case-control-study
#18
Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Hwan Cheol Kim, Chang Min Choi, Myung Hee Shin, Young Mog Shim, Jong Han Leem, Jeong Seon Ryu, Hae Seong Nam, Sung Min Park
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based case-control study covering 908 lung cancer patients and 908 controls selected from a random sample of people within each Korean province and matched according to age, sex, and smoking status. We developed land-use regression models to estimate annual residential exposure to particulate matter (PM₁₀) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) over a 20-year exposure period...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046782/assessment-of-the-potential-for-resistance-to-antimicrobial-violet-blue-light-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial violet-blue light in the region of 405 nm is emerging as an alternative technology for hospital decontamination and clinical treatment. The mechanism of action is the excitation of endogenous porphyrins within exposed microorganisms, resulting in ROS generation, oxidative damage and cell death. Although resistance to 405 nm light is not thought likely, little evidence has been published to support this. This study was designed to establish if there is potential for tolerance development, using the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as the model organism...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046662/shared-medical-appointments-may-be-effective-for-improving-clinical-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-type-2-diabetes-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Kirthi Menon, Aya Mousa, Maximilian Pj de Courten, Georgia Soldatos, Garry Egger, Barbora de Courten
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex chronic disease affecting over 400 million people worldwide. Managing T2DM and its associated complications in individual patient consultations poses substantial challenges to physicians due to limited time and resources and lack of access to multidisciplinary teams. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are consecutive medical consultations provided by a physician in a group setting, where integrated medical care and patient education are delivered in a single session...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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