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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449528/the-link-between-tuberculosis-and-body-mass-index
#1
EDITORIAL
Aaron R Casha, Marco Scarci
The evidence behind the strong correlation between reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) and low body mass index (BMI) was reviewed. This strong association between TB and BMI occurred only with pulmonary TB and not extra-pulmonary TB, indicating that a low-BMI body build may in some way predispose to TB reactivation in the lungs. A possible explanation may be the congenital apical lung bullae that occur in 15% of the population and are likely to enlarge in young low-BMI males since biomechanical modeling of pleural stress has shown a massive 40x increase in apical pleural stress in low antero-posterior (AP) diameter chests associated with a low-BMI build...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#2
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449115/estimation-of-state-level-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-us-states-and-district-of-columbia-2010
#3
Eli S Rosenberg, Eric W Hall, Patrick S Sullivan, Travis H Sanchez, Kimberly A Workowski, John W Ward, Deborah Holtzman
Background.: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous analyses of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated approximately 3.6 million noninstitutionalized persons with antibody to HCV (anti-HCV). However, state-level prevalence remains less understood and cannot be estimated reliably from NHANES alone. Methods.: We used 3 publicly available government data sources to estimate anti-HCV prevalence in each US state among noninstitutionalized persons aged ≥18 years...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449027/lipoprotein-a-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-european-population-results-from-the-biomarcare-consortium
#4
Christoph Waldeyer, Nataliya Makarova, Tanja Zeller, Renate B Schnabel, Fabian J Brunner, Torben Jørgensen, Allan Linneberg, Teemu Niiranen, Veikko Salomaa, Pekka Jousilahti, John Yarnell, Marco M Ferrario, Giovanni Veronesi, Paolo Brambilla, Stefano G Signorini, Licia Iacoviello, Simona Costanzo, Simona Giampaoli, Luigi Palmieri, Christa Meisinger, Barbara Thorand, Frank Kee, Wolfgang Koenig, Francisco Ojeda, Jukka Kontto, Ulf Landmesser, Kari Kuulasmaa, Stefan Blankenberg
Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we analysed data of 56 804 participants from 7 prospective population-based cohorts across Europe with a maximum follow-up of 24 years...
April 24, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448891/plasma-ferritin-c-reactive-protein-and-risk-of-incident-type-2-diabetes-in-singapore-chinese-men-and-women
#5
Ye-Li Wang, Woon-Puay Koh, Jian-Min Yuan, An Pan
AIMS: Ferritin is postulated to be involved in diabetogenesis as a marker of iron stores. We prospectively examined the association between ferritin levels and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in a Chinese population. METHODS: Plasma ferritin concentrations were assayed among 485 diabetes cases and 485 controls nested within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Cases and controls were matched on age, gender, date of blood collection, and dialect group. Participants were free of diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at blood collection (1999-2004)...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448843/prediction-of-pm2-5-along-urban-highway-corridor-under-mixed-traffic-conditions-using-caline4-model
#6
Rajni Dhyani, Niraj Sharma, Animesh Kumar Maity
The present study deals with spatial-temporal distribution of PM2.5 along a highly trafficked national highway corridor (NH-2) in Delhi, India. Population residing in areas near roads and highways of high vehicular activities are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 resulting in various health issues. The spatial extent of PM2.5 has been assessed with the help of CALINE4 model. Various input parameters of the model were estimated and used to predict PM2.5 concentration along the selected highway corridor. The results indicated that there are many factors involved which affects the prediction of PM2...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448618/rs10499194-polymorphism-in-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-inducible-protein-3-tnfaip3-gene-is-associated-with-type-1-autoimmune-hepatitis-risk-in-chinese-han-population
#7
Enbin Xu, Hailian Cao, Liming Lin, Honglong Liu
Previous studies have found that the polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) were associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the role of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-1) remained unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the association of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms with AIH-1 risk in a Chinese Han population. The TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used to determine the distribution of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in 432 AIH-1 patients and 500 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448576/management-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-at-a-primary-health-clinic-in-the-high-burden-context-of-karachi-pakistan
#8
Yuely A Capileno, Rafael Van den Bergh, Dmytro Donchunk, Sven Gudmund Hinderaker, Saeed Hamid, Rosa Auat, Gul Ghuttai Khalid, Razia Fatima, Aashifa Yaqoob, Catherine Van Overloop
BACKGROUND: The burden of hepatitis C (HCV) infection in Pakistan is among the highest in the world, with a reported national HCV prevalence of 6.7% in 2014. In specific populations, such as in urban communities in Karachi, the prevalence is suspected to be higher. Interferon-free treatment for chronic HCV infection (CHC) could allow scale up, simplification and decentralization of treatment to such communities. We present an interim analysis over the course of February-December 2015 of an interferon-free, decentralised CHC programme in the community clinic in Machar Colony, Karachi, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448497/examination-of-an-ehealth-literacy-scale-and-a-health-literacy-scale-in-a-population-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-risk-rasch-analyses
#9
Sarah S Richtering, Rebecca Morris, Sze-Ee Soh, Anna Barker, Fiona Bampi, Lis Neubeck, Genevieve Coorey, John Mulley, John Chalmers, Tim Usherwood, David Peiris, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Electronic health (eHealth) strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448491/relevant-units-of-analysis-for-applied-and-basic-research-dealing-with-neglected-transmissible-diseases-the-predominant-clonal-evolution-model-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#10
REVIEW
Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco J Ayala
The predominant clonal evolution (PCE) model seeks to formulate a common population genetics framework for all micropathogens (namely, parasitic protozoa, fungi and yeasts, bacteria, and viruses). It relies on a definition of clonality that is only based on population structure features (namely, strongly restrained genetic recombination). Its clear-cut properties make it of strong interest for applied and basic research, since it permits the definition of stable, clearly delimited units of analysis below the species level: clonal genotypes and discrete genetic subdivisions ("near-clades")...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448490/the-value-of-daily-platelet-counts-for-predicting-dengue-shock-syndrome-results-from-a-prospective-observational-study-of-2301-vietnamese-children-with-dengue
#11
Phung Khanh Lam, Tran Van Ngoc, Truong Thi Thu Thuy, Nguyen Thi Hong Van, Tran Thi Nhu Thuy, Dong Thi Hoai Tam, Nguyen Minh Dung, Nguyen Thi Hanh Tien, Nguyen Tan Thanh Kieu, Cameron Simmons, Bridget Wills, Marcel Wolbers
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection to affect humans. Although it usually manifests as a self-limited febrile illness, complications may occur as the fever subsides. A systemic vascular leak syndrome that sometimes progresses to life-threatening hypovolaemic shock is the most serious complication seen in children, typically accompanied by haemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia. Robust evidence on risk factors, especially features present early in the illness course, for progression to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is lacking...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#12
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448057/mixed-primary-cultures-of-murine-small-intestine-intended-for-the-study-of-gut-hormone-secretion-and-live-cell-imaging-of-enteroendocrine-cells
#13
Arianna Psichas, Gwen Tolhurst, Cheryl A Brighton, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
The gut is the largest endocrine organ of the body, with hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells located along the length of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Despite their physiological importance, enteroendocrine cells represent only a small fraction of the epithelial cell population and in the past, their characterization has presented a considerable challenge resulting in a reliance on cell line models. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of mixed murine small intestinal cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447918/no-relation-between-biomarkers-at-age-47-49-and-aortic-diameter-after-14-19-years-of-follow-up-a-population-based-study
#14
Soumia Taimour, Moncef Zarrouk, Jan Holst, Olle Melander, Gunar Engström, J Gustav Smith, Anders Gottsäter
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers reflecting diverse pathophysiological pathways may play an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (aortic diameter ≥30 mm, AAA), levels of many biomarkers are elevated and correlated to aortic diameter among 65-year-old men undergoing ultrasound (US) screening for AAA. PROBANDS AND METHODS: To evaluate potential relationships between biomarkers and aortic dilatation after long-term follow-up, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), proneurotensin (PNT), copeptin (CPT), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase 2 (Lp-PLA2), cystatin C (Cyst C), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were measured in 117 subjects (114 [97 %] men) aged 47-49 in a prospective population-based cohort study, and related to aortic diameter at US examination of the aorta after 14-19 years of follow-up...
April 27, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447514/neuroprotective-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-cuprizone-induced-acute-demyelination-through-limitation-of-microgliosis-adjustment-of-cxcl12-il-17-il-11-axis-and-restriction-of-mature-oligodendrocytes-apoptosis
#15
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Zakiyeh Tashakkor, Nooshin Taki, Samira Moradi Kouchi, Ali Mostafaie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
CONTEXT: Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenol antioxidant with various therapeutic activities. However, the efficacy of EA has not been examined in neuropathologic conditions. OBJECTIVE: In vivo neuroprotective effects of EA on cuprizone (cup)-induced demyelination were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0.2% cup for 4 weeks to induce oligodendrocytes (OLGs) depletion predominantly in the corpus callosum (CC)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447480/predictive-and-explanatory-factors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-people-with-adequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#16
Nahid Hashemi Madani, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Mohammad E Khamseh, Mojtaba Malek, Ameneh Ebrahimi Valojerdi
Aims To explore the predictive and explanatory factors on the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the impact of visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of risk factors on incident cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes with no history of prior cardiovascular disease. Methods We performed a historical cohort study (2008-2011) on 481 people with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed at baseline and repeatedly during follow-up. The predictive analysis included the variables at enrollment, and explanatory analyses were based on mean of the variables measured repeatedly...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446738/work-activity-and-phenylalanine-levels-in-a-population-of-young-adults-with-classic-pku
#17
Michele Augusto Riva, Fabiana Madotto, Massimo Turato, Elisabetta Salvatici, Silvia Indovina, Marcello Giovannini, Enrica Riva, Giancarlo Cesana
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased blood concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the metabolic compliance of adult patients affected by classic PKU and the characteristics of their present and past occupations. METHODS: The study population consisted of working adults, affected by classic PKU, and following a dietary treatment...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446707/deterministic-versus-stochastic-model-of-reprogramming-new-evidence-from-cellular-barcoding-technique
#18
Anastasia M Yunusova, Veniamin S Fishman, Gennady V Vasiliev, Nariman R Battulin
Factor-mediated reprogramming of somatic cells towards pluripotency is a low-efficiency process during which only small subsets of cells are successfully reprogrammed. Previous analyses of the determinants of the reprogramming potential are based on average measurements across a large population of cells or on monitoring a relatively small number of single cells with live imaging. Here, we applied lentiviral genetic barcoding, a powerful tool enabling the identification of familiar relationships in thousands of cells...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446501/dietary-long-chain-fatty-acids-and-carbohydrate-biomarker-evaluation-in-a-controlled-feeding-study-in-participants-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-cohort
#19
Xiaoling Song, Ying Huang, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley F Tinker, Mara Z Vitolins, Ross L Prentice, Johanna W Lampe
Background: Biomarkers of macronutrient intake are lacking. Controlled human feeding studies that preserve the normal variation in nutrient and food consumption are necessary for the development and validation of robust nutritional biomarkers.Objective: We aimed to assess the utility of serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarkers of dietary intakes of fatty acids, total fat, and carbohydrate.Design: We used an individualized controlled feeding study in which 153 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were provided with a 2-wk controlled diet that mimicked each individual's habitual food intake...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446227/pattern-analysis-of-schistosomiasis-prevalence-by-exploring-predictive-modeling-in-jiangling-county-hubei-province-p-r-china
#20
Shang Xia, Jing-Bo Xue, Xia Zhang, He-Hua Hu, Eniola Michael Abe, David Rollinson, Robert Bergquist, Yibiao Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of schistosomiasis remains a key public health issue in China. Jiangling County in Hubei Province is a typical lake and marshland endemic area. The pattern analysis of schistosomiasis prevalence in Jiangling County is of significant importance for promoting schistosomiasis surveillance and control in the similar endemic areas. METHODS: The dataset was constructed based on the annual schistosomiasis surveillance as well the socio-economic data in Jiangling County covering the years from 2009 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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