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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222381/domain-specific-and-domain-general-processes-underlying-metacognitive-judgments
#1
Lisa M Fitzgerald, Mahnaz Arvaneh, Paul M Dockree
Metacognition and self-awareness are commonly assumed to operate as global capacities. However, there have been few attempts to test this assumption across multiple cognitive domains and metacognitive evaluations. Here, we assessed the covariance between "online" metacognitive processes, as measured by decision confidence judgments in the domains of perception and memory, and error awareness in the domain of attention to action. Previous research investigating metacognition across task domains have not matched stimulus characteristics across tasks raising the possibility that any differences in metacognitive accuracy may be influenced by local task properties...
February 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#2
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222193/screening-for-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents-at-school-new-validity-evidences-on-the-short-form-of-the-reynolds-depression-scale
#3
Javier Ortuño-Sierra, Rebeca Aritio-Solana, Félix Inchausti, Edurne Chocarro de Luis, Beatriz Lucas Molina, Alicia Pérez de Albéniz, Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
The main purpose of the present study was to assess the depressive symptomatology and to gather new validity evidences of the Reynolds Depression Scale-Short form (RADS-SF) in a representative sample of youths. The sample consisted of 2914 adolescents with a mean age of 15.85 years (SD = 1.68). We calculated the descriptive statistics and internal consistency of the RADS-SF scores. Also, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) at the item level and successive multigroup CFAs to test measurement invariance, were conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222115/do-family-and-neighbourhood-matter-in-secondary-school-completion-a-multilevel-study-of-determinants-and-their-interactions-in-a-life-course-perspective
#4
Arnhild Myhr, Monica Lillefjell, Geir Arild Espnes, Thomas Halvorsen
BACKGROUND: Completion of secondary education is important for individuals' future health and health behaviour. The fundamental purpose of this study is to investigate the variation and clustering of school completion in families and neighbourhoods. Secondly, we aim to examine the impact of individuals' family structure and neighbourhood of residence and examine to what extent parental education level moderates these associations. METHODS: Longitudinal register data for 30% of the entire Norwegian population aged 21-27 years in 2010 (N = 107,003) was extracted from Statistic Norway´s event database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222057/effects-of-toe-in-and-wider-step-width-in-stair-ascent-with-different-knee-alignments
#5
Hunter J Bennett, Songning Zhang, Guangping Shen, Joshua T Weinhandl, Max R Paquette, Jeffrey Reinbolt, Dawn P Coe
PURPOSE: Toe-in (TI) and toe-in with wider step width (TIW) gait modifications have successfully reduced the internal peak knee adduction moment (KAM) during level walking and stair ascent tasks, respectively, for healthy and knee osteoarthritis populations. However, the concurrent effects of these modifications have not previously been combined to reduce both the first and the second peak KAM during stair ascent or tested among the different knee alignment groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine effects of TI and TIW gait modifications on knee biomechanics during stair ascent in individuals with varus, neutral, and valgus knee alignments...
March 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222015/plasma-levels-of-endothelin-1-and-renal-function-among-young-and-healthy-adults
#6
Andreas Fischer, Matthias Bossard, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Peter Egli, Carolin Cordewener, Joel Estis, John Todd, Martin Risch, Lorenz Risch, David Conen
BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictive and pro-inflammatory peptide, is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma ET-1 levels and renal function among young and healthy adults. METHODS: Individuals aged 25-41 years were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. Main exclusion criteria were established kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and a body mass index>35 kg/m2...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221975/fate-of-listeria-monocytogenes-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-and-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-gfp-in-ready-to-eat-salad-during-cold-storage-what-is-the-risk-to-consumers
#7
Karin Söderqvist, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Ivar Vågsholm, Lise-Lotte Fernström, Beatrix Alsanius, Lars Mogren, Sofia Boqvist
In this study, we investigated the fate of Listeria monocytogenes , pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica , and Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp(+) inoculated in low numbers into ready-to-eat baby spinach and mixed-ingredient salad (baby spinach with chicken meat). Samples were stored at recommended maximum refrigerator temperature (8°C in Sweden) or at an abuse temperature (15°C) for up to 7 days. Mixed-ingredient salad supported considerable growth when stored at 15°C during shelf life (3 days), with populations of L...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221910/influence-of-thawing-methods-and-storage-temperatures-on-bacterial-diversity-growth-kinetics-and-biogenic-amine-development-in-atlantic-mackerel
#8
S Onyango, H Palmadottir, T Tómason, V T Marteinsson, P M K Njage, E Reynisson
Limited knowledge is currently available on the influence of fish thawing and subsequent storage conditions on bacterial growth kinetics, succession, and diversity alongside the production of biogenic amines. This study aimed to address these factors during the thawing and subsequent storage of mackerel. Thawing was either done fast in 18°C water for 2 h or slowly at 30°C overnight. Subsequent storage was at 30°C (ambient) for 36 h and 2 to 5°C (refrigerated) for 12 days. The cultivation methods used were total viable counts, hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria, and Pseudomonas ...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221830/from-individual-to-group-territoriality-competitive-environments-promote-the-evolution-of-sociality
#9
Markus Port, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
In many animal species individuals compete for the sole possession of a breeding territory, whereas in other species communal territories are shared among same-sex conspecifics. Under what conditions does natural selection favor the evolution of individual territoriality, and under what conditions does it favor the evolution of sociality? We develop a self-consistent game-theoretic model that allows for feedbacks between evolutionary and population dynamics. In this model, nonresident floaters can chose between three strategies: they can wait for a territory vacancy to arise, they can try to forcefully take over an already-occupied territory, or they can share a territory with an established resident...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221750/shell-dependent-photoluminescence-studies-provide-mechanistic-insights-into-the-off-grey-on-transitions-of-blinking-quantum-dots
#10
Feng Gao, Pooja Bajwa, Anh Nguyen, Colin D Heyes
The majority of quantum dot (QD) blinking studies have used a model of switching between two distinct fluorescence intensity levels, "on" and "off". However, a distinct intermediate intensity level has been identified in some recent reports - a so-called "grey" or "dim" state, which has brought this binary model into question. While this grey state has been proposed to result from the formation of a trion, it is still unclear under which conditions it is present in a QD. By performing shell-dependent blinking studies on CdSe QDs, we report that the populations of the grey state and the on state are strongly dependent on both the shell material and its thickness...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#11
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220963/the-association-between-gender-ethnicity-and-suicidality-among-vocational-students-in-israel
#12
Joy Benatov, Ora Nakash, Shai Chen-Gal, Anat Brunstein Klomek
Gender and ethnicity are significant factors when evaluating suicidal risk, especially among ethnically diverse populations. In the current study we explored the association between gender, ethnicity, and suicide ideation and attempts among Arab and Jewish vocational education and training high school students in Israel. Students (N = 3,554) completed a self-report survey evaluating suicide ideation and attempts, depression, anxiety, somatization, and sense of belonging. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling indicated that female Arab adolescents had elevated levels of suicide ideation, higher rates of suicide attempts, and greater psychological distress than Arab males and Jewish students...
February 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220555/population-pharmacokinetic-characterization-of-bay-81-8973-a-full-length-recombinant-factor-viii-lessons-learned-importance-of-including-samples-with-factor-viii-levels-below-the-quantitation-limit
#13
D Garmann, S McLeay, A Shah, P Vis, M Maas Enriquez, B A Ploeger
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of BAY 81-8973, a full-length, unmodified, recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII), were evaluated in the LEOPOLD trials. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a population PK model based on pooled data from the LEOPOLD trials and to investigate the importance of including samples with FVIII levels below the limit of quantitation (BLQ) to estimate half-life. METHODS: The analysis included 1535 PK observations (measured by the chromogenic assay) from 183 male patients with haemophilia A aged 1-61 years from the 3 LEOPOLD trials...
February 20, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220487/sex-differences-and-allee-effects-shape-the-dynamics-of-sex-structured-invasions
#14
Allison K Shaw, Hanna Kokko, Michael G Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220142/absence-of-an-n-linked-glycosylation-motif-in-the-glycoprotein-of-the-live-attenuated-argentine-hemorrhagic-fever-vaccine-candid-1-results-in-its-improper-processing-and-reduced-surface-expression
#15
John T Manning, Alexey V Seregin, Nadezhda E Yun, Takaaki Koma, Cheng Huang, José Barral, Juan C de la Torre, Slobodan Paessler
Junin virus (JUNV), a highly pathogenic New World arenavirus, is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The live-attenuated Candid #1 (Can) strain currently serves as a vaccine for at-risk populations. We have previously shown that the Can glycoprotein (GPC) gene is the primary gene responsible for attenuation in a guinea pig model of AHF. However, the mechanisms through which the GPC contributes to the attenuation of the Can strain remain unknown. A more complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation and immunogenicity of the Can strain will potentially allow for the rational design of additional safe and novel vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219714/relationship-between-physical-activity-and-hip-pain-in-persons-with-and-without-cam-or-pincer-morphology-a-population-based-case-control-study
#16
Jacek A Kopec, Jolanda Cibere, Linda C Li, Charlie Zhang, Morgan Barber, Hong Qian, Hubert Wong, Gavin Steininger, Helen Prlic, Jacqueline Simatovic, Charles Ratzlaff, Eric C Sayre, Joanna Ye, Bruce B Forster, John M Esdaile
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine if physical activity (PA) is a risk factor for persistent or recurrent hip pain in young and middle-aged persons with and without radiographic findings of cam or pincer morphology (CPM). METHODS: A population sample of persons aged 20-49 with (cases) and without (controls) hip pain in Metro Vancouver, Canada, was selected through random digit dialing. Self-reported PA was expressed as average energy expenditure (MET-hours) per year, over lifetime...
February 17, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219439/rnas-competing-for-micrornas-mutually-influence-their-fluctuations-in-a-highly-non-linear-microrna-dependent-manner-in-single-cells
#17
Carla Bosia, Francesco Sgrò, Laura Conti, Carlo Baldassi, Davide Brusa, Federica Cavallo, Ferdinando Di Cunto, Emilia Turco, Andrea Pagnani, Riccardo Zecchina
BACKGROUND: Distinct RNA species may compete for binding to microRNAs (miRNAs). This competition creates an indirect interaction between miRNA targets, which behave as miRNA sponges and eventually influence each other's expression levels. Theoretical predictions suggest that not only the mean expression levels of targets but also the fluctuations around the means are coupled through miRNAs. This may result in striking effects on a broad range of cellular processes, such as cell differentiation and proliferation...
February 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219341/integrating-genetic-maps-in-bambara-groundnut-vigna-subterranea-l-verdc-and-their-syntenic-relationships-among-closely-related-legumes
#18
Wai Kuan Ho, Hui Hui Chai, Presidor Kendabie, Nariman Salih Ahmad, Jaeyres Jani, Festo Massawe, Andrzej Kilian, Sean Mayes
BACKGROUND: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] is an indigenous legume crop grown mainly in subsistence and small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa for its nutritious seeds and its tolerance to drought and poor soils. Given that the lack of ex ante sequence is often a bottleneck in marker-assisted crop breeding for minor and underutilised crops, we demonstrate the use of limited genetic information and resources developed within species, but linked to the well characterised common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence and the partially annotated closely related species; adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and mung bean (Vigna radiata)...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219322/a-screening-program-to-test-and-treat-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection-cost-utility-analysis-by-age-sex-and-ethnicity
#19
Andrea M Teng, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Nisha Nair, Melissa McLeod, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends all countries consider screening for H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer. We therefore aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a H. pylori serology-based screening program in New Zealand, a country that includes population groups with relatively high gastric cancer rates. METHODS: A Markov model was developed using life-tables and morbidity data from a national burden of disease study. The modelled screening program reduced the incidence of non-cardia gastric cancer attributable to H...
February 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219238/public-health-risk-of-arsenic-species-in-chicken-tissues-from-live-poultry-markets-of-guangdong-province-china
#20
Yuanan Hu, Wenfeng Zhang, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Arsenic-based feed additives, such as roxarsone (ROX), are still legally and widely used in food animal production in many countries. This study was conducted to systematically characterize the content and speciation of arsenic in chicken tissues from live poultry markets and in commercial chicken feeds in Guangdong, a major poultry production and consumption province in China, and to assess the corresponding public health risk. The total arsenic contents in the commercial feeds could be modeled as a mixture of two log-normal distributions (geometric means: 0...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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