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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#1
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538645/increased-mortality-in-trauma-patients-who-develop-post-intubation-hypotension
#2
Robert S Green, Michael B Butler, Mete Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Post-intubation hypotension (PIH) is common and associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patient populations requiring emergency endotracheal intubation (ETI). The importance of PIH in the trauma population remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PIH in trauma patients and assess the association of PIH with patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective case series of adult (≥16 years) patients who were intubated on arrival at a tertiary trauma center in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada between 2000 and 2015...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538249/norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-squelching-the-wildfire
#3
Ann Fisher, Louise M Dembry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal outbreaks in the healthcare setting cause increased morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Optimization of infection prevention measures can be a challenge in healthcare settings. This review describes new literature that may change the traditional infection prevention approach to such outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: Asymptomatic carriers of both norovirus and Clostridium difficile can pose risk of transmission to others and the environment...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538083/preoperative-opioid-use-a-risk-factor-for-poor-return-to-work-status-after-single-level-cervical-fusion-for-radiculopathy-in-a-workers-compensation-setting
#4
Mhamad Faour, Joshua T Anderson, Arnold R Haas, Rick Percy, Stephen T Woods, Uri M Ahn, Nicholas U Ahn
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case-control study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are: (1) How preoperative opioid use impacts RTW status after single-level cervical fusion for radiculopathy? and (2) What are other postsurgical outcomes affected by preoperative opioid use? SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Opioid use has increased significantly in the past decade. The use of opioids has a drastic impact on workers' compensation population, an at-risk cohort for poorer surgical and functional outcomes than the general population...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537993/measuring-compensation-in-neurodegeneration-using-mri
#5
Sarah Gregory, Jeffrey D Long, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite signs of cortical and subcortical loss, patients with prodromal and early-stage neurodegenerative disease are able to perform at a level comparable to the normal population. It is presumed that the onset of compensatory processes, that is changes in brain activation within a function-specific network or in the recruitment of a region outside of the task-network, underlies this maintenance of normal performance. However, in most studies to date, increased brain activity is not correlated with indices of both disease and performance and what appears to be compensation could simply be a symptom of neurodegeneration...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535167/invited-commentary-heterogeneity-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-populations-recognition-and-seminal-explanations
#6
Aaron R Folsom
Kuller and Reisler's 1971 publication (Am J Epidemiol. 1971;93(1):1-9) was an important contribution to the understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases, particularly stroke. The authors synthesized pathological and risk-factor evidence to theorize why rates of various subtypes of arterial disease might vary across populations. Specifically, they suggested that different population levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose led to population differences in the location and extent of arterial disease...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534885/modeling-combination-hcv-prevention-among-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#7
Natasha K Martin, Britt Skaathun, Peter Vickerman, David Stuart
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534715/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-related-to-child-safety-restraint-in-citizens-of-shenzhen-municipality-china-and-the-associations-between-these-factors
#8
Shengyuan Liu, Haibin Zhou, Jianping Ma, Changyi Wang, Zhongwei Chen, Sihan Chen, Yingzhou Yang, Xiaoli Liu, Ji Peng, Leilei Duan, Xiao Deng
Objective-A child safety restraint (CSR) is an effective measure to reduce the risk of child injury from traffic collisions. This study aims to explore knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding CSR in a Chinese population. Methods-A cross-sectional survey regarding CSR use was conducted from April to May 2014 in Shenzhen Municipality. Respondents were parents who had at least one child 0 to 6 years of age and simultaneously owned a car. These parents provided a self-report of demographic characteristics as well as information about their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward CSR use...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534080/pathologic-complete-response-rates-after-neoadjuvant-treatment-in-rectal-cancer-an-analysis-of-the-national-cancer-database
#9
Patrick D Lorimer, Benjamin M Motz, Russell C Kirks, Danielle M Boselli, Kendall K Walsh, Roshan S Prabhu, Joshua S Hill, Jonathan C Salo
BACKGROUND: Pathologic complete response (pCR) of rectal cancer following neoadjuvant therapy is associated with decreased local recurrence and increased overall survival. This study utilizes a national dataset to identify predictors of pCR in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer (2004-2014) who underwent neoadjuvant therapy and surgical resection. Unadjusted associations were assessed using rank-sum tests and χ (2) tests where appropriate...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534004/integrating-health-and-transportation-in-nashville-tennessee-usa-from-policy-to-projects
#10
Leslie A Meehan, Geoffrey P Whitfield
The Nashville Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) is among the first MPOs in the United States to recognize the interplay of transportation and public health, particularly regarding physical activity, air pollution, and traffic crashes. The Nashville MPO has taken a multifaceted approach to simultaneously improve the transportation system, quality of life, and health status of the region's population. The purpose of this paper is to describe the multiple programs and projects that the MPO has undertaken to this end, so that other cities might learn from Nashville's example...
March 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533952/quantifying-climate-change-impacts-emphasises-the-importance-of-managing-regional-threats-in-the-endangered-yellow-eyed-penguin
#11
Thomas Mattern, Stefan Meyer, Ursula Ellenberg, David M Houston, John T Darby, Melanie Young, Yolanda van Heezik, Philip J Seddon
Climate change is a global issue with effects that are difficult to manage at a regional scale. Yet more often than not climate factors are just some of multiple stressors affecting species on a population level. Non-climatic factors-especially those of anthropogenic origins-may play equally important roles with regard to impacts on species and are often more feasible to address. Here we assess the influence of climate change on population trends of the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) over the last 30 years, using a Bayesian model...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#12
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533899/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-an-endangered-desert-shrub-and-the-implications-for-conservation
#13
Zhihao Su, Bryce A Richardson, Li Zhuo, Xiaolong Jiang, Wenjun Li, Xiaoshan Kang
Population genetic information can provide valuable insight for the conservation and management of threatened and endangered plant species. Tamarix taklamakanensis is an endangered shrub endemic to arid basins of northwestern China. This species serves to stabilize soils in this region, but has seen substantial loss in its abundance due to depletion of ground water. The populations of this species have become small and fragmented, warranting conservation. Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 15 populations in the Tarim Basin, China...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533782/towards-an-integrative-understanding-of-diet-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#14
Mark N Read, Andrew J Holmes
Over the last 20 years, a sizeable body of research has linked the microbiome and host diet to a remarkable diversity of diseases. Yet, unifying principles of microbiome assembly or function, at levels required to rationally manipulate a specific individual's microbiome to their benefit, have not emerged. A key driver of both community composition and activity is the host diet, but diet-microbiome interactions cannot be characterized without consideration of host-diet interactions such as appetite and digestion...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533579/relationship-between-body-mass-index-waist-to-hip-ratio-and-serum-lipid-concentrations-and-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-in-the-euthyroid-adult-population
#15
Ali Reza Rahbar, Mohamadreza Kalantarhormozi, Fatemeh Izadi, Elham Arkia, Marzie Rashidi, Fatemeh Pourbehi, Farzaneh Daneshifard, Amin Rahbar
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and lipid parameters and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in healthy euthyroid individuals. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 1(st) and July 20(th), 2013, at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. One hundred forty euthyroid individuals were divided into 2 groups: a high-TSH group (TSH between 2.0 and 5.5 mIU/L, n=67) and a low-TSH group (TSH between 0...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533544/sex-specific-metabolic-profiles-of-androgens-and-its-main-binding-protein-shbg-in-a-middle-aged-population-without-diabetes
#16
Uwe Piontek, Henri Wallaschofski, Gabi Kastenmüller, Karsten Suhre, Henry Völzke, Kieu Trinh Do, Anna Artati, Matthias Nauck, Jerzy Adamski, Nele Friedrich, Maik Pietzner
The role of androgens in metabolism with respect to sex-specific disease associations is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to provide molecular signatures in plasma and urine of androgen action in a sex-specific manner using state-of-the-art metabolomics techniques. Our study population consisted of 430 men and 343 women, aged 20-80 years, who were recruited for the cross-sectional population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND), Germany. We used linear regression models to identify associations between testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) as well as sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma or urine metabolites measured by mass spectrometry...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533006/association-between-preoperative-albumin-levels-and-length-of-stay-after-radical-cystectomy
#17
Rohan G Bhalla, Li Wang, Sam S Chang, Mark D Tyson
PURPOSE: Using contemporary population-based epidemiologic data, we measured the relationship between preoperative serum albumin level and hospital length of stay (LOS) after cystectomy and urinary diversion. MATERIALS & METHODS: Data was acquired from the 2014-2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. We identified 1,582 adult patients who underwent a cystectomy between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 and had a documented preoperative serum albumin level...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532940/effect-of-individual-level-and-socioeconomic-factors-on-long-term-survival-after-cataract-surgery-over-a%C3%A2-30-year%C3%A2-period
#18
Claudia Geue, Sven Jonuscheit
PURPOSE: To evaluate survival and the risk for mortality after cataract surgery in relation to individual-level and socioeconomic factors in Scotland over 3 decades. SETTING: Linked healthcare data, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Representative population-based study. METHODS: A 5% random sample of Scottish decedents linked to hospital records (1981 to 2012) was assessed. Survival time, survival probability, and determinants of mortality were evaluated after the first and second recorded hospital episodes for cataract surgery...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532605/risk-of-hypothyroidism-among-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treated-with-radiation-therapy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Chao-Yueh Fan, Chun-Shu Lin, Hsing-Lung Chao, Wen-Yen Huang, Yu-Fu Su, Kuen-Tze Lin, I-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hung Kao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk of hypothyroidism among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiation therapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 14,893 NPC patients and 16,105 other head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT without thyroidectomy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between 2000 and 2011. Each NPC patient was randomly frequency-matched with four individuals without NPC by age, sex, and index year...
May 19, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532500/extending-access-to-essential-services-against-constraints-the-three-tier-health-service-delivery-system-in-rural-china-1949-1980
#20
Xing Lin Feng, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Jun Zhong, Jin Xu, Beibei Yuan, Qingyue Meng, Dina Balabanova
BACKGROUND: China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. METHODS: We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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