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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636276/covariate-selection-with-group-lasso-and-doubly-robust-estimation-of-causal-effects
#1
Brandon Koch, David M Vock, Julian Wolfson
The efficiency of doubly robust estimators of the average causal effect (ACE) of a treatment can be improved by including in the treatment and outcome models only those covariates which are related to both treatment and outcome (i.e., confounders) or related only to the outcome. However, it is often challenging to identify such covariates among the large number that may be measured in a given study. In this article, we propose GLiDeR (Group Lasso and Doubly Robust Estimation), a novel variable selection technique for identifying confounders and predictors of outcome using an adaptive group lasso approach that simultaneously performs coefficient selection, regularization, and estimation across the treatment and outcome models...
June 21, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635965/identification-genealogical-structure-and-population-genetics-of-s-alleles-in-malus-sieversii-the-wild-ancestor-of-domesticated-apple
#2
X Ma, Z Cai, W Liu, S Ge, L Tang
The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635670/single-lead-fetal-ecg-extraction-based-on-a-parallel-marginalized-particle-filter
#3
Zhidong Zhao, Huiling Tong, Yanjun Deng, Wen Xu, Yefei Zhang, Haihui Ye
This paper presents a novel method for extracting the fetal ECG (FECG) from a single-lead abdominal signal. A dynamical model for a modified abdominal signal is proposed, in which both the maternal ECG (MECG) and the FECG are modeled, and then a parallel marginalized particle filter (par-MPF) is used for tracking the abdominal signal. Finally, the FECG and MECG are simultaneously separated. Several experiments are conducted using both simulated and clinical signals. The results indicate that the method proposed in this paper effectively extracts the FECG and outperforms other Bayesian filtering algorithms...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635623/compressed-sensing-reconstruction-based-on-block-sparse-bayesian-learning-in-bearing-condition-monitoring
#4
Jiedi Sun, Yang Yu, Jiangtao Wen
Remote monitoring of bearing conditions, using wireless sensor network (WSN), is a developing trend in the industrial field. In complicated industrial environments, WSN face three main constraints: low energy, less memory, and low operational capability. Conventional data-compression methods, which concentrate on data compression only, cannot overcome these limitations. Aiming at these problems, this paper proposed a compressed data acquisition and reconstruction scheme based on Compressed Sensing (CS) which is a novel signal-processing technique and applied it for bearing conditions monitoring via WSN...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635331/network-meta-analysis-of-liraglutide-versus-dpp-4-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-japanese-patients
#5
Dieter Ayers, Steve Kanters, Rachel Goldgrub, Monica Hughes, Ryo Kato, Nana Kragh
AIMS: To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of liraglutide and dipeptidyl peptidiase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as antidiabetics for Japanese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We searched for randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating outcomes among Japanese adults with uncontrolled T2DM and including liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors up to August 2016. We extracted data on trial and patient characteristics, and the following outcomes: HbA1c, weight, patients meeting HbA1c <7%, patients experiencing hypoglycemic events, microalbuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine...
June 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634655/effect-of-adherence-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationships-of-oral-targeted-anticancer-drugs
#6
Evelina Cardoso, Chantal Csajka, Marie P Schneider, Nicolas Widmer
The emergence of oral targeted anticancer agents transformed several cancers into chronic conditions with a need for long-term oral treatment. Although cancer is a life-threatening condition, oncology medication adherence-the extent to which a patient follows the drug regimen that is intended by the prescriber-can be suboptimal in the long term, as in any other chronic disease. Poor adherence can impact negatively on clinical outcomes, notably because most of these drugs are given as a standard non-individualized dosage despite marked inter-individual variabilities that can lead to toxic or inefficacious drug concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634279/in-frame-seven-amino-acid-duplication-in-aip-arose-over-the-last-3000-years-disrupts-protein-interaction-stability-and-is-associated-with-gigantism
#7
Roberto Salvatori, Serban Radian, Yoan Diekmann, Donato Iacovazzo, Alessia David, Plamena Grabovska, Giorgia Grassi, Anna-Marie Bussell, Karen Stals, Astrid Weber, Richard Quinton, Elizabeth Crowne, Valentina Corazzini, Louise A Metherell, Tara Kearney, Daniel Du Plessis, Ajay Sinha, Atik Baborie, Anne-LIse Locoq, Philippe Chanson, Olaf Ansorge, Sian Ellard, Peter J Trainer, David Balding, Mark Thomas, Marta Korbonits
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events. DESIGN & METHODS: Observational, inferential and experimental study, including: AIP mutation testing; reconstruction of 14 AIP-region (8.3 Mbp) haplotypes; coalescent-based approximate Bayesian estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the derived allele; forward population simulations to estimate current number of allele carriers; proposal of mutation mechanism; protein structure predictions; co-immunoprecipitation and cycloheximide chase experiments...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633703/tuberculosis-inequalities-and-socio-economic-deprivation-in-portugal
#8
D Apolinário, A I Ribeiro, E Krainski, P Sousa, M Abranches, R Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in Portugal and estimate the association between TB and socio-economic deprivation. METHODS: An ecological study at the municipality level using TB notifications for 2010-2014 was conducted. Spatial Bayesian models were used to calculate smoothed standardised notification rates, identify high- and low-risk areas and estimate the association between TB notification and the European Deprivation Index (EDI) for Portugal and its component variables...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633606/exact-bayesian-p-values-for-a-test-of-independence-in-a-2%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-2-contingency-table-with-missing-data
#9
Yan Lin, Stuart R Lipsitz, Debajyoti Sinha, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Steven Lipshultz
Altham (Altham PME. Exact Bayesian analysis of a 2 × 2 contingency table, and Fisher's "exact" significance test. J R Stat Soc B 1969; 31: 261-269) showed that a one-sided p-value from Fisher's exact test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table is equal to the posterior probability of negative association in the 2 × 2 contingency table under a Bayesian analysis using an improper prior. We derive an extension of Fisher's exact test p-value in the presence of missing data, assuming the missing data mechanism is ignorable (i...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633558/an-introduction-to-bayesian-statistics-in-health-psychology
#10
Sarah Depaoli, Holly M Rus, James P Clifton, Rens van de Schoot, Jitske Tiemensma
The aim of the current article is to provide a brief introduction to Bayesian statistics within the field of Health Psychology. Bayesian methods are increasing in prevalence in applied fields, and they have been shown in simulation research to improve the estimation accuracy of structural equation models, latent growth curve (and mixture) models, and hierarchical linear models. Likewise, Bayesian methods can be used with small sample sizes since they do not rely on large sample theory. In this article, we discuss several important components of Bayesian statistics as they relate to health-based inquiries...
June 20, 2017: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633069/mitogenomic-diversity-in-russians-and-poles
#11
Boris Malyarchuk, Andrey Litvinov, Miroslava Derenko, Katarzyna Skonieczna, Tomasz Grzybowski, Aleksandra Grosheva, Yuri Shneider, Sergei Rychkov, Olga Zhukova
Complete mtDNA genome sequencing improves molecular resolution for distinguishing variation between individuals and populations, but there is still deficiency of mitogenomic population data. To overcome this limitation, we used Sanger-based protocol to generate complete mtDNA sequences of 376 Russian individuals from six populations of European part of Russia and 100 Polish individuals from northern Poland. Nearly complete resolution of mtDNA haplotypes was achieved - about 97% of haplotypes were unique both in Russians and Poles, and no haplotypes overlapped between them when indels were considered...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632943/habitat-coupling-writ-large-pelagic-derived-materials-fuel-benthivorous-macroalgal-reef-fishes-in-an-upwelling-zone
#12
Felipe Docmac, Miguel Araya, Ivan A Hinojosa, Cristina Dorador, Chris Harrod
Coastal marine upwelling famously supports elevated levels of pelagic biological production, but can also subsidise production in inshore habitats via pelagic-benthic coupling. Consumers inhabiting macroalgae-dominated rocky reef habitats are often considered to be members of a food web fuelled by energy derived from benthic primary production; conversely, they may also be subsidised by materials transported from pelagic habitats. Here, we used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) to examine the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic materials to an ecologically and economically important benthivorous fish assemblage inhabiting subtidal macroalgae-dominated reefs along ~1000 km of the northern Chilean coast where coastal upwelling is active...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631839/natural-variability-of-biochemical-biomarkers-in-the-macro-zoobenthos-dependence-on-life-stage-and-environmental-factors
#13
Lucia Scarduelli, Roberto Giacchini, Paolo Parenti, Sonia Migliorati, Agnese Maria Di Brisco, Marco Vighi
Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding if the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proved to be relevant across both space and time. In this work, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630952/estimating-patient-s-health-state-using-latent-structure-inferred-from-clinical-time-series-and-text
#14
Aaron Zalewski, William Long, Alistair E W Johnson, Roger G Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Modern intensive care units (ICUs) collect large volumes of data in monitoring critically ill patients. Clinicians in the ICUs face the challenge of interpreting large volumes of high-dimensional data to diagnose and treat patients. In this work, we explore the use of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP) as a Bayesian nonparametric framework to infer patients' states of health by combining multiple sources of data. In particular, we employ HDP to combine clinical time series and text from the nursing progress notes in a probabilistic topic modeling framework for patient risk stratification...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630937/high-precision-neural-decoding-of-complex-movement-trajectories-using-recursive-bayesian-estimation-with-dynamic-movement-primitives
#15
Guy Hotson, Ryan J Smith, Adam G Rouse, Marc H Schieber, Nitish V Thakor, Brock A Wester
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a rapidly progressing technology with the potential to restore function to victims of severe paralysis via neural control of robotic systems. Great strides have been made in directly mapping a user's cortical activity to control of the individual degrees of freedom of robotic end-effectors. While BMIs have yet to achieve the level of reliability desired for widespread clinical use, environmental sensors (e.g. RGB-D cameras for object detection) and prior knowledge of common movement trajectories hold great potential for improving system performance...
July 2016: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630885/bayesian-framework-inspired-no-reference-region-of-interest-quality-measure-for-brain-mri-images
#16
Michael Osadebey, Marius Pedersen, Douglas Arnold, Katrina Wendel-Mitoraj
We describe a postacquisition, attribute-based quality assessment method for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. It is based on the application of Bayes theory to the relationship between entropy and image quality attributes. The entropy feature image of a slice is segmented into low- and high-entropy regions. For each entropy region, there are three separate observations of contrast, standard deviation, and sharpness quality attributes. A quality index for a quality attribute is the posterior probability of an entropy region given any corresponding region in a feature image where quality attribute is observed...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630623/strategies-for-preventing-endoscopic-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease-1-year-after-surgery-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Jin-Shan Feng, Jin-Yu Li, Xiu-Yan Chen, Zheng Yang, Shang-Hai Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits of different treatments that aim to prevent the endoscopic recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) after ileal resection. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Database. All the included RCTs with an endoscopic recurrence outcome which was defined as Rutgeerts' score ≥ i2 have a duration of more than 1 year. The quality of the included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630525/a-bayesian-adaptive-design-for-clinical-trials-in-rare-diseases
#18
S Faye Williamson, Peter Jacko, Sofía S Villar, Thomas Jaki
Development of treatments for rare diseases is challenging due to the limited number of patients available for participation. Learning about treatment effectiveness with a view to treat patients in the larger outside population, as in the traditional fixed randomised design, may not be a plausible goal. An alternative goal is to treat the patients within the trial as effectively as possible. Using the framework of finite-horizon Markov decision processes and dynamic programming (DP), a novel randomised response-adaptive design is proposed which maximises the total number of patient successes in the trial and penalises if a minimum number of patients are not recruited to each treatment arm...
September 2017: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630413/bayesian-inference-of-physiologically-meaningful-parameters-from-body-sway-measurements
#19
A Tietäväinen, M U Gutmann, E Keski-Vakkuri, J Corander, E Hæggström
The control of the human body sway by the central nervous system, muscles, and conscious brain is of interest since body sway carries information about the physiological status of a person. Several models have been proposed to describe body sway in an upright standing position, however, due to the statistical intractability of the more realistic models, no formal parameter inference has previously been conducted and the expressive power of such models for real human subjects remains unknown. Using the latest advances in Bayesian statistical inference for intractable models, we fitted a nonlinear control model to posturographic measurements, and we showed that it can accurately predict the sway characteristics of both simulated and real subjects...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630328/toll-like-receptor-pathway-evolution-in-deuterostomes
#20
Michael G Tassia, Nathan V Whelan, Kenneth M Halanych
Animals have evolved an array of pattern-recognition receptor families essential for recognizing conserved molecular motifs characteristic of pathogenic microbes. One such family is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). On pathogen binding, TLRs initiate specialized cytokine signaling catered to the class of invading pathogen. This signaling is pivotal for activating adaptive immunity in vertebrates, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite significant advances toward understanding TLR-facilitated immunity in vertebrates, knowledge of TLR pathway evolution in other deuterostomes is limited...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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