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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743040/prenatal-exposure-to-organophosphorus-pesticides-and-childhood-neurodevelopmental-phenotypes
#1
Melissa A Furlong, Amy Herring, Jessie P Buckley, Barbara D Goldman, Julie L Daniels, Lawrence S Engel, Mary S Wolff, Jia Chen, Jim Wetmur, Dana Boyd Barr, Stephanie M Engel
Prenatal exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has been associated with different neurodevelopmental outcomes across different cohorts. A phenotypic approach may address some of these differences by incorporating information across scales and accounting for the complex correlational structure of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Additionally, Bayesian hierarchical modeling can account for confounding by collinear co-exposures. We use this framework to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OPs and behavior, executive functioning, and IQ assessed at age 6-9 years in a cohort of 404 mother/infant pairs recruited during pregnancy...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742955/bayesian-one-step-ipd-network-meta-analysis-of-time-to-event-data-using-royston-parmar-models
#2
Suzanne C Freeman, James R Carpenter
Network meta-analysis (NMA) combines direct and indirect evidence from trials to calculate and rank treatment estimates. While modelling approaches for continuous and binary outcomes are relatively well developed, less work has been done with time-to-event outcomes. Such outcomes are usually analysed using Cox proportional hazard (PH) models. However, in oncology with longer follow-up time, and time-dependent effects of targeted treatments, this may no longer be appropriate. Network meta-analysis conducted in the Bayesian setting has been increasing in popularity...
July 25, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742879/epidemiological-investigations-of-the-introduction-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-chile-2013-2015
#3
Víctor Neira, Barbara Brito, Juan Mena, Marie Culhane, Maria Ignacia Apel, Vanessa Max, Patricio Perez, Valentina Moreno, Christian Mathieu, Magdalena Johow, Catalina Badia, Montserrat Torremorell, Rafael Medina, Rene Ortega
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742865/a-novel-mitochondrial-genome-of-arborophila-and-new-insight-into-arborophila-evolutionary-history
#4
Chaochao Yan, Biqin Mou, Yang Meng, Feiyun Tu, Zhenxin Fan, Megan Price, Bisong Yue, Xiuyue Zhang
The lineage of the Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus) was investigated to determine the phylogenetic relationships within Arborophila as the species is centrally distributed within an area covered by the distributions of 22 South-east Asian hill partridge species. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. brunneopectus was determined and compared with four other hill partridge species mitogenomes. NADH subunit genes are radical in hill partridge mitogenomes and contain the most potential positive selective sites around where variable sites are abundant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742843/sequencing-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genomes-of-eight-freshwater-snail-species-exposes-pervasive-paraphyly-within-the-viviparidae-family-caenogastropoda
#5
Ju-Guang Wang, Dong Zhang, Ivan Jakovlić, Wei-Min Wang
Phylogenetic relationships among snails (Caenogastropoda) are still unresolved, and many taxonomic categories remain non-monophyletic. Paraphyly has been reported within a large family of freshwater snails, Viviparidae, where the taxonomic status of several species remains questionable. As many endemic Chinese viviparid species have become endangered during the last few decades, this presents a major obstacle for conservation efforts. Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) carry a large amount of data, so they can often provide a much higher resolution for phylogenetic analyses in comparison to the traditionally used molecular markers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742816/a-mixture-of-sparse-coding-models-explaining-properties-of-face-neurons-related-to-holistic-and-parts-based-processing
#6
Haruo Hosoya, Aapo Hyvärinen
Experimental studies have revealed evidence of both parts-based and holistic representations of objects and faces in the primate visual system. However, it is still a mystery how such seemingly contradictory types of processing can coexist within a single system. Here, we propose a novel theory called mixture of sparse coding models, inspired by the formation of category-specific subregions in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. We developed a hierarchical network that constructed a mixture of two sparse coding submodels on top of a simple Gabor analysis...
July 25, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742711/readiness-of-us-general-surgery-residents-for-independent-practice
#7
Brian C George, Jordan D Bohnen, Reed G Williams, Shari L Meyerson, Mary C Schuller, Michael J Clark, Andreas H Meier, Laura Torbeck, Samuel P Mandell, John T Mullen, Douglas S Smink, Rebecca E Scully, Jeffrey G Chipman, Edward D Auyang, Kyla P Terhune, Paul E Wise, Jennifer N Choi, Eugene F Foley, Justin B Dimick, Michael A Choti, Nathaniel J Soper, Keith D Lillemoe, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Gary L Dunnington, Debra A DaRosa, Jonathan P Fryer
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the current state of the General Surgery (GS) residency training model by investigating resident operative performance and autonomy. BACKGROUND: The American Board of Surgery has designated 132 procedures as being "Core" to the practice of GS. GS residents are expected to be able to safely and independently perform those procedures by the time they graduate. There is growing concern that not all residents achieve that standard. Lack of operative autonomy may play a role...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742267/profiling-the-effects-of-short-time-course-cold-ischemia-on-tumor-protein-phosphorylation-using-a-bayesian-approach
#8
You Wu, Jeremy Gaskins, Maiying Kong, Susmita Datta
Phosphorylated proteins provide insight into tumor etiology and are used as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers of complex diseases. However, pre-analytic variations, such as freezing delay after biopsy acquisition, often occur in real hospital settings and potentially lead to inaccurate results. The objective of this work is to develop statistical methodology to assess the stability of phosphorylated proteins under short-time cold ischemia. We consider a hierarchical model to determine if phosphorylation abundance of a protein at a particular phosphorylation site remains constant or not during cold ischemia...
July 25, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#9
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741981/functional-smiles-tools-for-love-sympathy-and-war
#10
Magdalena Rychlowska, Rachael E Jack, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns, Jared D Martin, Paula M Niedenthal
A smile is the most frequent facial expression, but not all smiles are equal. A social-functional account holds that smiles of reward, affiliation, and dominance serve basic social functions, including rewarding behavior, bonding socially, and negotiating hierarchy. Here, we characterize the facial-expression patterns associated with these three types of smiles. Specifically, we modeled the facial expressions using a data-driven approach and showed that reward smiles are symmetrical and accompanied by eyebrow raising, affiliative smiles involve lip pressing, and dominance smiles are asymmetrical and contain nose wrinkling and upper-lip raising...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741177/birth-birth-death-processes-and-their-computable-transition-probabilities-with-biological-applications
#11
Lam Si Tung Ho, Jason Xu, Forrest W Crawford, Vladimir N Minin, Marc A Suchard
Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likelihood-based inference to small systems, or indirect methods such as approximate Bayesian computation...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739370/molecular-systematics-species-delimitation-and-diversification-patterns-of-the-phyllodactylus-lanei-complex-gekkota-phyllodactylidae-in-mexico
#12
Tonatiuh Ramírez-Reyes, Daniel Piñero, Oscar Flores-Villela, Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
The description of cryptic gecko species worldwide has revealed both that many putative species are, in fact, conformed by a complex of morphologically conserved species that are genetically distinct and highly divergent, and that gecko species diversity could be underestimated. The taxonomy and species delimitation of geckos belonging to the genus Phyllodactylus is still controversial, 16 of which are distributed in Mexico and 13 are endemic. Although the large morphological variation shown by the Phyllodactylus species from Mexico has been amply documented, little is known about their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, and much less regarding cryptic speciation...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738085/a-bayesian-spatio-temporal-model-for-forecasting-anaplasma-species-seroprevalence-in-domestic-dogs-within-the-contiguous-united-states
#13
Yan Liu, Stella C Watson, Jenna R Gettings, Robert B Lund, Shila K Nordone, Michael J Yabsley, Christopher S McMahan
This paper forecasts the 2016 canine Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence in the United States from eight climate, geographic and societal factors. The forecast's construction and an assessment of its performance are described. The forecast is based on a spatial-temporal conditional autoregressive model fitted to over 11 million Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence test results for dogs conducted in the 48 contiguous United States during 2011-2015. The forecast uses county-level data on eight predictive factors, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, county elevation, forestation coverage, surface water coverage, population density and median household income...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737942/the-role-of-rydberg-valence-coupling-in-the-ultrafast-relaxation-dynamics-of-acetone
#14
Markus Koch, Bernhard Thaler, Pascal Heim, Wolfgang E Ernst
The electronic structure of excited states of acetone is represented by a Rydberg manifold that is coupled to valence states which provide very fast and efficient relaxation pathways. We observe and characterize the transfer of population from photoexcited Rydberg states (6p, 6d, 7s) to a whole series of lower Rydberg states (3p to 4d) and a simultaneous decay of population from these states. We obtain these results with time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) detection in combination with the application of Bayesian statistics for data analysis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737842/network-meta-analysis-of-disconnected-networks-how-dangerous-are-random-baseline-treatment-effects
#15
Audrey Béliveau, Sarah Goring, Robert W Platt, Paul Gustafson
In network meta-analysis, the use of fixed baseline treatment effects (a priori independent) in a contrast-based approach is regularly preferred to the use of random baseline treatment effects (a priori dependent). That is because, often, there is not aneed to model baseline treatment effects which carries the risk of model misspecification. However, in disconnected networks, fixed baseline treatment effects do not work (unless extra assumptions are made) as there is not enough information in the data to update the prior distribution on the contrasts between disconnected treatments...
July 24, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737223/a-network-meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-properties-of-various-types-of-supraglottic-airway-device-in-children
#16
REVIEW
T Mihara, A Asakura, G Owada, A Yokoi, K Ka, T Goto
We conducted both conventional pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses to compare the clinical properties of supraglottic airway devices in children. We searched six databases for randomised clinical trials. Our primary end-points were oropharyngeal leak pressure, risk of insertion failure at first attempt, and blood staining risk. The risk of device failure, defined as the abandonment of the supraglottic airway device and replacement with a tracheal tube or another device, was also analysed. Sixty-five randomised clinical trials with 5823 participants were identified, involving 16 types of supraglottic airway device...
July 24, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736679/chloroplast-genome-sequence-annotation-of-i-dendrobium-nobile-i-asparagales-orchidaceae-an-endangered-medicinal-orchid-from-northeast-india
#17
Devendra Biswal, Ruchishree Konhar, Manish Debnath, Sriram Parameswaran, Durai Sundar, Pramod Tandon
Orchidaceae constitutes one of the largest families of angiosperms. Owing to the significance of orchids in plant biology, market needs and current sustainable technology levels, basic research on the biology of orchids and their applications in the orchid industry is increasing. Although chloroplast (cp) genomes continue to be evolutionarily informative, there is very limited information available on orchid chloroplast genomes in public repositories. Here, we report the complete cp genome sequence of Dendrobium nobile from Northeast India (Orchidaceae, Asparagales), bearing the GenBank accession number KX377961, which will provide valuable information for future research on orchid genomics and evolution, as well as the medicinal value of orchids...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736506/national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-257-diseases-and-injuries-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
Awoke Misganaw, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Kebede Deribe, Semaw Ferede Abera, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Tilahun N Haregu, Azmeraw T Amare, Molla Gedefaw, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Kristopher J Krohn, Yibeltal Assefa, Mahlet Kifle, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) provide a summary measure of health and can be a critical input to guide health systems, investments, and priority-setting in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the leading causes of premature mortality and disability using DALYs and describe the relative burden of disease and injuries in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for non-fatal disease burden, cause-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality to derive age-standardized DALYs by sex for Ethiopia for each year...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736468/multi-atlas-spleen-segmentation-on-ct-using-adaptive-context-learning
#19
Jiaqi Liu, Yuankai Huo, Zhoubing Xu, Albert Assad, Richard G Abramson, Bennett A Landman
Automatic spleen segmentation on CT is challenging due to the complexity of abdominal structures. Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS) has shown to be a promising approach to conduct spleen segmentation. To deal with the substantial registration errors between the heterogeneous abdominal CT images, the context learning method for performance level estimation (CLSIMPLE) method was previously proposed. The context learning method generates a probability map for a target image using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) as the prior in a Bayesian framework...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736033/acid-sensing-t-cell-death-associated-gene-8-receptor-expression-in-panic-disorder
#20
Jeffrey R Strawn, Lauren L Vollmer, Katherine M J McMurray, Jeffrey A Mills, Sarah A Mossman, Sara T Varney, Heidi K Schroeder, Renu Sah
BACKGROUND: While disruption of acid-base homeostasis has been pathoetiologically implicated in panic disorder (PD), the mechanism by which pH imbalance is translated to panic pathophysiology is poorly understood. Recently, in a translational rodent model of PD, we reported a role of microglial acid sensing G-protein coupled receptor, T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) in panic-associated behavior and physiology. However, the clinical validity of the TDAG8 receptor has not been investigated...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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