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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346518/determinants-of-health-trajectories-in-england-and-the-us-an-approach-to-identify-different-patterns-of-healthy-aging
#1
Javier de la Fuente, Francisco Félix Caballero, Albert Sánchez-Niubó, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Matthew A Prina, Holger Arndt, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Background: Aging is a multidimensional process with a remarkable inter-individual variability. This study is focused on identifying groups of population with similar aging patterns, and to define the health trajectories of these groups. Socio-demographic and health determinants of these trajectories are also identified. Methods: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. A set of self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a latent health metric by means of a Bayesian multilevel IRT model, assessing the ability of the metric to predict mortality...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346394/decision-time-and-confidence-predict-choosers-identification-performance-in-photographic-showups
#2
Melanie Sauerland, Anna Sagana, Siegfried L Sporer, John T Wixted
In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346019/independent-attention-mechanisms-control-the-activation-of-tactile-and-visual-working-memory-representations
#3
Tobias Katus, Martin Eimer
Working memory (WM) is limited in capacity, but it is controversial whether these capacity limitations are domain-general or are generated independently within separate modality-specific memory systems. These alternative accounts were tested in bimodal visual/tactile WM tasks. In Experiment 1, participants memorized the locations of simultaneously presented task-relevant visual and tactile stimuli. Visual and tactile WM load was manipulated independently (one, two, or three items per modality), and one modality was unpredictably tested after each trial...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345743/refining-mortality-estimates-in-shark-demographic-analyses-a-bayesian-inverse-matrix-approach
#4
Jonathan J Smart, André E Punt, William T White, Colin A Simpfendorfer
Leslie matrix models are an important analysis tool in conservation biology that are applied to a diversity of taxa. The standard approach estimates the finite rate of population growth (λ) from a set of vital rates. In some instances, an estimate of λ is available, but the vital rates are poorly understood and can be solved for using an inverse matrix approach. However, these approaches are rarely attempted due to pre-requisites of information on the structure of age or stage-classes. This study addressed this issue by using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and the sample-importance-resampling (SIR) algorithm to solve the inverse matrix problem without data on population structure...
January 18, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345484/journal-article-reporting-standards-for-quantitative-research-in-psychology-the-apa-publications-and-communications-board-task-force-report
#5
Mark Appelbaum, Harris Cooper, Rex B Kline, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Arthur M Nezu, Stephen M Rao
Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis...
January 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344763/visual-awareness-negativity-is-an-early-neural-correlate-of-awareness-a-preregistered-study-with-two-gabor-sizes
#6
Rasmus Eklund, Stefan Wiens
Electrophysiological recordings are commonly used to study the neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Previous research is inconsistent as to whether awareness can be indexed with visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms or if it occurs later. The present study was preregistered with two main aims: First, to provide independent evidence for or against the presence of VAN, and second, to study whether stimulus size may account for the inconsistent findings. Subjects were shown low-contrast Gaussian filtered gratings (Gabor patches) in the four visual quadrants...
January 18, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344362/development-of-biomarker-combinations-for-postoperative-acute-kidney-injury-via-bayesian-model-selection-in-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#7
Allison Meisner, Kathleen F Kerr, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Francis Perry Wilson, Amit X Garg, Michael G Shlipak, Peter Kavsak, Richard P Whitlock, Steven G Coca, Chirag R Parikh
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery. We sought prognostic combinations of postoperative biomarkers measured within 6 h of surgery, potentially in combination with cardiopulmonary bypass time (to account for the degree of insult to the kidney). We used data from a large cohort of patients and adapted methods for developing biomarker combinations to account for the multicenter design of the study. Methods: The primary endpoint was sustained mild AKI, defined as an increase of 50% or more in serum creatinine over preoperative levels lasting at least 2 days during the hospital stay...
2018: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344193/identification-of-differentially-expressed-molecular-functions-associated-with-breast-cancer-using-gibbs-sampling
#8
Gang Zhou, Ming-Qian Lu, Dao-Jun Li, Bao-An Gao, Rong Guo
The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed molecular functions (DEMFs) for breast cancer using the Gibbs sampling approach. Molecular functions (MFs) were obtained on the basis of the Bayesian Approach for Geneset Selection package. Subsequently, MFs were converted into Markov chains (MCs) prior to calculating their probabilities, utilizing the MC Monte Carlo algorithm. DEMFs were identified with probabilities ≥0.8 and the gene compositions were studied. Finally, a co-expression network was constructed via the empirical Bayes method and a pathway enrichment analysis of genes in DEMFs was performed...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343863/genetic-analyses-favour-an-ancient-and-natural-origin-of-elephants-on-borneo
#9
Reeta Sharma, Benoit Goossens, Rasmus Heller, Rita Rasteiro, Nurzhafarina Othman, Michael W Bruford, Lounès Chikhi
The origin of the elephant on the island of Borneo remains elusive. Research has suggested two alternative hypotheses: the Bornean elephant stems either from a recent introduction in the 17th century or from an ancient colonization several hundreds of thousands years ago. Lack of elephant fossils has been interpreted as evidence for a very recent introduction, whereas mtDNA divergence from other Asian elephants has been argued to favor an ancient colonization. We investigated the demographic history of Bornean elephants using full-likelihood and approximate Bayesian computation analyses...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343602/bayesian-inference-reveals-positive-but-subtle-effects-of-experimental-fishery-closures-on-marine-predator-demographics
#10
Richard B Sherley, Barbara J Barham, Peter J Barham, Kate J Campbell, Robert J M Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Cat Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C Votier
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time-area closures around two pairs of colonies...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343499/a-population-phylogenetic-view-of-mitochondrial-heteroplasmy
#11
Peter R Wilton, Arslan Zaidi, Kateryna Makova, Rasmus Nielsen
The mitochondrion has recently emerged as an active player in a myriad of cellular processes. Additionally, it was recently shown that more than 200 diseases are known to be linked to variants in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes interacting with mitochondria. This has reinvigorated interest in its biology and population genetics. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy, or genotypic variation of mitochondria within an individual, is now understood to be common in humans and important in human health. However, it is still not possible to make quantitative predictions about the inheritance of heteroplasmy and its proliferation within the body, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model...
January 17, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342307/using-phylogenomic-data-to-explore-the-effects-of-relaxed-clocks-and-calibration-strategies-on-divergence-time-estimation-primates-as-a-test-case
#12
Mario Dos Reis, Gregg F Gunnell, José Barba-Montoya, Alex Wilkins, Ziheng Yang, Anne D Yoder
Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the K-Pg boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here we analysed a dataset of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the effect of different interpretations of fossil calibrations and molecular clock models on primate divergence time estimates...
January 12, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342184/species-delimitation-in-the-stenocereus-griseus-cactaceae-species-complex-reveals-a-new-species-s-huastecorum
#13
Hernán Alvarado-Sizzo, Alejandro Casas, Fabiola Parra, Hilda Julieta Arreola-Nava, Teresa Terrazas, Cristian Sánchez
The Stenocereus griseus species complex (SGSC) has long been considered taxonomically challenging because the number of taxa belonging to the complex and their geographical boundaries remain poorly understood. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance-based methods were used based on nine microsatellite loci in 377 individuals of three main putative species of the complex. The resulting genetic clusters were assessed for ecological niche divergence and areolar morphology, particularly spination patterns. We based our species boundaries on concordance between genetic, ecological, and morphological data, and were able to resolve four species, three of them corresponding to S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341205/promotion-time-cure-rate-model-with-nonparametric-form-of-covariate-effects
#14
Tianlei Chen, Pang Du
Survival data with a cured portion are commonly seen in clinical trials. Motivated from a biological interpretation of cancer metastasis, promotion time cure model is a popular alternative to the mixture cure rate model for analyzing such data. The existing promotion cure models all assume a restrictive parametric form of covariate effects, which can be incorrectly specified especially at the exploratory stage. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric approach to modeling the covariate effects under the framework of promotion time cure model...
January 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340895/confirming-the-tripartite-structure-of-the-duke-university-religion-index-a-methodological-approach
#15
John W Lace, Paul J Handal
The present study provided a methodological critique regarding psychometric investigations of the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and its variants. Nine hundred seventeen (630 females and 287 males) university students (M age = 19.24) completed the DUREL, the Personal Religious Inventory, and the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale online. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess a three-factor (organizational religious activity; non-organizational religious activity; and intrinsic religiosity) and a unidimensional model of the DUREL...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340259/relationships-between-road-distance-to-primary-care-facilities-and-ischemic-heart-disease-and-stroke-mortality-in-hokkaido-japan-a-bayesian-hierarchical-approach-to-ecological-count-data
#16
Yasuaki Saijo, Eiji Yoshioka, Yasuyuki Kawanishi, Yoshihiko Nakagi, Sharon J B Hanley, Takahiko Yoshida
Objective: Poor access to a primary care physician may lead to poor control of risk factors for disease. This study investigated whether geographic access to a primary care physician was related to ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality. Methods: Road-distances from the centroids of the basic unit blocks of the 2010 Japanese Census to the nearest primary care facilities in Hokkaido, northern Japan, were measured using geographic information system (GIS) software...
January 2018: Journal of General and Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339802/biases-of-structure-software-when-exploring-introduction-routes-of-invasive-species
#17
Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Emeline Deleury
Population genetic methods are widely used to retrace the introduction routes of invasive species. The unsupervised Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in STRUCTURE is amongst the most frequently used of these methods, but its ability to provide reliable information about introduction routes has never been assessed. We simulated microsatellite datasets to evaluate the extent to which the results provided by STRUCTURE were misleading for the inference of introduction routes. We focused on an invasion scenario involving one native and two independently introduced populations, because it is the sole scenario that can be rejected when obtaining a particular clustering with a STRUCTURE analysis at K = 2 (two clusters)...
January 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#18
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339277/molecular-phylogeny-of-systellognatha-plecoptera-arctoperlaria-inferred-from-mitochondrial-genome-sequences
#19
Zhi-Teng Chen, Meng-Yuan Zhao, Cheng Xu, Yu-Zhou Du
The infraorder Systellognatha is the most species-rich clade in the insect order Plecoptera and includes six families in two superfamilies: Pteronarcyoidea (Pteronarcyidae, Peltoperlidae, and Styloperlidae) and Perloidea (Perlidae, Perlodidae, and Chloroperlidae). To resolve the debatable phylogeny of Systellognatha, we carried out the first mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis covering all the six families, including three newly sequenced mitogenomes from two families (Perlodidae and Peltoperlidae) and 15 published mitogenomes...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338862/new-generation-stents-compared-with-coronary-bypass-surgery-for-unprotected-left-main-disease-a-word-of-caution
#20
Umberto Benedetto, David P Taggart, Miguel Sousa-Uva, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Antonino Di Franco, Lucas B Ohmes, Mohamed Rahouma, Mohamed Kamel, Massimo Caputo, Leonard N Girardi, Gianni D Angelini, Mario Gaudino
BACKGROUND: With the advent of bare metal stents and drug-eluting stents, percutaneous coronary intervention has emerged as an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting surgery for unprotected left main disease. However, whether the evolution of stents technology has translated into better results after percutaneous coronary intervention remains unclear. We aimed to compare coronary artery bypass grafting with stents of different generations for left main disease by performing a Bayesian network meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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