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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904735/urinary-metabolomics-of-young-italian-autistic-children-supports-abnormal-tryptophan-and-purine-metabolism
#1
Federica Gevi, Lello Zolla, Stefano Gabriele, Antonio M Persico
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still diagnosed through behavioral observation, due to a lack of laboratory biomarkers, which could greatly aid clinicians in providing earlier and more reliable diagnoses. Metabolomics on human biofluids provides a sensitive tool to identify metabolite profiles potentially usable as biomarkers for ASD. Initial metabolomic studies, analyzing urines and plasma of ASD and control individuals, suggested that autistic patients may share some metabolic abnormalities, despite several inconsistencies stemming from differences in technology, ethnicity, age range, and definition of "control" status...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882443/gut-microbiota-and-autism-key-concepts-and-findings
#2
Helen T Ding, Ying Taur, John T Walkup
There is an emerging body of evidence linking the intestinal microbiota with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies have demonstrated differences in the composition of gut bacteria between children with ASD and controls. Certain intestinal bacteria have been observed in abundance and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD; including members of the Clostridium and Sutterella genus. Evidence from animal models suggest that certain microbial shifts in the gut may produce changes consistent with the clinical picture of autism, with proposed mechanisms including toxin production, aberrations in fermentation processes/products, and immunological and metabolic abnormalities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#3
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856622/in-vitro-fermentation-of-b-gos-impact-on-faecal-bacterial-populations-and-metabolic-activity-in-autistic-and-non-autistic-children
#4
Roberta Grimaldi, Drinalda Cela, Jonathan R Swann, Jelena Vulevic, Glenn R Gibson, George Tzortzis, Adele Costabile
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system...
November 16, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843150/the-bacterial-peptidoglycan-sensing-molecule-pglyrp2-modulates-brain-development-and-behavior
#5
T Arentsen, Y Qian, S Gkotzis, T Femenia, T Wang, K Udekwu, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we show that bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from the commensal gut microbiota can be translocated into the brain and sensed by specific pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Using expression-profiling techniques, we demonstrate that two families of PRRs that specifically detect PGN (that is, PGN-recognition proteins and NOD-like receptors), and the PGN transporter PepT1 are highly expressed in the developing brain during specific windows of postnatal development in both males and females...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#6
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
November 2, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814521/the-central-nervous-system-and-the-gut-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Gil Sharon, Timothy R Sampson, Daniel H Geschwind, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Neurodevelopment is a complex process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. While historically studied by researching the brain, inputs from the periphery impact many neurological conditions. Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793223/gut-to-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-central-role-for-the-microbiome
#8
A D Kraneveld, K Szklany, C G M de Theije, J Garssen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders, which occur in early childhood and persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to interplay in the development of ASD. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis, in prenatal and postnatal phases, is an important example of these environmental factors, and gastrointestinal problems including adverse reactions to foods are often reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings on the role of the intestinal microbiome in ASD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773355/emerging-roles-for-the-gut-microbiome-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756430/microbiota-and-neurologic-diseases-potential-effects-of-probiotics
#11
Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754286/br-07-1-development-of-the-cell-microarray-for-high-throughput-analysis-of-gut-microbiota
#12
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667096/quantitation-of-plasma-thiamine-related-metabolites-and-plasma-protein-oxidative-damage-markers-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#13
Attia Anwar, Marina Marini, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Paola Visconti, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To assess thiamine and related metabolite status by analysis of plasma and urine in autistic children and healthy controls, correlations to clinical characteristics and link to plasma protein markers of oxidative damage. METHODS: 27 children with autism (21 males and 6 females) and 21 (15 males and 6 females) age-matched healthy control children were recruited. The concentration of thiamine and related phosphorylated metabolites in plasma and urine and plasma protein content of dityrosine, N-formylkynurenine and 3-nitrotyrosine was determined...
November 2, 2016: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647538/mood-disorders-and-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity
#14
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643284/br-07-1-development-of-the-cell-microarray-for-high-throughput-analysis-of-gut-microbiota
#15
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641441/gut-instincts-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-development-ageing-and-neurodegeneration
#16
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594980/ketogenic-diet-modifies-the-gut-microbiota-in-a-murine-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. FINDINGS: Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days...
2016: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581276/a-preliminary-investigation-on-the-relationship-between-gut-microbiota-and-gene-expressions-in-peripheral-mononuclear-cells-of-infants-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Ryo Inoue, Yuko Sakaue, Chihiro Sawai, Toshihiro Sawai, Motoyuki Ozeki, Gustavo A Romero-Pérez, Takamitsu Tsukahara
Fecal and blood samples of infants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy infants were analyzed to investigate the association of altered gut microbiota and ASD development. 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing found that, unlike those of healthy infants, feces of ASD infants had significantly higher and lower abundance of genera Faecalibacterium and Blautia, respectively. Moreover, DNA microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) detected more highly than low expressed genes in ASD infants than in healthy infants...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569540/measurement-of-urine-indolylacroylglycine-is-not-useful-in-the-diagnosis-or-dietary-management-of-autism
#19
Neil R Dalton, Susie Chandler, Charles Turner, Tony Charman, Andrew Pickles, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird
To measure urine indolylacroylglycine (IAG) excretion using the IAG:creatinine ratio in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with two groups of age matched controls, one with special needs but without ASD (SEN) and one typically developing (TD) and in subgroups with/without current gastrointestinal problems and ASD with and without regression. IAG:creatinine ratio was measured in the urine of 279 children aged 10-14 years: 129 children with ASD (28 with and 101 without regression), 62 SEN controls and 88 TD controls...
August 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548246/the-gut-speaks-reframing-the-role-of-pediatric-gastroenterologists-caring-for-children-with-autism-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#20
Jenifer R Lightdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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