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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896124/-immune-gate-of-psychopathology-the-role-of-gut-derived-immune-activation-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870270/impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-neurological-diseases-diet-composition-and-novel-treatments
#2
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868601/dietary-considerations-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-potential-role-of-protein-digestion-and-microbial-putrefaction-in-the-gut-brain-axis
#3
REVIEW
Megan R Sanctuary, Jennifer N Kain, Kathleen Angkustsiri, J Bruce German
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), characterized by a range of behavioral abnormalities and social deficits, display high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) co-morbidities including chronic constipation and diarrhea. Research is now increasingly able to characterize the "fragile gut" in these children and understand the role that impairment of specific GI functions plays in the GI symptoms associated with ASD. This mechanistic understanding is extending to the interactions between diet and ASD, including food structure and protein digestive capacity in exacerbating autistic symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787855/dysbiosis-of-microbiome-and-probiotic-treatment-in-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Tabouy Laure, Getselter Dimitry, Ziv Oren, Karpuj Marcela, Tabouy Timothée, Maayouf Rasha, Werbner Nir, Ben-Amram Hila, Nuriel-Ohayon Meital, Koren Omry, Elliott Evan
Recent studies have determined that the microbiome has direct effects on behavior, and may be dysregulated in neurodevelopmental conditions. Considering that neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, have a strong genetic etiology, it is necessary to understand if genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Shank3, can influence the gut microbiome, and if probiotics can be a therapeutic tool. In this study, we have identified dysregulation of several genera and species of bacteria in the gut and colon of both male and female Shank3 KO mice...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769579/hla-class-ii-haplotypes-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Meriem Bennabi, Alexandru Gaman, Richard Delorme, Wahid Boukouaci, Céline Manier, Isabelle Scheid, Nassima Si Mohammed, Djaouida Bengoufa, Dominique Charron, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
Infections and autoimmunity are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with both strongly influenced by the genetic regulation of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The relationship between ASD and the HLA genetic diversity requires further investigation. Using a case control design, the distribution of HLA class II-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes were investigated in ASD patients, versus healthy controls (HC). ASD patients meeting DSM-IV TR criteria and HC (474 and 350 respectively) were genotyped at medium resolution using a Luminex-based SSO technology...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617356/clostridium-bacteria-and-autism-spectrum-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-hypothetical-contribution-of-environmental-glyphosate-levels
#6
REVIEW
Isadora Argou-Cardozo, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá
Nowadays, there seems to be a consensus about the multifactorial nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature provides hypotheses dealing with numerous environmental factors and genes accounting for the apparently higher prevalence of this condition. Researchers have shown evidence regarding the impact of gut bacteria on neurological outcomes, altering behavior and potentially affecting the onset and/or severity of psychiatric disorders. Pesticides and agrotoxics are also included among this long list of ASD-related environmental stressors...
April 4, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600698/role-of-microbiota-in-the-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Daniela Campion, Paola Ponzo, Carlo Alessandria, Giorgio M Saracco, Federico Balzola
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defines a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms generally appear in the early developmental period and cause significant impairment in individual and social functioning. In recent years the increased prevalence of ASD, along with the evidence of a significant link between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, raised a special interest in exploringì the reciprocal influences between gut and brain...
March 30, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593681/intestinal-microbiota-influences-non-intestinal-related-autoimmune-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Maria C Opazo, Elizabeth M Ortega-Rocha, Irenice Coronado-Arrázola, Laura C Bonifaz, Helene Boudin, Michel Neunlist, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudia A Riedel
The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575030/shifts-in-gut-microbiota-composition-in-an-app-pss1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-lifespan
#10
EDITORIAL
C Bäuerl, M C Collado, A Diaz Cuevas, J Viña, G Pérez Martínez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and one of the major causes of disability and dependency in older people. Accumulating evidences link gut microbiota with different diseases and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases is becoming most intriguing. This study was aimed to compare the gut microbiota of transgenic APP/PS1 (TG) mice, a well-established deterministic mouse model of AD, with their C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) littermates. Faecal samples were collected from 3-, 6- and 24-month-old mice and analysed by pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
June 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571898/differential-immune-responses-and-microbiota-profiles-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-co-morbid-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#11
Destanie R Rose, Houa Yang, Gloria Serena, Craig Sturgeon, Bing Ma, Milo Careaga, Heather K Hughes, Kathy Angkustsiri, Melissa Rose, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Judy Van de Water, Robin L Hansen, Jacques Ravel, Alessio Fasano, Paul Ashwood
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have reported the increased presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Altered microbiome profiles, pro-inflammatory responses and impaired intestinal permeability have been observed in children with ASD and co-morbid GI symptoms, yet few studies have compared these findings to ASD children without GI issues or similarly aged typical developing children. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are biological signatures in terms of immune dysfunction and microbiota composition in children with ASD with GI symptoms...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564487/gut-microbial-dysbiosis-in-indian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Joby Pulikkan, Abhijit Maji, Darshan Bharat Dhakan, Rituja Saxena, Binoop Mohan, Milu Maria Anto, Neeti Agarwal, Tony Grace, Vineet K Sharma
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a term associated with a group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of ASD is not yet completely understood; however, a disorder in the gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor leading to autism. To identify the taxonomic composition and markers associated with ASD, we compared the fecal microbiota of 30 ASD children diagnosed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, DSM-5 approved AIIMS-modified INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorder (INDT-ASD), and Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) tool, with family-matched 24 healthy children from Indian population using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicon...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563885/interplay-between-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-possible-nutritional-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492874/mind-altering-with-the-gut-modulation-of-the-gut-brain-axis-with-probiotics
#14
REVIEW
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479405/advanced-glycation-endproducts-dityrosine-and-arginine-transporter-dysfunction-in-autism-a-source-of-biomarkers-for-clinical-diagnosis
#15
Attia Anwar, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Sabah Pasha, Kashif Rajpoot, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Marina Marini, Annio Posar, Paola Visconti, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
Background: Clinical chemistry tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are currently unavailable. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of proteotoxic biomarkers in plasma and urine, plasma protein glycation, oxidation, and nitration adducts, and related glycated, oxidized, and nitrated amino acids (free adducts), for the clinical diagnosis of ASD. Methods: Thirty-eight children with ASD (29 male, 9 female; age 7.6 ± 2.0 years) and 31 age-matched healthy controls (23 males, 8 females; 8...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462110/strain-differences-in-the-susceptibility-to-the-gut-brain-axis-and-neurobehavioural-alterations-induced-by-maternal-immune-activation-in-mice
#16
Livia H Morais, Daniela Felice, Anna V Golubeva, Gerard Moloney, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realization that the severity of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia is associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying such comorbidities remain unknown. Several genetic and environmental factors have been linked to a higher susceptibility to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is a valuable tool for elucidating the basis of this interaction. We induced MIA with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) at gestational day 12...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459836/treating-depression-with-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#17
Jian Kong, Jiliang Fang, Joel Park, Shaoyuan Li, Peijing Rong
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder, and its treatment is far from satisfactory. There is an urgent need to develop a new treatment for depression. Although still at its early stage, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has shown promising potential for treating depression. In this article, we first summarize the results of clinical studies on the treatment effect of taVNS on depression. Then, we re-analyze a previous study to identify the specific symptoms taVNS can relieve as indicated by subscores of the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456357/role-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-conferring-protection-in-children-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-from-a-sibling-case-control-study
#18
Harshini Manohar, Madhavapuri Pravallika, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Gut microflora influences neural development through complex mechanisms. Feeding practices, especially breastfeeding influence gut microbiome and thereby play a pivotal role in immune and neural development. Current understandings of the role of healthy distal gut microflora in the development of immune and neural systems provide insights into immunological mechanisms as one of the possible etiologies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown that optimal breastfeeding is associated with lower odds of being at-risk for ASD and children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427656/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-probiotics-on-neural-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411548/searching-for-the-gut-microbial-contributing-factors-to-social-behavior-in-rodent-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
May 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
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