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autism gut

Giulia Umbrello, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: The microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal tract have been associated with both gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In recent years, considerable interest has been devoted to their role in the development of neurologic diseases, as many studies have described bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the gut, the so-called "microbiota-gut-brain axis". Considering the ability of probiotics (i.e., live non-pathogenic microorganisms) to restore the normal microbial population and produce benefits for the host, their potential effects have been investigated in the context of neurologic diseases...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Attia Anwar, Marina Marini, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Paola Visconti, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To assess thiamine and related metabolite status by analysis of plasma and urine in autistic children and healthy controls, correlations to clinical characteristics and link to plasma protein markers of oxidative damage. METHODS: 27 children with autism (21 males and 6 females) and 21 (15 males and 6 females) age-matched healthy control children were recruited. The concentration of thiamine and related phosphorylated metabolites in plasma and urine and plasma protein content of dityrosine, N-formylkynurenine and 3-nitrotyrosine was determined...
September 25, 2016: Free Radical Research
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Christopher Newell, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer, Dustin S Hittel, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction and gut microbial composition disturbances have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines whether gut microbiome disturbances are present in the BTBR(T + tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and if the ketogenic diet, a diet previously shown to elicit therapeutic benefit in this mouse model, is capable of altering the profile. FINDINGS: Juvenile male C57BL/6 (B6) and BTBR mice were fed a standard chow (CH, 13 % kcal fat) or ketogenic diet (KD, 75 % kcal fat) for 10-14 days...
2016: Molecular Autism
Ryo Inoue, Yuko Sakaue, Chihiro Sawai, Toshihiro Sawai, Motoyuki Ozeki, Gustavo A Romero-Pérez, Takamitsu Tsukahara
Fecal and blood samples of infants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy infants were analyzed to investigate the association of altered gut microbiota and ASD development. 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing found that, unlike those of healthy infants, feces of ASD infants had significantly higher and lower abundance of genera Faecalibacterium and Blautia, respectively. Moreover, DNA microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) detected more highly than low expressed genes in ASD infants than in healthy infants...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Neil R Dalton, Susie Chandler, Charles Turner, Tony Charman, Andrew Pickles, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird
To measure urine indolylacroylglycine (IAG) excretion using the IAG:creatinine ratio in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with two groups of age matched controls, one with special needs but without ASD (SEN) and one typically developing (TD) and in subgroups with/without current gastrointestinal problems and ASD with and without regression. IAG:creatinine ratio was measured in the urine of 279 children aged 10-14 years: 129 children with ASD (28 with and 101 without regression), 62 SEN controls and 88 TD controls...
August 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jenifer R Lightdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Alper Evrensel, Mehmet Emin Ceylan
Fecal microbiota transplantation has a 1700-year history. This forgotten treatment method has been put into use again during the last 50 years. The interest in microbiota-gut-brain axis and fecal microbiota transplantation is rapidly increasing. New evidence is obtained in the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. There is a large number of experimental and clinical researches in the field of gut-brain axis. There is limited information on fecal microbiota transplantation. Despite this, initial results are promising...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, David Lantin, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst
With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mimi Chiu, Alexander Dillon, Stephanie Watson
AIM: We aim (i) to characterise the clinical features of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in a small cohort of Australian children; (ii) to determine the effects of VAD; and (iii) to quantify the prevalence of ophthalmic review in this group. METHODS: Data collected from the charts incorporated patient demographics, laboratory results, past medical history, ophthalmic symptoms and dietary history. Outcome measures were (i) occurrence of VAD in our study population; (ii) presence of associated systemic effects and ocular manifestations in those diagnosed with VAD; and (iii) determination of whether children with VAD had an ophthalmology review...
July 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Meenakshi Rao, Michael D Gershon
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is large, complex and uniquely able to orchestrate gastrointestinal behaviour independently of the central nervous system (CNS). An intact ENS is essential for life and ENS dysfunction is often linked to digestive disorders. The part the ENS plays in neurological disorders, as a portal or participant, has also become increasingly evident. ENS structure and neurochemistry resemble that of the CNS, therefore pathogenic mechanisms that give rise to CNS disorders might also lead to ENS dysfunction, and nerves that interconnect the ENS and CNS can be conduits for disease spread...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Eoin Sherwin, Kiran V Sandhu, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The role of the gut microbiota in health and disease is becoming increasingly recognized. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bi-directional pathway between the brain and the gastrointestinal system. The bacterial commensals in our gut can signal to the brain through a variety of mechanisms, which are slowly being resolved. These include the vagus nerve, immune mediators and microbial metabolites, which influence central processes such as neurotransmission and behaviour. Dysregulation in the composition of the gut microbiota has been identified in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression...
July 14, 2016: CNS Drugs
Ruth Ann Luna, Tor C Savidge, Kent C Williams
The brain-gut-microbiome axis refers to the interactions between the central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. Exploring these interactions provides a rationale for why gastrointestinal disorders commonly occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Signs of altered brain-gut interactions that are closely associated with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) commonly occur in children with ASD. Studies of microbiome in ASD suggest that changes in the gut microbiome may be associated with ASD and with GI disorders in children with ASD...
March 2016: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Patrick D Skosnik, Jose A Cortes-Briones
Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Andre Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Ken Walder, Michael Maes
There is a growing awareness that gut commensal metabolites play a major role in host physiology and indeed the pathophysiology of several illnesses. The composition of the microbiota largely determines the levels of tryptophan in the systemic circulation and hence, indirectly, the levels of serotonin in the brain. Some microbiota synthesize neurotransmitters directly, e.g., gamma-amino butyric acid, while modulating the synthesis of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)...
June 27, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Shelly A Buffington, Gonzalo Viana Di Prisco, Thomas A Auchtung, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in offspring. Here, we report that maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) induces a shift in microbial ecology that negatively impacts offspring social behavior. Social deficits and gut microbiota dysbiosis in MHFD offspring are prevented by co-housing with offspring of mothers on a regular diet (MRD) and transferable to germ-free mice. In addition, social interaction induces synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of MRD, but not MHFD offspring...
June 16, 2016: Cell
Michele Mussap, Antonio Noto, Vassilios Fanos
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders consisting of delayed or impaired language development and difficulties in social interactions. The very high degree of phenotypic heterogeneity in ASD originates from the interaction between environmental risk factors and susceptible genetic loci, leading to epigenetic DNA methylation. Advances in system biology are becoming strategic for implementing knowledge on the ASD aetiology and for the early diagnosis of the disease after birth...
August 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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