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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682227/-gut-microbiota-and-efficacy-of-cancer-therapies
#2
Marie Vétizou, Romain Daillère, Laurence Zitvogel
The gut microbiota is known to affect digestion, protection against pathogens infection, immune system maturation and enteric nervous system development, but others links have also been established with diabetes, obesity, autism and cancer. Lately, bacterial species from the gut have been involved in tumor immunosurveillance. Natural or mediated by treatment such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy, anti-tumoral immune responses seem to rely on gut microbiota. The bacteria involved and their mechanisms of action are different according to the treatment of interest...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680792/using-animal-models-to-study-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-autism
#3
REVIEW
Jess Nithianantharajah, Gayathri K Balasuriya, Ashley E Franks, Elisa L Hill-Yardin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly also suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction; however, few animal model studies have systematically examined both ASD and GI dysfunction. In this review, we highlight studies investigating GI dysfunction and alterations in gut microbiota in animal models of ASD with the aim of determining if routinely used microbiology and enteric neurophysiology assays could expand our understanding of the link between the two...
2017: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666895/the-microbiome-and-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Valeria D Felice, Siobhain M O'Mahony
Alterations of the gut microbiota have been associated with stress-related disorders including depression and anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More recently, researchers have started investigating the implication of perturbation of the microbiota composition in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Attention-Deficit Hypersensitivity Disorder (ADHD). In this review we will discuss how the microbiota is established and its functions in maintaining health. We also summarize both pre and post-natal factors that shape the developing neonatal microbiota and how they may impact on health outcomes with relevance to disorders of the central nervous system...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624097/serum-zonulin-gut-permeability-and-the-pathogenesis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-cause-effect-or-an-epiphenomenon
#5
EDITORIAL
Alessio Fasano, Ivor Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522826/disruption-of-melatonin-synthesis-is-associated-with-impaired-14-3-3-and-mir-451-levels-in-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
Cécile Pagan, Hany Goubran-Botros, Richard Delorme, Marion Benabou, Nathalie Lemière, Kerren Murray, Frédérique Amsellem, Jacques Callebert, Pauline Chaste, Stéphane Jamain, Fabien Fauchereau, Guillaume Huguet, Erik Maronde, Marion Leboyer, Jean-Marie Launay, Thomas Bourgeron
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a wide genetic and clinical heterogeneity. However, some biochemical impairments, including decreased melatonin (crucial for circadian regulation) and elevated platelet N-acetylserotonin (the precursor of melatonin) have been reported as very frequent features in individuals with ASD. To address the mechanisms of these dysfunctions, we investigated melatonin synthesis in post-mortem pineal glands - the main source of melatonin (9 patients and 22 controls) - and gut samples - the main source of serotonin (11 patients and 13 controls), and in blood platelets from 239 individuals with ASD, their first-degree relatives and 278 controls...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427452/modeling-environmental-risk-factors-of-autism-in-mice-induces-ibd-related-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-hyperserotonemia
#8
Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi, GwangPyo Ko
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations including (1) increased serotonin, (2) various modes of gastrointestinal disorders, and (3) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), albeit the underlying cause for such comorbidities remains uncertain. Also, accumulating number of studies report that the gut microbial composition is significantly altered in children with ASD or patients with IBD...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372995/targeting-aggression-in-severe-mental-illness-the-predictive-role-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-metabolomic-markers
#9
REVIEW
Mirko Manchia, Vassilios Fanos
Human aggression is a complex and widespread social behavior that is overrepresented in individuals affected by severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A substantial proportion of the liability threshold for aggressive behavior is determined by genetic factors, and environmental moderators might precipitate the manifestation of this behavioral phenotype through modification of gene expression via the epigenetic machinery...
July 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349974/sex-related-alterations-of-gut-microbiota-composition-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Lorena Coretti, Claudia Cristiano, Ermanno Florio, Giovanni Scala, Adriano Lama, Simona Keller, Mariella Cuomo, Roberto Russo, Raffaela Pero, Orlando Paciello, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Rosaria Meli, Sergio Cocozza, Antonio Calignano, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Francesca Lembo
Alterations of microbiota-gut-brain axis have been invoked in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mouse models could represent an excellent tool to understand how gut dysbiosis and related alterations may contribute to autistic phenotype. In this study we paralleled gut microbiota (GM) profiles, behavioral characteristics, intestinal integrity and immunological features of colon tissues in BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice, a well established animal model of ASD. Sex differences, up to date poorly investigated in animal models, were specifically addressed...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#11
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345660/zinc-deficiency-and-low-enterocyte-zinc-transporter-expression-in-human-patients-with-autism-related-mutations-in-shank3
#12
Stefanie Pfaender, Ann Katrin Sauer, Simone Hagmeyer, Katharina Mangus, Leonhard Linta, Stefan Liebau, Juergen Bockmann, Guillaume Huguet, Thomas Bourgeron, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
Phelan McDermid Syndrome (PMDS) is a genetic disorder characterized by features of Autism spectrum disorders. Similar to reports of Zn deficiency in autistic children, we have previously reported high incidence of Zn deficiency in PMDS. However, the underlying mechanisms are currently not well understood. Here, using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry to measure the concentration of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) in hair samples from individuals with PMDS with 22q13.3 deletion including SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3), we report a high rate of abnormally low Zn/Cu ratios...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#13
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296209/the-urinary-1-h-nmr-metabolomics-profile-of-an-italian-autistic-children-population-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#14
Milena Lussu, Antonio Noto, Alice Masili, Andrea C Rinaldi, Angelica Dessì, Maria De Angelis, Andrea De Giacomo, Vassilios Fanos, Luigi Atzori, Ruggiero Francavilla
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) make a dishomogeneous group of psychiatric diseases having either genetic and environmental components, including changes of the microbiota. The rate of diagnosis, based on a series of psychological tests and observed behavior, dramatically increased in the past few decades. Currently, no biological markers are available and the pathogenesis is not defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of (1) H-NMR metabolomics to analyze the global biochemical signature of ASD patients (n = 21) and controls (n = 21), these being siblings of autistic patients...
March 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#15
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275689/distinct-microbiome-neuroimmune-signatures-correlate-with%C3%A2-functional-abdominal-pain-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Ruth Ann Luna, Numan Oezguen, Miriam Balderas, Alamelu Venkatachalam, Jessica K Runge, James Versalovic, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, George M Anderson, Tor Savidge, Kent C Williams
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emerging data on the gut microbiome in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that altered host-microbe interactions may contribute to disease symptoms. Although gut microbial communities in children with ASD are reported to differ from individuals with neurotypical development, it is not known whether these bacteria induce pathogenic neuroimmune signals. METHODS: Because commensal clostridia interactions with the intestinal mucosa can regulate disease-associated cytokine and serotonergic pathways in animal models, we evaluated whether microbiome-neuroimmune profiles (from rectal biopsy specimens and blood) differed in ASD children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (ASD-FGID, n = 14) compared with neurotypical (NT) children with FGID (NT-FGID, n = 15) and without abdominal pain (NT, n = 6)...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275677/tightening-the-case-for-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222761/new-evidences-on-the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Francesco Strati, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Claudio De Felice, Claudio Donati, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Antonio Calabrò, Carlotta De Filippo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social and behavioural impairments. In addition to neurological symptoms, ASD subjects frequently suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities, thus implying a role of the gut microbiota in ASD gastrointestinal pathophysiology. RESULTS: Here, we characterized the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of autistic individuals demonstrating the presence of an altered microbial community structure...
February 22, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215985/detection-of-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-genes-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-autistic-children
#19
Sydney M Finegold, Paula H Summanen, Julia Downes, Karen Corbett, Tomoe Komoriya
We studied stool specimens from 33 autistic children aged 2-9 years with gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and 13 control children without autism and without GI symptoms. We performed quantitative comparison of all Clostridium species and Clostridium perfringens strains from the fecal microbiota by conventional, selective anaerobic culture methods. We isolated C. perfringens strains and performed PCR analysis for the main C. perfringens toxin genes, alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and C. perfringens enterotoxin gene...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#20
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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