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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107783/pbt-assessment-under-reach-screening-for-low-aquatic-bioaccumulation-with-qsar-classifications-based-on-physicochemical-properties-to-replace-bcf-in-vivo-testing-on-fish
#1
Monika Nendza, Ralph Kühne, Anna Lombardo, Sebastian Strempel, Gerrit Schüürmann
Aquatic bioconcentration factors (BCFs) are critical in PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic) and risk assessment of chemicals. High costs and use of more than 100 fish per standard BCF study (OECD 305) call for alternative methods to replace as much in vivo testing as possible. The BCF waiving scheme is a screening tool combining QSAR classifications based on physicochemical properties related to the distribution (hydrophobicity, ionisation), persistence (biodegradability, hydrolysis), solubility and volatility (Henry's law constant) of substances in water bodies and aquatic biota to predict substances with low aquatic bioaccumulation (nonB, BCF<2000)...
November 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102112/refinement-of-the-equine-influenza-model-in-the-natural-host-a-meta-analysis-to-determine-the-benefits-of-individual-nebulisation-for-experimental-infection-and-vaccine-evaluation-in-the-face-of-decreased-strain-pathogenicity
#2
Dion Garrett, Fernando Montesso, Stéphanie Fougerolle, Maria R Lopez-Alvarez, Ilhan Birand, Manuelle De Bock, Chengjin M Huang, Loïc Legrand, Stéphane Pronost, Romain Paillot
Equine Influenza (EI) is an important respiratory disease of horses caused by H3N8 equine influenza viruses (EIV). Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent or control this disease. However, EIV undergoes continuous antigenic drift and whilst numerous EI vaccines are commercially available worldwide, an accurate evaluation of their efficacy is frequently required through clinical trials conducted in the natural host. Room nebulisation is one of the chosen methods to challenge horses during EI vaccine studies...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099857/knockout-of-apolipoprotein-e-in-rabbit-promotes-premature-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-a-new-in-vivo-model-for-therapeutic-approaches-of-spinal-disc-disorders
#3
Anja Beierfuß, Hermann Dietrich, Christian Kremser, Monika Hunjadi, Andreas Ritsch, Thomas Rülicke, Claudius Thomé, Demissew Shenegelegn Mern
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration that accelerates the loss of disc structural and functional integrities is recognized as one of the major factors of chronic back pain. Cardiovascular risk factors, such as deficits of apolipoproteins that elevate the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, are considered critical for the progress of atherosclerosis; notably in the abdominal aorta and its lumbar branching arteries that supply lumbar vertebrae and IVDs. Obstruction of the lumbar arteries by atherosclerosis is presumed to promote lumbar disc degeneration and low back pain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081302/the-3rs-in-research-a-contemporary-approach-to-replacement-reduction-and-refinement
#4
Judy MacArthur Clark
First promulgated in 1959, the 3Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement have evolved as fundamental principles underlying the use of animals and alternatives in science throughout the modern world. This review describes a contemporary approach to delivering the 3Rs through acknowledging the contribution of new technologies and emphasising that applying the 3Rs can be beneficial to good science as well as to animal welfare. This science-led approach moves the concept of the 3Rs out of an ethical silo where they were often considered by scientists to be an inconvenient obligation...
October 30, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069581/aligning-nanotoxicology-with-the-3rs-what-is-needed-to-realise-the-short-medium-and-long-term-opportunities
#5
Natalie Burden, Karin Aschberger, Qasim Chaudhry, Martin J D Clift, Paul Fowler, Helinor Johnston, Robert Landsiedel, Joanna Rowland, Vicki Stone, Shareen H Doak
Nanomaterials convey numerous advantages, and the past decade has seen a considerable rise in their development and production for an expanse of applications. While the potential advantages of nanomaterials are clear, concerns over the impact of human and environmental exposure exist. Concerted, science-led efforts are required to understand the effects of nanomaterial exposure and ensure that protection goals are met. There is much on-going discussion regarding how best to assess nanomaterial risk, particularly considering the large number of tests that may be required...
October 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988682/the-3rs-concept-time-to-change-how-we-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-anthelmintics-in-companion-animals
#6
REVIEW
Donato Traversa, Anja Joachim
Experimental infections are required by current guidelines for investigating the efficacy of anthelmintics in dogs and cats. Recently, alternatives to experimental infections and the sacrificing of research dogs and cats have been evaluated, and novel conceptual investigations and methods of examination have been explored. Several of these approaches could potentially be used in efficacy studies for anthelmintics in dogs and cats. Here, we provide food for thought towards using new tools for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in companion animals, for promoting the value of field trials, and for updating the existing guidelines for the efficacy testing of anthelmintics in dogs and cats...
October 4, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978784/reduced-3-4-bipyrazoles-from-a-simple-pyrazole-precursor-synthetic-sequence-molecular-structures-and-supramolecular-assembly
#7
Viviana Cuartas, Braulio Insuasty, Justo Cobo, Christopher Glidewell
The reaction of 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde and N-benzylmethylamine under microwave irradiation gives 5-[benzyl(methyl)amino]-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde, C19H19N3O, (I). Subsequent reactions under basic conditions, between (I) and a range of acetophenones, yield the corresponding chalcones. These undergo cyclocondensation reactions with hydrazine to produce reduced bipyrazoles which can be N-formylated with formic acid or N-acetylated with acetic anhydride. The structures of (I) and of representative examples from this reaction sequence are reported, namely the chalcone (E)-3-{5-[benzyl(methyl)amino]-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl}-1-(4-bromophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, C27H24BrN3O, (II), the N-formyl derivative (3RS)-5'-[benzyl(methyl)amino]-3'-methyl-1',5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-1'H,2H-[3,4'-bipyrazole]-2-carbaldehyde, C28H27N5O, (III), and the N-acetyl derivative (3RS)-2-acetyl-5'-[benzyl(methyl)amino]-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-1'H,2H-[3,4'-bipyrazole], which crystallizes as the ethanol 0...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968196/report-of-workshop-on-euthanasia-for-zebrafish-a-matter-of-welfare-and-science
#8
Almut Köhler, Chereen Collymore, Karin Finger-Baier, Robert Geisler, Larissa Kaufmann, Kieran C Pounder, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Ana Valentim, Zoltan M Varga, Jürgen Weiss, Uwe Strähle
The increasing importance of zebrafish as a biomedical model organism is reflected by the steadily growing number of publications and laboratories working with this species. Regulatory recommendations for euthanasia as issued in Directive 2010/63/EU are, however, based on experience with fish species used for food production and do not take the small size and specific physiology of zebrafish into account. Consequently, the currently recommended methods of euthanasia in the Directive 2010/63/EU are either not applicable or may interfere with research goals...
October 2, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965177/removal-of-industrial-dyes-and-heavy-metals-by-beauveria-bassiana-ftir-sem-tem-and-afm-investigations-with-pb-ii
#9
Deepak Gola, Anushree Malik, Maneesh Namburath, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Presence of industrial dyes and heavy metal as a contaminant in environment poses a great risk to human health. In order to develop a potential technology for remediation of dyes (Reactive remazol red, Yellow 3RS, Indanthrene blue and Vat novatic grey) and heavy metal [Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI) and Pb(II)] contamination, present study was performed with entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (MTCC no. 4580). High dye removal (88-97%) was observed during the growth of B. bassiana while removal percentage for heavy metals ranged from 58 to 75%...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927532/beyond-mouse-cancer-models-three-dimensional-human-relevant-in-vitro-and-non-mammalian-in-vivo-models-for-photodynamic-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Malgorzata Kucinska, Marek Murias, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
The proper design of experiments is a critical step for each study in order to obtain reproducible and reliable data. Taking into account constant competitiveness in the quickly developing biomedical sciences and the availability of sophisticated techniques, the choice and establishment of an experimental model system are essential for a successful research project. Currently, various sophisticated in vitro and in vivo models are being designed and developed in order to replace the use of mammalian models to investigate the mechanisms of action, activity and properties of novel compounds or treatment modalities...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903085/multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-lipid-interactions-with-p-glycoprotein-in-a-complex-membrane
#11
Laura Domicevica, Heidi Koldsø, Philip C Biggin
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can transport a wide range of very different hydrophobic organic molecules across the membrane. Its ability to extrude molecules from the cell creates delivery problems for drugs that target proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) and also causes drug-resistance in many forms of cancer. Whether a drug will be susceptible to export by P-gp is difficult to predict and currently this is usually assessed with empirical and/or animal models. Thus, there is a need to better understand how P-gp works at the molecular level in order to fulfil the 3Rs: Refinement, reduction and replacement of animals in research...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857652/safety-testing-of-acellular-pertussis-vaccines-use-of-animals-and-3rs-alternatives
#12
Marieke Hoonakker, Juan Arciniega, Coenraad Hendriksen
The current test of acellular Bordetella pertussis (aP) vaccines for residual pertussis toxin (PTx) is the Histamine Sensitization test (HIST), based on the empirical finding that PTx sensitizes mice to histamine. Although HIST has ensured the safety of aP vaccines for years, it is criticized for the limited understanding of how it works, its technical difficulty, and for animal welfare reasons. To estimate the number of mice used worldwide for HIST, we surveyed major aP manufacturers and organizations performing, requiring, or recommending the test...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855318/considering-aspects-of-the-3rs-principles-within-experimental-animal-biology
#13
REVIEW
Lynne U Sneddon, Lewis G Halsey, Nic R Bury
The 3Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838070/the-role-of-the-iacuc-in-the-design-and-conduct-of-animal-experiments-that-contribute-to-translational-success
#14
J I Everitt, B R Berridge
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) have a mandated role under the Animal Welfare Act and under Public Health Service Policy to assure the ethical and humane use of research animals in experiments conducted in the United States. The IACUC by virtue of its mandated functions is well positioned to help nurture an institutional culture of optimized animal use since this Committee is often responsible in large part for the culture of animal use that evolves within an institution. In addition to fostering a culture of humane care for research animals and a culture of working with the concepts of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement), the IACUC can help foster a culture of optimized animal use that encourages high quality reproducible studies that contribute to translational success...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818595/fish-embryo-toxicity-test-threshold-approach-and-moribund-as-approaches-to-implement-3r-principles-to-the-acute-fish-toxicity-test
#15
REVIEW
ZhiChao Dang, Leo T M van der Ven, Anne S Kienhuis
The acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800376/fetal-bovine-serum-fbs-past-present-future
#16
Jan van der Valk, Karen Bieback, Christiane Buta, Brett Cochrane, Wilhelm G Dirks, Jianan Fu, James J Hickman, Christiane Hohensee, Roman Kolar, Manfred Liebsch, Francesca Pistollato, Markus Schulz, Daniel Thieme, Tilo Weber, Joachim Wiest, Stefan Winkler, Gerhard Gstraunthaler
The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as 'fetal calf serum') is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where (a) regulatory aspects, (b) the serum dilemma, (c) alternatives to FBS, (d) case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and (e) the establishment of serum-free databases, were discussed...
August 9, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774667/the-current-status-of-exposure-driven-approaches-for-chemical-safety-assessment-a-cross-sector-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Fiona Sewell, Manoj Aggarwal, Gerald Bachler, Alan Broadmeadow, Nichola Gellatly, Emma Moore, Sally Robinson, Martijn Rooseboom, Alexander Stevens, Claire Terry, Natalie Burden
For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756735/ethical-issues-in-the-use-of-animal-models-for-tissue-engineering-reflections-on-legal-aspects-moral-theory-three-rs-strategies-and-harm-benefit-analysis
#19
Gabriel R Liguori, Bertus F Jeronimus, Tácia T de Aquinas Liguori, Luiz Felipe P Moreira, Martin C Harmsen
Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments...
September 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746936/defining-standards-in-experimental-microsurgical-training-recommendations-of-the-european-society-for-surgical-research-essr-and-the-international-society-for-experimental-microsurgery-isem
#20
René H Tolba, Zoltán Czigány, Suzanne Osorio Lujan, Mihai Oltean, Michael Axelsson, Yelena Akelina, Antonio Di Cataldo, Iren Miko, Istvan Furka, Uta Dahmen, Eiji Kobayashi, Mihai Ionac, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Expectations towards surgeons in modern surgical practice are extremely high with minimal complication rates and maximal patient safety as paramount objectives. Both of these aims are highly dependent on individual technical skills that require sustained, focused, and efficient training outside the clinical environment. At the same time, there is an increasing moral and ethical pressure to reduce the use of animals in research and training, which has fundamentally changed the practice of microsurgical training and research...
July 26, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
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