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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927532/beyond-mouse-cancer-models-three-dimensional-human-relevant-in-vitro-and-non-mammalian-in-vivo-models-for-photodynamic-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Malgorzata Kucinska, Marek Murias, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
The proper design of experiments is a critical step for each study in order to obtain reproducible and reliable data. Taking into account constant competitiveness in the quickly developing biomedical sciences and the availability of sophisticated techniques, the choice and establishment of an experimental model system are essential for a successful research project. Currently, various sophisticated in vitro and in vivo models are being designed and developed in order to replace the use of mammalian models to investigate the mechanisms of action, activity and properties of novel compounds or treatment modalities...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903085/multiscale-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-lipid-interactions-with-p-glycoprotein-in-a-complex-membrane
#2
Laura Domicevica, Heidi Koldsø, Philip C Biggin
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can transport a wide range of very different hydrophobic organic molecules across the membrane. Its ability to extrude molecules from the cell creates delivery problems for drugs that target proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) and also causes drug-resistance in many forms of cancer. Whether a drug will be susceptible to export by P-gp is difficult to predict and currently this is usually assessed with empirical and/or animal models. Thus, there is a need to better understand how P-gp works at the molecular level in order to fulfil the 3Rs: Refinement, reduction and replacement of animals in research...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857652/safety-testing-of-acellular-pertussis-vaccines-use-of-animals-and-3rs-alternatives
#3
Marieke Hoonakker, Juan Arciniega, Coenraad Hendriksen
The current test of acellular Bordetella pertussis (aP) vaccines for residual pertussis toxin (PTx) is the Histamine Sensitization test (HIST), based on the empirical finding that PTx sensitizes mice to histamine. Although HIST has ensured the safety of aP vaccines for years, it is criticized for the limited understanding of how it works, its technical difficulty, and for animal welfare reasons. To estimate the number of mice used worldwide for HIST, we surveyed major aP manufacturers and organizations performing, requiring, or recommending the test...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855318/considering-aspects-of-the-3rs-principles-within-experimental-animal-biology
#4
REVIEW
Lynne U Sneddon, Lewis G Halsey, Nic R Bury
The 3Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838070/the-role-of-the-iacuc-in-the-design-and-conduct-of-animal-experiments-that-contribute-to-translational-success
#5
J I Everitt, B R Berridge
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) have a mandated role under the Animal Welfare Act and under Public Health Service Policy to assure the ethical and humane use of research animals in experiments conducted in the United States. The IACUC by virtue of its mandated functions is well positioned to help nurture an institutional culture of optimized animal use since this Committee is often responsible in large part for the culture of animal use that evolves within an institution. In addition to fostering a culture of humane care for research animals and a culture of working with the concepts of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement), the IACUC can help foster a culture of optimized animal use that encourages high quality reproducible studies that contribute to translational success...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818595/fish-embryo-toxicity-test-threshold-approach-and-moribund-as-approaches-to-implement-3r-principles-to-the-acute-fish-toxicity-test
#6
REVIEW
ZhiChao Dang, Leo T M van der Ven, Anne S Kienhuis
The acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800376/fetal-bovine-serum-fbs-past-present-future
#7
Jan van der Valk, Karen Bieback, Christiane Buta, Brett Cochrane, Wilhelm G Dirks, Jianan Fu, James J Hickman, Christiane Hohensee, Roman Kolar, Manfred Liebsch, Francesca Pistollato, Markus Schulz, Daniel Thieme, Tilo Weber, Joachim Wiest, Stefan Winkler, Gerhard Gstraunthaler
The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as 'fetal calf serum') is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where (a) regulatory aspects, (b) the serum dilemma, (c) alternatives to FBS, (d) case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and (e) the establishment of serum-free databases, were discussed...
August 9, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#8
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774667/the-current-status-of-exposure-driven-approaches-for-chemical-safety-assessment-a-cross-sector-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Fiona Sewell, Manoj Aggarwal, Gerald Bachler, Alan Broadmeadow, Nichola Gellatly, Emma Moore, Sally Robinson, Martijn Rooseboom, Alexander Stevens, Claire Terry, Natalie Burden
For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756735/ethical-issues-in-the-use-of-animal-models-for-tissue-engineering-reflections-on-legal-aspects-moral-theory-three-rs-strategies-and-harm-benefit-analysis
#10
Gabriel R Liguori, Bertus F Jeronimus, Tácia T de Aquinas Liguori, Luiz Felipe P Moreira, Martin C Harmsen
Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision-making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remain a difficult and sensitive matter. This article presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular, in tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine. First, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Second, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments...
September 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746936/defining-standards-in-experimental-microsurgical-training-recommendations-of-the-european-society-for-surgical-research-essr-and-the-international-society-for-experimental-microsurgery-isem
#11
René H Tolba, Zoltán Czigány, Suzanne Osorio Lujan, Mihai Oltean, Michael Axelsson, Yelena Akelina, Antonio Di Cataldo, Iren Miko, Istvan Furka, Uta Dahmen, Eiji Kobayashi, Mihai Ionac, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Expectations towards surgeons in modern surgical practice are extremely high with minimal complication rates and maximal patient safety as paramount objectives. Both of these aims are highly dependent on individual technical skills that require sustained, focused, and efficient training outside the clinical environment. At the same time, there is an increasing moral and ethical pressure to reduce the use of animals in research and training, which has fundamentally changed the practice of microsurgical training and research...
July 26, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726007/sharing-mutations-are-biobanks-still-required-in-the-post-crispr-cas9-era
#12
Janet Kenyon, Martin D Fray
Cryopreservation is seen as a key aspect of good colony management which supports the drive towards improvements in animal care and the implementation of the 3Rs. However, following the advent of gene editing technologies, the generation of new mouse models is quicker and cheaper than ever before. This has led some to question the future value of biobanks around the world. In the following commentary, we argue that the need to cryopreserve mouse strains and distribute them from well-funded repositories is as strong as it has ever been...
July 18, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669523/-animal-experiment-can-we-replace
#13
H Combrisson
Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions...
June 29, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669388/multivariate-analysis-of-the-immune-response-to-a-vaccine-as-an-alternative-to-the-repetition-of-animal-challenge-studies-for-vaccines-with-demonstrated-efficacy
#14
Ludivine Chapat, Florence Hilaire, Jérome Bouvet, Daniel Pialot, Corinne Philippe-Reversat, Anne-Laure Guiot, Lydie Remolue, Jacques Lechenet, Christine Andreoni, Hervé Poulet, Michael J Day, Karelle De Luca, Carine Cariou, Lionel Cupillard
The assessment of vaccine combinations, or the evaluation of the impact of minor modifications of one component in well-established vaccines, requires animal challenges in the absence of previously validated correlates of protection. As an alternative, we propose conducting a multivariate analysis of the specific immune response to the vaccine. This approach is consistent with the principles of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) and avoids repeating efficacy studies based on infectious challenges in vivo...
July 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666717/drivers-and-barriers-in-the-consistency-approach-for-vaccine-batch-release-testing-report-of-an-international-workshop
#15
Martijn W P Bruysters, Marie-Jeanne Schiffelers, Marieke Hoonakker, Carmen Jungbaeck, Ian Ragan, Eddy Rommel, Ton van der Stappen, Laura Viviani, Ellen V Hessel, Arnoud M Akkermans, Rob J Vandebriel
Safety and potency assessment for batch release testing of established vaccines still relies partly on animal tests. An important avenue to move to batch release without animal testing is the consistency approach. This approach is based on thorough characterization of the vaccine, and the principle that the quality of subsequent batches is the consequence of the application of consistent production of batches monitored by a GMP quality system. Efforts to implement the consistency approach are supported by several drivers from industry, government, and research, but there are also several barriers that must be overcome...
June 27, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653171/editing-mammalian-genomes-ethical-considerations
#16
Andy Greenfield
Genome editing is facilitating the manipulation of genomes on an unprecedented scale. It promises to revolutionize our ability to study gene function and generate models of human genetic disease in a range of organisms, most notably in mammals such as the mouse. Is this new technology likely to be disruptive to our research practices in any way? Will it alter the ways in which we implement the ethical imperatives of the 3Rs? In short, what ethical questions are raised by genome editing of mammals in a biomedical research context?...
June 26, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596049/modern-science-for-better-quality-control-of-medicinal-products-towards-global-harmonization-of-3rs-in-biologicals-the-report-of-an-epaa-workshop
#17
Katrin Schutte, Anna Szczepanska, Marlies Halder, Klaus Cussler, Ursula G Sauer, Catrina Stirling, Sylvie Uhlrich, Iwona Wilk-Zasadna, David John, Martin Bopst, Joerg Garbe, Harrie L Glansbeek, Robin Levis, Pieter-Jan Serreyn, Dean Smith, Paul Stickings
This article summarizes the outcome of an international workshop organized by the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) on Modern science for better quality control of medicinal products: Towards global harmonization of 3Rs in biologicals. As regards the safety testing of biologicals, the workshop participants agreed to actively encourage the deletion of abnormal toxicity tests and target animal batch safety tests from all relevant legal requirements and guidance documents (country-specific guidelines, pharmacopoeia monographs, WHO recommendations)...
June 5, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595837/application-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-nematode-and-danio-rerio-embryo-zebrafish-as-model-systems-to-screen-for-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicity-of-piperazine-compounds
#18
Peter I Racz, Marjolein Wildwater, Martijn Rooseboom, Engelien Kerkhof, Raymond Pieters, Elena Santidrian Yebra-Pimentel, Ron P Dirks, Herman P Spaink, Chantal Smulders, Graham F Whale
To enable selection of novel chemicals for new processes, there is a recognized need for alternative toxicity screening assays to assess potential risks to man and the environment. For human health hazard assessment these screening assays need to be translational to humans, have high throughput capability, and from an animal welfare perspective be harmonized with the principles of the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement). In the area of toxicology a number of cell culture systems are available but while these have some predictive value, they are not ideally suited for the prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART)...
October 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576162/conference-report-on-tedd-3r-workshop-at-zhaw-waedenswil
#19
Elsbeth Heinzelmann
On April 7, 2017, TEDD (Tissue Engineering for Drug Development and Substance Testing) and the Animal Research Foundation joined forces at ZHAW Waedenswil to present their latest scientific results in the domain of the 3Rs of biomedical research: how to Refine, Reduce and Replace animal testing with alternative approaches.
May 31, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552675/the-era-of-3rs-implementation-in-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicity-dart-testing-current-overview-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Manon Beekhuijzen
Since adoption of the first globally implemented guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) testing for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and agrochemicals, many years passed without major updates. However in recent years, significant changes in these guidelines have been made or are being implemented. These changes have been guided by the ethical drive to reduce, refine and replace (3R) animal testing, as well as the addition of endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. Recent applied improvements have focused on reduction and refinement...
May 25, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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