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Roger N Lemon
This Feature focuses on UK neuroscience research using nonhuman primates (NHPs), and the application of the 3Rs, in the light of the recent EU SCHEER report and subsequent article by Prescott et al. The challenge of understanding the human brain and its disorders means that NHP research is still very much needed, although it is essential that this research is complemented by studies using other approaches, such as human volunteers and patients, and other alternatives to NHP use. Analysis of recent publications shows that these complementary approaches are already being actively exploited by NHP researchers in the UK...
May 4, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Alessandra Marconi, Marika Quadri, Annalisa Saltari, Carlo Pincelli
Melanoma is one of the most studied neoplasia, although laboratory techniques used for investigating this tumor are not fully reliable. Animal models may not predict the human response due to differences in skin physiology and immunity. In addition, international guidelines recommend to develop processes that contribute to the reduction, refinement and replacement of animals for experiments (3Rs). Adherent cell culture has been widely used for the study of melanoma to obtain important information regarding melanoma biology...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Syed M Qadri, David A Donkor, Matthew Yan, Shuoyan Ning, Donald R Branch, Jerard Seghatchian, William P Sheffield
Canadian Blood Services (CBS), Canada's national blood transfusion service, has for many years sponsored an annual conference, for the education and awareness of interested participants, showcasing the latest evidence-based understanding of both basic science and clinical issues in transfusion medicine and science. The 15th iteration of this symposium took place September 9, 2017 and focused on some of the vital aspects of red blood cells (RBC), in line with the" 3Rs" concept, namely the provision of the Right red blood cell (RBC) product to the Right patient at the Right time...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Arti Ahluwalia, Anna Maria Bassi, Paolo Milazzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
Lisa Accomasso, Caterina Cristallini, Claudia Giachino
The use of nanomaterials in medicine has grown very rapidly, leading to a concern about possible health risks. Surely, the application of nanotechnology in medicine has many significant potentialities as it can improve human health in at least three different ways: by contributing to early disease diagnosis, improved treatment outcomes and containment of health care costs. However, toxicology or safety assessment is an integral part of any new medical technology and the nanotechnologies are no exception. The principle aim of nanosafety studies in this frame is to enable safer design of nanomedicines...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
L Galbis-Martínez, M L Fernández-Cruz, L Alte, A Valdehita, I Rucandio, J M Navas
The current wide use of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) is leading to the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to water bodies. Aquatic organisms, including fish, are exposed to low concentrations of NPs for long periods of time being necessary to develop laboratory toxicity tests reflecting realistic conditions. Additionally, today there is a demand of in vitro assays respecting the 3Rs principle. Thus, the main aim of this work was to stablish an in vitro tool for the assessment of long-term NPs ecotoxicity. Considering the key role of liver in detoxification, a rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was used...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Patricia Xander, Karen Spadari Ferreira, Wagner Luiz Batista
The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are caused by several parasites, fungi, bacteria and viruses and affect more than one billion people in the world. The control and prevention against NTDs need implementation of alternative methods for testing new compounds against these diseases. For the implementation of alternative methods, it is necessary to apply the principles of replacement, reduction and refinement (the 3Rs) for the use of laboratory animals. Accordingly, the present review addressed a variety of alternative models to study the infections caused by protozoa and fungi...
April 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Claire Jean-Quartier, Fleur Jeanquartier, Igor Jurisica, Andreas Holzinger
BACKGROUND: Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Stanley E Lazic
Underpowered experiments have three problems: true effects are harder to detect, the true effects that are detected tend to have inflated effect sizes and as power decreases so does the probability that a statistically significant result represents a true effect. Many biology experiments are underpowered and recent calls to change the traditional 0.05 significance threshold to a more stringent value of 0.005 will further reduce the power of the average experiment. Increasing power by increasing the sample size is often the only option considered, but more samples increases costs, makes the experiment harder to conduct and is contrary to the 3Rs principles for animal research...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Michael Markert, Thomas Trautmann, Florian Krause, Marius Cioaga, Sebastien Mouriot, Miriam Wetzel, Brian D Guth
INTRODUCTION: A newly developed total implant telemetry system for cardiovascular (CV), electrophysiological and body temperature measurement was evaluated. A cloud-based transmission of the physiological signals allowed an assessment of the quality of the physiological signals despite the physical separation between the instrumented animals and the evaluating home laboratory. The new system is intended to be used for safety pharmacological evaluations of drug candidates in various species...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Anaelle da Costa, Christophe Prehaud, Cecile Khou, Nathalie Pardigon, Aure Saulnier, Nolwenn Nougarede, Monique Lafon
Live attenuated vaccines have proved to be mostly valuable in the prevention of infectious diseases in humans, especially in developing countries. The safety and potency of vaccine, and the consistency of vaccine batch-to-batch manufacturing, must be proven before being administrated to humans. For now, the tests used to control vaccine safety largely involve animal testing. For live viral vaccines, regulations require suppliers to demonstrate the absence of neurovirulence in animals, principally in non-human primates and mice...
March 23, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Christian Riebeling, Andreas Luch, Tewes Tralau
Driven by the fast paced development of complex test systems in vitro, mass spectrometry and omics we finally have the tools to unravel the molecular events that underlie toxicological adversity. Yet, timely regulatory adaptation of these new tools continues to pose major challenges even for organs readily accessible such as skin. The reasons for this encompass a need for conservatism as well as the need of tests to serve an existing regulatory framework rather than to produce scientific knowledge. It is important to be aware of this in order to align regulatory skin toxicity with the 3R-principles more readily...
March 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Andrea Amaroli, Sara Ferrando, Marina Pozzolini, Lorenzo Gallus, Steven Parker, Stefano Benedicenti
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a manipulation of cellular behavior using non-ablative low intensity light sources. This manipulation triggers a cascade of metabolic effects and physiological changes resulting in improved tissue repair, of benefit in the treatment of tissue injury, degenerative or autoimmune diseases. PBM has witnessed an exponential increase in both clinical instrument technology and applications. It is therefore of benefit to find reliable experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology for medical applications...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Cynthia Chapel, Nathalie Rocher-Hélion, Nathalie Mantel, Sandy Imbert, Eric Deshaies, Véronique Barban, Alain Sabouraud, Jean-Philippe Barbe, Laurent Mallet
Absence of 'live' residual poliovirus in Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is routinely checked using Primary Monkey Kidney Cells (PMKC). However, the increasing demand for IPV and the ethical, technical and safety issues associated with the use of non-human primates in research and quality control, has made the replacement of primary cells with an established cell line a priority, in line with the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement in animal testing). As an alternative to PMKC, we evaluated the L20B cell line; a mouse cell-line genetically engineered to express human poliovirus receptor, CD155...
June 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Laura M Langan, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
A novel method for the establishment and long-term maintenance of ex vivo cultures from intestinal regions of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), is reported. Adherence of cells was observed within hours, epithelial island formation recorded at 48 h and rapid proliferation with confluence achieved between 9-14 days. In addition to metabolic characterisation, basic morphology of growing cells was characterised using histology, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
March 7, 2018: Biology Open
Theetha L Pavankumar
Inteins are self-splicing polypeptides with an ability to excise themselves from flanking host protein regions with remarkable precision; in the process, they ligate flanked host protein fragments. Inteins are distributed sporadically across all three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes). However, their apparent localized distribution in DNA replication, repair, and recombination proteins (the 3Rs), particularly in bacteria and archaea, is enigmatic. Our understanding of the localized distribution of inteins in the 3Rs, and their possible regulatory role in such distribution, is still only partial...
February 28, 2018: Microorganisms
Motoki Nakamura, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Jean Krutmann, Akimichi Morita
Increasing ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation have led to the development of various alternative methods based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement), first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. Cosmetic research and skin ageing research are particularly susceptible to concerns related to animal testing. In addition to animal welfare reasons, there are scientific and economic reasons to reduce and avoid animal experiments. Importantly, animal experiments may not reflect findings in humans mainly because of the differences in architectures and immune responses between animal skin and human skin...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Karine Audouze, Olivier Taboureau, Philippe Grandjean
The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex, and a larvicide used to control mosquitoes responsible for transmission of the virus was soon suggested as an important causative factor. Yet, it is challenging to identify relevant and efficient tests that are also in line with ethical research defined by the 3Rs rule (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement)...
February 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
C Curtin, J C Nolan, R Conlon, L Deneweth, C Gallagher, Y J Tan, B L Cavanagh, A Z Asraf, H Harvey, S Miller-Delaney, J Shohet, I Bray, F J O'Brien, R L Stallings, O Piskareva
3D scaffold-based in vitro cell culturing is a recent technological advancement in cancer research bridging the gap between conventional 2D culture and in vivo tumours. The main challenge in treating neuroblastoma, a paediatric cancer of the sympathetic nervous system, is to combat tumour metastasis and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant 3D neuroblastoma tissue-engineered system and explore its therapeutic relevance. Two neuroblastoma cell lines, chemotherapeutic sensitive Kelly and chemotherapeutic resistant KellyCis83 were cultured in a 3D in vitro model on two collagen-based scaffolds containing either glycosaminoglycan (Coll-GAG) or nanohydroxyapatite (Coll-nHA) and compared to 2D cell culture and an orthotopic murine model...
April 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Yuji Yoshiyama
The alternative method to animal experiments is based on 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) of animal experiments. The use of an alternative method to animal experiment has become a global trend in chemical substances, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, agrochemicals, as well as cosmetics for which animal testing within the EU area was prohibited by the EU directive. Here, the progress of alternative method research to animal experiment in Japan, and recent topics on the development of "replacement" in cell culture, non mammalian, non vertebrates and in silico as technical aspects are described...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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