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João Barroso, Il Young Ahn, Cristiane Caldeira, Paul L Carmichael, Warren Casey, Sandra Coecke, Rodger Curren, Bertrand Desprez, Chantra Eskes, Claudius Griesinger, Jiabin Guo, Erin Hill, Annett Janusch Roi, Hajime Kojima, Jin Li, Chae Hyung Lim, Wlamir Moura, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, HyeKyung Park, Shuangqing Peng, Octavio Presgrave, Tim Singer, Soo Jung Sohn, Carl Westmoreland, Maurice Whelan, Xingfen Yang, Ying Yang, Valérie Zuang
The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sonja Beken, Peter Kasper, Jan-Willem van der Laan
Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sepideh Abolpour Mofrad, Katharina Kuenzel, Oliver Friedrich, Daniel F Gilbert
Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and allow toxicity testing at different stages of maturation. However, differentiation of NT2 cells is not straightforward. There are different protocols available in the literature reporting varying results with regard to differentiation efficiency, expression of neuronal markers and morphological characteristics of differentiated cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Myung Chul Choi, Peter J Chung, Chaeyeon Song, Herbert P Miller, E Kiris, Youli Li, Leslie Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein, Cyrus R Safinya
BACKGROUND: Microtubules (MTs) are protein nanotubes comprised of straight protofilaments (PFs), head to tail assemblies of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. Previously, it was shown that Tau, a microtubule-associated protein (MAP) localized to neuronal axons, regulates the average number of PFs in microtubules with increasing inner radius <Rin(MT)> observed for increasing Tau/tubulin-dimer molar ratio ΦTau at paclitaxel/tubulin-dimer molar ratio ΛPtxl=1/1. METHODS: We report a synchrotron SAXS and TEM study of the phase behavior of microtubules as a function of varying concentrations of paclitaxel (1/32≤ΛPtxl≤1/4) and Tau (human isoform 3RS, 0≤Φ3RS≤1/2) at room temperature...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Cherif Akladios, Mihaela Ignat, Didier Mutter, Marc Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: The 3Rs guideline is the gold standard for ethics in animal experimentation. Two of those rules, namely refinement and reduction, require further improvement. The objective of this study was to define pathways to better compliance with these prerequisites. Two methods which move us in this direction are: (1) using small animal imaging techniques for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) follow-up and (2) reduction of the number of control animals included in a study of PDAC progression under treatment...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Sergiu A Chicu, Ladislaus Schannen, Mihai V Putz, Georgeta-M Simu
The structure-toxicity relationships for a series of singular human stomatological pharmaceuticals preparations and in mixture with Iodoform on Hydractinia echinata were obtained and their synergism was analyzed through the Metamorphosis Reduction Concentration (MRC50) within the "Köln model". The differences manifested between the total and individual components of the samples and mixtures, associated with toxic versus non-toxic synergism, are dependent on three essential factors of synthesis (the nature, the concentration and the number) besides manifested isotoxicity of the given components...
August 31, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins
A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implementing the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in large-scale colony management, and environmental enrichment. The audience also participated in a survey of current practice relating to practical husbandry, cryopreservation, and the provision of enrichment...
August 18, 2016: Zebrafish
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Arnold I Caplan, Chris Mason, Brock Reeve
: SummaryThe 3Rs for a good education are "reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic." The basis for good health care solutions for the emergent field of cell therapy in the future will also involve 3Rs: regulation, reimbursement, and realization of value. The business models in this new field of cell therapy will involve these 3Rs. This article brings forth realities facing this new industry for its approaches to provide curative health care solutions. SIGNIFICANCE: Cell therapies (including mesenchymal stem cell-related technologies) are forecasted to substantially change disease outcomes and thus patient lives...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Byung-Chul Kim, Do-Keun Kim, Hyung-Jin Kim, Seung-Hwa Hong, Yeonhee Kim, Jong-Mi Lim, JiYoung Hong, Cheol-Hee Kim, Yong-Keun Park, Jaeok Kim
The use of inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines has been ongoing in East Asia for 40 years. A mouse immunogenicity assay followed by a Plaque Reduction Neutralization (PRN) Test (PRNTest) is currently recommended for each lot release of the vaccine by many national authorities. We developed an alternative in vitro ELISA to determine the E antigen content of the Japanese encephalitis virus to observe the 3Rs strategy. A collaborative study for replacing the in vivo potency assay for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine with the in vitro ELISA assay was confirmed comparability between these two methods...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
Nosheen Hussain, David Connah, Hassan Ugail, Patricia A Cooper, Robert A Falconer, Laurence H Patterson, Steven D Shnyder
Non-invasive methods to monitor tumour growth are an important goal in cancer drug development. Thermographic imaging systems offer potential in this area, since a change in temperature is known to be induced due to changes within the tumour microenvironment. This study demonstrates that this imaging modality can be applied to a broad range of tumour xenografts and also, for the first time, the methodology's suitability to assess anti-cancer agent efficacy. Mice bearing subcutaneously implanted H460 lung cancer xenografts were treated with a novel vascular disrupting agent, ICT-2552, and the cytotoxin doxorubicin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fabiana Manservisi, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annalisa Buscaroli, James Huff, Michelina Lauriola, Daniele Mandrioli, Marco Manservigi, Simona Panzacchi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Fiorella Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: For nearly five decades long-term studies in rodents have been the accepted benchmark for assessing chronic long-term toxic effects, particularly carcinogenicity, of chemicals. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have pointed out that the current set of internationally utilized test methods capture only some of the potential adverse effects associated with exposures to these agents over the lifetime. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we propose the adaption of the carcinogenicity bioassay to integrate additional protocols for comprehensive long-term toxicity assessment that includes developmental exposures and long-term outcomes, capable of generating information on a broad spectrum of different endpoints...
July 22, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Gail F Davies, Beth J Greenhough, Pru Hobson-West, Robert G W Kirk, Ken Applebee, Laura C Bellingan, Manuel Berdoy, Henry Buller, Helen J Cassaday, Keith Davies, Daniela Diefenbacher, Tone Druglitrø, Maria Paula Escobar, Carrie Friese, Kathrin Herrmann, Amy Hinterberger, Wendy J Jarrett, Kimberley Jayne, Adam M Johnson, Elizabeth R Johnson, Timm Konold, Matthew C Leach, Sabina Leonelli, David I Lewis, Elliot J Lilley, Emma R Longridge, Carmen M McLeod, Mara Miele, Nicole C Nelson, Elisabeth H Ormandy, Helen Pallett, Lonneke Poort, Pandora Pound, Edmund Ramsden, Emma Roe, Helen Scalway, Astrid Schrader, Chris J Scotton, Cheryl L Scudamore, Jane A Smith, Lucy Whitfield, Sarah Wolfensohn
Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways...
2016: PloS One
Anita R Iskandar, Carole Mathis, Florian Martin, Patrice Leroy, Alain Sewer, Shoaib Majeed, Diana Kuehn, Keyur Trivedi, Davide Grandolfo, Maciej Cabanski, Emmanuel Guedj, Celine Merg, Stefan Frentzel, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
In vitro toxicology approaches have evolved, from a focus on molecular changes within a cell to understanding of toxicity-related mechanisms in systems that can mimic the in vivo environment. The recent development of three dimensional (3-D) organotypic nasal epithelial culture models offers a physiologically robust system for studying the effects of exposure through inhalation. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with nasal inflammation; thus the nasal epithelium is relevant for evaluating the pathophysiological impact of CS exposure...
July 7, 2016: ALTEX
Edward C Gaiser, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Patrick D Worhunsky, Ania M Jastreboff, Brian Pittman, Lauren Kantrovitz, Gustavo A Angarita, Kelly P Cosgrove, Marc N Potenza, Robert T Malison, Richard E Carson, David Matuskey
Most prior work with positron emission tomography (PET) dopamine subtype 2/3 receptor (D2/3R) non-selective antagonist tracers suggests obese (OB) individuals exhibit lower D2/3Rs when compared to normal weight (NW) individuals. A D3-preferring D2/3R agonist tracer, [(11)C](+)PHNO, has demonstrated that body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with D2/3R availability within striatal reward regions. To date, OB individuals have not been studied with [(11)C](+)PHNO. We assessed D2/3R availability in striatal and extrastriatal reward regions in fourteen OB and fourteen age- and gender-matched NW individuals with [(11)C](+)PHNO PET utilizing High Resolution Research Tomograph...
July 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Rosagemma Ciliberti, Mariano Martini, Alessandro Bonsignore, Susanna Penco
In recent years, the development of research and the increased awareness of our moral duties beyond the human species have pushed the scientific community to revise widely-accepted ontological reductionist views that regard non-human animals as mere things. The new horizons offered by the development of advanced research methods therefore require an on-going commitment to new perspectives able to find the right balance between the need for scientific knowledge on one hand and the respect for animal life on the other...
April 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Grant P Otto, Marco Cocorocchio, Laura Munoz, Richard A Tyson, Till Bretschneider, Robin S B Williams
Increasing concern regarding the use of animals in research has triggered a growing need for non-animal research models in a range of fields. The development of 3Rs (replacement, refinement, and reduction) approaches in research, to reduce the reliance on the use of animal tissue and whole-animal experiments, has recently included the use of Dictyostelium. In addition to not feeling pain and thus being relatively free of ethical constraints, Dictyostelium provides a range of distinct methodological advantages for researchers that has led to a number of breakthroughs...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paola Scocco, Francesca Mercati, Federico Maria Tardella, Andrea Catorci
The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values...
August 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Nai-bin Yang, Xiao-jun Pan, Jing-jing Cheng, Jia-qiang Lin, Jia-yin Zhu
Laboratory animals and animal experiments are foundations and important support conditions for life sciences, especially for medical research. The animal experiments have drawn extensive attention from the society because of the ethical issue. This paper takes Wenzhou Medical University as an example to give a brief introduction to the ethical review about laboratory animals in the university so as to further draw attention and concerns from the public about the ethical issue of laboratory animals. We successively introduce its scientific projects, nurturing environment and ethical review of laboratory animals...
November 2015: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Annette Dalrymple, Patricia Ordoñez, David Thorne, David Walker, Oscar M Camacho, Ansgar Büttner, Debbie Dillon, Clive Meredith
Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks...
June 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
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