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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909191/analgesia-in-clinically-relevant-rodent-models-of-sepsis
#1
Victor Jeger, Till Hauffe, Flora Nicholls-Vuille, Dominique Bettex, Alain Rudiger
Postoperative analgesia in rodent sepsis models has been considerably neglected in the past. However, intentions to model clinical practice, increasing awareness of animal ethics, efforts to apply the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement), and stricter legislation argue for a change in this respect. In this review, we describe different concepts of analgesia in rodent models of sepsis focusing on opioid agonists as well as non-opioid analgesics. Advantages and pitfalls in study design and side-effects are discussed...
December 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889857/accurate-control-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-long-term-release-increases-reliability-and-reproducibility-of-preclinical-animal-studies
#2
Céline Gérard, Anne Gallez, Charline Dubois, Pierre Drion, Philippe Delahaut, Etienne Quertemont, Agnès Noël, Christel Pequeux
Estrogens are the subject of intensive researches aiming to elucidate their mechanism of action on the various tissues they target and especially on mammary gland and breast cancer. The use of ready-to-use slow releasing devices to administer steroids, especially estrogens, to small experimental animals remains the method of choice in terms of animal well-being and of safety for both the researcher and the animal. In this study, we evaluated and compared, in vitro and in vivo, the release kinetic of estradiol (E2) over sixty days from two different slow-releasing systems: the matrix pellet (MP) and the reservoir implant (RI)...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864887/ethical-use-of-animal-models-in-musculoskeletal-research
#3
Matthew J Allen Vet, Kurt D Hankenson, Laurie Goodrich, Gregory P Boivin, Brigitte von Rechenberg
The use of animals in research is under increasing scrutiny from the general public, funding agencies and regulatory authorities. Our ability to continue to perform in-vivo studies in laboratory animals will be critically determined by how researchers respond to this new reality. This Perspectives article summarizes recent and ongoing initiatives within ORS and allied organizations to ensure that musculoskeletal research is performed to the highest ethical standards. It goes on to present an overview of the practical application of the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) into experimental design and execution, and discusses recent guidance with regard to improvements in the way in which animal data are reported in publications...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858407/preclinical-imaging-anesthesia-in-rodents
#4
Giancarlo Vesce, Fabiana Micieli, Ludovica Chiavaccini
Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770464/in-vivo-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-guidance-for-3rs-friendly-implementation
#5
Marian Raschke, Bernd-W Igl, Julia Kenny, Joanne Collins, Stephen D Dertinger, Carson Labash, Javed A Bhalli, Cameron C M Tebbe, Kylie M McNeil, Andreas Sutter
The rodent Pig-a assay is an in vivo method for the detection of gene mutation, where lack of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins on the surface of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) serves as a reporter for Pig-a gene mutation. In the case of rats, the frequency of mutant phenotype RBCs is measured via fluorescent anti-CD59 antibodies and flow cytometry. The Pig-a assay meets the growing expectations for novel approaches in animal experimentation not only focusing on the scientific value of the assay but also on animal welfare aspects (3Rs principles), for example, amenable to integration into pivotal rodent 28-day general toxicology studies...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762297/early-detection-of-t-cell-transfer-induced-autoimmune-colitis-by-in-vivo-imaging-system
#6
Yu-Ling Chen, Yi-Ting Chen, Cheng-Feng Lo, Ching-I Hsieh, Shang-Yi Chiu, Chang-Yen Wu, Yu-Shan Yeh, Shu-Hsuan Hung, Po-Hao Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Hsian-Jean Chin, Yu-Chia Su
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25(-)CD45RB(hi)CD4(+) (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671730/international-harmonization-and-cooperation-in-the-validation-of-alternative-methods
#7
João Barroso, Il Young Ahn, Cristiane Caldeira, Paul L Carmichael, Warren Casey, Sandra Coecke, Rodger Curren, Bertrand Desprez, Chantra Eskes, Claudius Griesinger, Jiabin Guo, Erin Hill, Annett Janusch Roi, Hajime Kojima, Jin Li, Chae Hyung Lim, Wlamir Moura, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, HyeKyung Park, Shuangqing Peng, Octavio Presgrave, Tim Singer, Soo Jung Sohn, Carl Westmoreland, Maurice Whelan, Xingfen Yang, Ying Yang, Valérie Zuang
The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671719/regulatory-acceptance-of-alternative-methods-in-the-development-and-approval-of-pharmaceuticals
#8
Sonja Beken, Peter Kasper, Jan-Willem van der Laan
Animal studies may be carried out to support first administration of a new medicinal product to either humans or the target animal species, or before performing clinical trials in even larger populations, or before marketing authorisation, or to control quality during production. Ethical and animal welfare considerations require that animal use is limited as much as possible. Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes unambiguously fosters the application of the principle of the 3Rs when considering the choice of methods to be used...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671506/optimizing-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-nt2-stem-cells-in-monolayer-cultures
#9
Sepideh Abolpour Mofrad, Katharina Kuenzel, Oliver Friedrich, Daniel F Gilbert
Human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (NT2) cells are increasingly considered as a suitable model for in vitro developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity (DT/DNT) studies as they undergo neuronal differentiation upon stimulation with retinoic acid (RA) and allow toxicity testing at different stages of maturation. However, differentiation of NT2 cells is not straightforward. There are different protocols available in the literature reporting varying results with regard to differentiation efficiency, expression of neuronal markers and morphological characteristics of differentiated cells...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632200/paclitaxel-suppresses-tau-mediated-microtubule-bundling-in-a-concentration-dependent-manner
#10
Myung Chul Choi, Peter J Chung, Chaeyeon Song, Herbert P Miller, E Kiris, Youli Li, Leslie Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein, Cyrus R Safinya
BACKGROUND: Microtubules (MTs) are protein nanotubes comprised of straight protofilaments (PFs), head to tail assemblies of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. Previously, it was shown that Tau, a microtubule-associated protein (MAP) localized to neuronal axons, regulates the average number of PFs in microtubules with increasing inner radius <Rin(MT)> observed for increasing Tau/tubulin-dimer molar ratio ΦTau at paclitaxel/tubulin-dimer molar ratio ΛPtxl=1/1. METHODS: We report a synchrotron SAXS and TEM study of the phase behavior of microtubules as a function of varying concentrations of paclitaxel (1/32≤ΛPtxl≤1/4) and Tau (human isoform 3RS, 0≤Φ3RS≤1/2) at room temperature...
September 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620742/survival-variability-of-controls-and-definition-of-imaging-endpoints-for-longitudinal-follow-up-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-in-rats
#11
Cherif Akladios, Mihaela Ignat, Didier Mutter, Marc Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: The 3Rs guideline is the gold standard for ethics in animal experimentation. Two of those rules, namely refinement and reduction, require further improvement. The objective of this study was to define pathways to better compliance with these prerequisites. Two methods which move us in this direction are: (1) using small animal imaging techniques for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) follow-up and (2) reduction of the number of control animals included in a study of PDAC progression under treatment...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591706/hydractinia-echinata-test-system-iv-toxic-synergism-of-human-pharmaceuticals-in-mixtures-with-iodoform
#12
Sergiu A Chicu, Ladislaus Schannen, Mihai V Putz, Georgeta-M Simu
The structure-toxicity relationships for a series of singular human stomatological pharmaceuticals preparations and in mixture with Iodoform on Hydractinia echinata were obtained and their synergism was analyzed through the Metamorphosis Reduction Concentration (MRC50) within the "Köln model". The differences manifested between the total and individual components of the samples and mixtures, associated with toxic versus non-toxic synergism, are dependent on three essential factors of synthesis (the nature, the concentration and the number) besides manifested isotoxicity of the given components...
August 31, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537782/report-of-a-meeting-on-contemporary-topics-in-zebrafish-husbandry-and-care
#13
Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins
A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implementing the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in large-scale colony management, and environmental enrichment. The audience also participated in a survey of current practice relating to practical husbandry, cryopreservation, and the provision of enrichment...
December 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535983/implementing-the-3rs-improving-experimental-approaches-in-animal-biology
#14
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502516/the-3rs-of-cell-therapy
#15
Arnold I Caplan, Chris Mason, Brock Reeve
: SummaryThe 3Rs for a good education are "reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic." The basis for good health care solutions for the emergent field of cell therapy in the future will also involve 3Rs: regulation, reimbursement, and realization of value. The business models in this new field of cell therapy will involve these 3Rs. This article brings forth realities facing this new industry for its approaches to provide curative health care solutions. SIGNIFICANCE: Cell therapies (including mesenchymal stem cell-related technologies) are forecasted to substantially change disease outcomes and thus patient lives...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497622/a-collaborative-study-of-an-alternative-in-vitro-potency-assay-for-the-japanese-encephalitis-vaccine
#16
Byung-Chul Kim, Do-Keun Kim, Hyung-Jin Kim, Seung-Hwa Hong, Yeonhee Kim, Jong-Mi Lim, JiYoung Hong, Cheol-Hee Kim, Yong-Keun Park, Jaeok Kim
The use of inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines has been ongoing in East Asia for 40 years. A mouse immunogenicity assay followed by a Plaque Reduction Neutralization (PRN) Test (PRNTest) is currently recommended for each lot release of the vaccine by many national authorities. We developed an alternative in vitro ELISA to determine the E antigen content of the Japanese encephalitis virus to observe the 3Rs strategy. A collaborative study for replacing the in vivo potency assay for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine with the in vitro ELISA assay was confirmed comparability between these two methods...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491535/the-use-of-thermographic-imaging-to-evaluate-therapeutic-response-in-human-tumour-xenograft-models
#17
Nosheen Hussain, David Connah, Hassan Ugail, Patricia A Cooper, Robert A Falconer, Laurence H Patterson, Steven D Shnyder
Non-invasive methods to monitor tumour growth are an important goal in cancer drug development. Thermographic imaging systems offer potential in this area, since a change in temperature is known to be induced due to changes within the tumour microenvironment. This study demonstrates that this imaging modality can be applied to a broad range of tumour xenografts and also, for the first time, the methodology's suitability to assess anti-cancer agent efficacy. Mice bearing subcutaneously implanted H460 lung cancer xenografts were treated with a novel vascular disrupting agent, ICT-2552, and the cytotoxin doxorubicin...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448388/an-integrated-experimental-design-for-the-assessment-of-multiple-toxicological-end-points-in-rat-bioassays
#18
Fabiana Manservisi, Clara Babot Marquillas, Annalisa Buscaroli, James Huff, Michelina Lauriola, Daniele Mandrioli, Marco Manservigi, Simona Panzacchi, Ellen K Silbergeld, Fiorella Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: For nearly five decades long-term studies in rodents have been the accepted benchmark for assessing chronic long-term toxic effects, particularly carcinogenicity, of chemicals. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have pointed out that the current set of internationally utilized test methods capture only some of the potential adverse effects associated with exposures to these agents over the lifetime. OBJECTIVES: In this paper we propose the adaption of the carcinogenicity bioassay to integrate additional protocols for comprehensive long-term toxicity assessment that includes developmental exposures and long-term outcomes, capable of generating information on a broad spectrum of different endpoints...
July 22, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428071/developing-a-collaborative-agenda-for-humanities-and-social-scientific-research-on-laboratory-animal-science-and-welfare
#19
Gail F Davies, Beth J Greenhough, Pru Hobson-West, Robert G W Kirk, Ken Applebee, Laura C Bellingan, Manuel Berdoy, Henry Buller, Helen J Cassaday, Keith Davies, Daniela Diefenbacher, Tone Druglitrø, Maria Paula Escobar, Carrie Friese, Kathrin Herrmann, Amy Hinterberger, Wendy J Jarrett, Kimberley Jayne, Adam M Johnson, Elizabeth R Johnson, Timm Konold, Matthew C Leach, Sabina Leonelli, David I Lewis, Elliot J Lilley, Emma R Longridge, Carmen M McLeod, Mara Miele, Nicole C Nelson, Elisabeth H Ormandy, Helen Pallett, Lonneke Poort, Pandora Pound, Edmund Ramsden, Emma Roe, Helen Scalway, Astrid Schrader, Chris J Scotton, Cheryl L Scudamore, Jane A Smith, Lucy Whitfield, Sarah Wolfensohn
Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388676/3-d-nasal-cultures-systems-toxicological-assessment-of-a-candidate-modified-risk-tobacco-product
#20
Anita R Iskandar, Carole Mathis, Florian Martin, Patrice Leroy, Alain Sewer, Shoaib Majeed, Diana Kuehn, Keyur Trivedi, Davide Grandolfo, Maciej Cabanski, Emmanuel Guedj, Celine Merg, Stefan Frentzel, Nikolai V Ivanov, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
In vitro toxicology approaches have evolved, from a focus on molecular changes within a cell to understanding of toxicity-related mechanisms in systems that can mimic the in vivo environment. The recent development of three dimensional (3-D) organotypic nasal epithelial culture models offers a physiologically robust system for studying the effects of exposure through inhalation. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with nasal inflammation; thus the nasal epithelium is relevant for evaluating the pathophysiological impact of CS exposure...
July 7, 2016: ALTEX
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