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eye drops contamination

Matthew P Muller, Naureen Siddiqui, Rose Ivancic, David Wong
Adenovirus-associated epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (A-EKC) is a cause of large and prolonged outbreaks in ophthalmology clinics and can result in substantial morbidity. A-EKC outbreaks are often the result of contaminated ophthalmologic equipment, surfaces, or hands. Contaminated multidose eye drops are also a likely culprit, but few prior studies provide clear epidemiologic evidence that adenovirus transmission resulted from contamination of eye drops. We describe an A-EKC outbreak at a large, hospital-affiliated eye clinic that affected 44 patients...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Scott A Davis, Betsy Sleath, Delesha M Carpenter, Susan J Blalock, Kelly W Muir, Donald L Budenz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current state of knowledge regarding glaucoma patients' eye drop technique, interventions attempting to improve eye drop technique, and methods for assessing eye drop technique. RECENT FINDINGS: In observational studies, between 18.2 and 80% of patients contaminate their eye drop bottle by touching their eye or face, 11.3-60.6% do not instill exactly one drop, and 6.8-37.3% miss the eye with the drop. Factors significantly associated with poorer technique include older age, lack of instruction on eye drop technique, female sex, arthritis, more severe visual field defect, lack of positive reinforcement to take eye drops, lower educational level, low self-efficacy, and being seen at a clinic rather than a private practice...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Asegedech Tsegaw, Asamere Tsegaw, Tefera Abula, Yared Assefa
PURPOSE: Ophthalmic solutions used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes were found to be contaminated with bacteria pathogens and caused serious ocular infections such as keratitis and endophthalmitis. The objective was to assess the magnitude and pattern of bacterial contamination of multi-dose ophthalmic medications and investigate the drug susceptibility pattern of the isolates in the Department of Ophthalmology at Gondar University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: A total of 100 ophthalmic medications in-use by patients and eye-care workers have been taken and cultured for potential bacterial contamination in the Microbiology Department after 1 week and >1 week of use...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
Paige Solomon, Jenny Nelson
In this study, we investigated the elemental impurities present in the plastic material of ophthalmic eye drop bottles using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Metallic contaminations, especially localized within the small cavity of the eye, can significantly perturb the ocular metallome. The concern is two-fold: first certain elements, for example heavy metals, can be toxic to humans at even trace levels, and second, these contaminations can have adverse reactions with other medicines or enzymatic processes in the eye...
March 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Martina Cristaldi, Melania Olivieri, Gabriella Lupo, Carmelina D Anfuso, Salvatore Pezzino, Dario Rusciano
PURPOSE: Preservatives are used in multi-dose ophthalmic topical medications in order to prevent contamination by bacteria and fungi. However, prolonged use of preserved eye drops, as it may happen in dry eye or glaucoma, may damage cells of the ocular surface. Therefore, an important goal is to find preservatives with low toxicity which are mild to host cells, still able to prevent drug contamination so to maintain their sterility and efficacy. Hence, aim of this study has been to compare the relative toxicity on a rabbit corneal cell line of a new preservative, made by the association of N-hydroxy-methyl-glycinate (NIG) with disodium-ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA), with other known and widely used eye-drops preservatives...
March 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Michael T M Wang, Irene Sung Hee Cho, Soo Hee Jung, Jennifer P Craig
PURPOSE: To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. METHODS: Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop® Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line...
August 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Joseph Pierce Sullivan, Nisha Nair, Hari-Hara Potula, Maria Gomes-Solecki
Leptospirosis is potentially a fatal zoonosis acquired by contact of skin and mucosal surfaces with soil and water contaminated with infected urine. We analyzed the outcome of infection of C3H/HeJ mice with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni using an enzootic mode of transmission, the conjunctival route. Infection led to weight loss and L. interrogans dissemination from blood to urine, and spirochetes were detected in blood and urine simultaneously. The infectious dose that led to consistent dissemination to kidney after conjunctival infection was ∼108 leptospires...
April 2017: Infection and Immunity
Isaiah Davies, Andrew M Williams, Kelly W Muir
One aspect to eye drop adherence is successful instillation of the drops; however, it is well known that many patients struggle with this task. Difficulties may include aiming their drops, extending their neck, preventing excess drop leakage, avoiding contamination of the bottle tip, and generating enough force to expel a drop from the bottle. Instillation aids are devices that aim to ameliorate one or more of these barriers. We review the literature on instillation aids to describe the options available to patients and to report evaluations of their efficacy...
May 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
April 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Isaiah J Davies, Ninita H Brown, Joanne C Wen, Sandra S Stinnett, Kelsey Kubelick, Roma P Patel, Kristin L Benokraitis, Latoya Greene, Curry Cheek, Kelly W Muir
PURPOSE: This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB), a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered "yes" to the question, "Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?" After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Hayrullah Yazar, Abdulhekim Yarbag, Mehmet Balci, Bahri Teker, Pelin Tanyeri
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of classical treatment and povidone-iodine treatment for adenoviral conjunctivitis. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Centre of Marmara Eye Health, Sakarya, Turkey, between January 2011 and February 2014, and comprised adult patients suffering from adenoviral conjunctivitis. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was given povidone-iodine solution while Group II was given the classical treatment and was taken as control...
August 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Ioannis Katsakoulas, Claudia Lougovoi, Penelope Paraskevopoulou, Nikolaos Vougioukas
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is one of the most frequent diagnoses for seeking eye care. Accumulated evidence over the past three decades has revealed a significant contribution of several molecules contained in tears at the homeostasis of the epithelium of the ocular surface. Therefore, autologous blood serum in the form of eye drops can provide substantial help in the management of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Also making this a favorable treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the fact that this approach has become an insurance-covered benefit in some countries...
May 2015: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Eduardo Anitua, María de la Fuente, Ana Riestra, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Francisco Muruzábal, Gorka Orive
PURPOSE: To analyze whether plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops preserve their biological characteristics and activity after storage for 3 and 6 months at -20°C, at 4°C, and at room temperature for 72 hours, compared with fresh samples (t0). METHODS: Blood from 6 healthy donors was harvested and centrifuged to obtain PRGF free of leukocytes. Resulting PRGF eye drops were stored for 3 and 6 months at -20°C. At each time, 2 aliquots were maintained at room temperature or at 4°C for 72 hours...
September 2015: Cornea
William Rostene, Alexandre Denoyer, Christophe Baudouin
The celebrations of the 200th anniversary of Claude Bernard's birth (1813) give us the opportunity to recall all the pioneer work carried out by the great physiologist, which still remains relevant in both scientific and medical fields. The description that tissues are "floating in a liquid milieu" bringing survival molecules and allowing homeostasis, is particularly illustrated in the physiopathology of glaucoma. Second leading cause of blindness worldwide, glaucoma is an optic neuropathy mainly related to an increase of intraocular pressure...
October 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Shuhei Hidaka, Mitsutoshi Kobayashi, Kunihide Ando, Yoshikazu Fujii
Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment...
July 2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Peixi Zhu, Weifeng Yang, Liya Hong, Qiaoyuan Cheng, Lei Luo, Jiajia He, Juanjuan Chen
A simple and sensitive method was developed for characterization of two impurities from commercial bendazac lysine eye drops, by using liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization and QTOF mass analyzer (LC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS). A known impurity was characterized rapidly by comparison with the retention time and MS/MS data of the reference standard. Based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a new impurity, purified by preparative HPLC, was identified as 2-(1,5-dibenzyl-1H-indazol-3-yloxy)acetic acid...
March 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Francesco Blasetti, Donatella Usai, Salvatore Sotgia, Ciriaco Carru, Stefania Zanetti, Antonio Pinna
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to investigate whether the preparation, storage, and use of autologous serum in insulin syringes is microbiologically safe. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from 10 volunteers. After centrifugation, the supernatant serum was removed and distributed in 5 sterile insulin syringes for each sample; syringes were numbered 0 to 4 and labelled with the subject's details. Syringes were immediately transported to the microbiology laboratory and stored in a refrigerator at +4°C...
January 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Onsiri Thanathanee, Raweewan Athikulwongse, Orapin Anutarapongpan, Porntip Laummaunwai, Wanchai Maleewong, Pewpan Maleewong Intapan, Olan Suwan-Apichon
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and treatments of microsporidial epithelial keratitis in Thailand. METHODS: Twenty eyes of 19 patients were diagnosed and the clinical presentations, risk factors, and management were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 19 patients, six patients (32%) had no apparent risk factors. Predisposing factors included soil exposure (6/19, 32%), water contamination (6/19, 32%), and eye liner (1/19, 4%)...
2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jeong-Hun Kim, Felix Bießmann, Seong-Whan Lee
Decoding motor commands from noninvasively measured neural signals has become important in brain-computer interface (BCI) research. Applications of BCI include neurorehabilitation after stroke and control of limb prostheses. Until now, most studies have tested simple movement trajectories in two dimensions by using constant velocity profiles. However, most real-world scenarios require much more complex movement trajectories and velocity profiles. In this study, we decoded motor commands in three dimensions from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings while the subjects either executed or observed/imagined complex upper limb movement trajectories...
September 2015: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Beata Zabrzewska, Anna Chyła, Anna Bogdan
Preservatives are chemical substances whose role is to protect medicinal products against harmful changes caused by microorganisms. They are added to sterile medicinal products, such as eye drops and multidose solutions for injections, as well as to non-sterile products, such as water oral solutions, creams, gels, suppositories and capsules with liquid content. The most commonly used preservatives include: benzyl alcohol, butyl, ethyl, methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoates and their sodium salts. In medicinal products benzyl alcohol slowly oxidizes to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid while esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrolyze to p-hydroxybenzoic acid...
July 2014: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
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