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Mónica Martins, Sandra Sanches, Inês A C Pereira
Antibiotics and hormones are among the most concerning trace contaminants in the environment. Therefore, the present work aimed to identify anaerobic microorganisms with the ability to remove pharmaceutical products (PhPs) belonging to these two classes (ciprofloxacin, 17β-estradiol and sulfamethoxazole) under different anaerobic conditions, and to elucidate the bio-removal mechanisms involved. Ciprofloxacin was efficiently biodegraded under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions reaching a PhP removal superior to 80%, whereas 17β-estradiol was only biodegraded under nitrate-reducing conditions reaching a removal of 84%...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Maria Gorete Mendes de Souza, Luís Fernando Leandro, Thaís da Silva Moraes, Fariza Abrão, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Diterpenes are an important class of plant metabolites that can be used in the search for new antibacterial agents. ent-Copalic acid (CA), the major diterpene in Copaifera species exudates, displays several pharmacological properties. This study evaluates the CA antibacterial potential against the anaerobic bacteria Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Actinomyces naeslundii. Antimicrobial assays included time-kill and biofilm inhibition and eradication assays. Time-kill assays conducted for CA concentrations between 6...
May 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Ya-Ping Gou, Mohamed M Meghil, Cesar R Pucci, Lorenzo Breschi, David H Pashley, Christopher W Cutler, Li-Na Niu, Ji-Yao Li, Franklin R Tay
Secondary caries and hybrid layer degradation are two major challenges encountered in long-term resin-dentin bond stability. As a link between resin and dentin, adhesives that possess both antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic activities are in demand for eliminating bacteria-induced secondary caries and preventing hybrid layers from degradation. In the present study, a new quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silane (QAMS) prepared from sol-gel chemistry was incorporated into experimental adhesives to examine their antimicrobial effect and anti-proteolytic potential...
June 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Adele Papetti, Caterina Signoretto, David A Spratt, Jonathan Pratten, Peter Lingström, Egija Zaura, Itzhak Ofek, Michael Wilson, Carla Pruzzo, Gabriella Gazzani
The present study investigated the compounds present in the low molecular mass fraction of Lentinus edodes mushroom (shiitake) extract and their anti-virulence activity against oral pathogens (reference and clinical Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia strains). Oxalic, succinic, and quinic acids, and adenine, inosine, and uridine were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Their anti-biofilm production and preformed biofilm disaggregation activities were studied using commercial standard compounds at different concentrations...
June 8, 2018: Food & Function
Franco Cavalla, Claudia Cristina Biguetti, Jessica Lima Melchiades, Andre Pantenuci Tabanez, Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone, Marcelo Faveri, Magda Feres, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet
Chronic periodontitis is the most prevalent form of inflammatory destructive bone disease and has been affecting humans since antiquity. Evidence suggest that genetic factors can highly influence periodontitis risk, modulating disease elements such as the susceptibility to microbial colonization and the nature of subsequent host-microbe interaction. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the occurrence of periodontitis, but the full range of genetic influence in periodontitis outcomes remains to be determined...
May 23, 2018: Genes
M Loukil, I Khalfallah, K Bouzaidi, E Chelbi, H Ghrairi
INTRODUCTION: Actinomycosis is a rare suppurative infection, subacute or chronic caused by bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. OBSERVATIONS: A case study of 4 patients with prolonged respiratory symptoms. The clinical examination was poor in all cases. The CT-scan showed, in all cases, a suspicious tissue mass. The bronchoscopy diagnosis showed, in 2 cases, a tumor budding and was normal for the 2 other cases. Bronchial biopsies were negative in all cases. Before the prolonged symptomatology, the poor general condition, the endoscopic and the CT aspects; there was a suspect around a pulmonary neoplasia diagnosis, thus raising the need of a surgical treatment for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes...
May 30, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Gareth Huw Jones, Girvan Burnside, Jo McPartland, Anne Markey, Michael Fallon, Sujata De
INTRODUCTION: Diagnostic tonsillectomy is performed to exclude malignancy. It is associated with a post-operative hemorrhage rate of 3.5%, (1) which is more dangerous in small children. No previous case series for asymmetrical tonsils have detected tonsil lymphoma.(2-6) We aimed to review our local diagnostic tonsillectomy practice. METHOD: The authors reviewed the clinical notes and histological results for all diagnostic tonsillectomies carried out from June 2013 to June 2016...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jinshan Jin, Lei Guo, Linda VonTungeln, Michelle Vanlandingham, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
The use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) can cause many serious health problems. The oral microbiota plays important roles in oral and systemic health, and the disruption in the oral microbial population is linked to periodontal disease and other health problems. To assess the impact of smokeless tobacco on oral microbiota in vivo, high-throughput sequencing was used to examine the oral microbiota present in Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouches. Sixteen hamsters were divided into four groups and treated with the STP Grizzly snuff (0, 2...
May 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Micheal G Adondakis, John G Skedros, Bert K Lopansri, Stephen C Merrell
This case report describes a 38-year-old female presenting with a thigh abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens , Actinomyces sp., and α-hemolytic Streptococcus following an intramuscular vitamin B12 injection administered at an outpatient clinic. After failure to improve clinically with intravenous daptomycin and after visualization of the abscess with gas bubbles on CT scan, she was taken to the operating room for three separate surgical irrigation and debridement procedures. Treatment also included intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Yali Lou, Brain W Darvell, Michael G Botelho
AIM: To screen the possible antimicrobial activity of a range of clinically used, silver-based compounds on cariogenic organisms: silver diamine fluoride (SDF), silver fluoride, and silver nitrate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preliminary screening disk-diffusion susceptibility tests were conducted on Mueller-Hinton agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, organisms known to be cariogenic. In order to identify which component of the silver compounds was responsible for any antibacterial (AB) effect, and to provide controls, the following were also investigated at high and low concentrations: sodium fluoride, ammonium fluoride, ammonium chloride, sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrate, as well as deionized water as control...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Yali Cao, Min Qiao, Zhigang Tian, Yan Yu, Baohua Xu, Wansheng Lao, Xuguo Ma, Wenge Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease caused by enhanced inflammation induced by dysbiotic microbes forming on subgingival tooth sites, which may disturb the balance of the microbial composition in the biofilm and finally result in the progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with periodontal pocket formation and/or gingival recession. METHODS: To elucidate the correlation between subgingival microbiome and IgAN incidence in CP (chronic periodontitis at severe levels) patients, subgingival plaque samples were collected from CP patients without IgAN (Control) and CP patients with IgAN (Disease)...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Abdulaziz Al Gannass
A 58-year-old agricultural worker from a remote Western province farming community in Saudi Arabia presented with a 2-year history of right plantar foot soft tissue mass. According to the patient, the swelling had gradually increased in size over a few years, but it was painless and thus had not restricted him from continuing to farm until the lesion started to affect mobility. An MRI, microbiology and histopathology reported a rare infectious agent- Actinomyces spp, otherwise referred to as Madura foot. Three-dimensional CT aided in a preoperative surgical plan which included mass excision/debulking for this challenging lesion...
May 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Mariia O Faustova, Maiia M Ananieva, Yaroslav O Basarab, Oksana V Dobrobolska, Iryna M Vovk, Galina A Loban'
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: According to the 2003 WHO report, dental caries affects from 60% to 90% of school-age children and adults that makes it one of the most common diseases worldwide. The aim was to systematize data about the modern conception of plaque formation and role of microorganisms in its development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Biblosemantic, 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Shinsuke Yamamoto, Hiroshi Takegawa, Naoki Taniike, Toshihiko Takenobu
Actinomycosis is a rare, chronic, slowly progressive granulomatous disease caused by filamentous gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the Actinomycetaceae family (genus Actinomyces). It has become a rare condition because of the widespread use of antibiotics. When clinical symptoms are not typical, diagnosis of this condition becomes difficult. This report describes a case involving an 82-year-old woman who was diagnosed with actinomycotic osteomyelitis of the mandible using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Gunnar Dahlén, Haidar Hassan, Susanne Blomqvist, Anette Carlén
BACKGROUND: Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. METHODS: The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6...
May 18, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Chia-Yu Yang, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Hai-Ying Yu, Chia-Yin Chin, Chia-Wei Hsu, Hsuan Liu, Po-Jung Huang, Song-Nian Hu, Chun-Ta Liao, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Liang Chang
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly aggressive cancer and the fourth leading malignancy among males in Taiwan. Some pathogenic bacteria are associated with periodontitis and oral cancer. However, the comprehensive profile of the oral microbiome during the cancer's progression from the early stage to the late stage is still unclear. We profiled the oral microbiota and identified bacteria biomarkers associated with OSCC. The microbiota of an oral rinse from 51 healthy individuals and 197 OSCC patients at different stages were investigated using 16S rRNA V3V4 amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics and statistical analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nadine Kommerein, Katharina Doll, Nico S Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation...
2018: PloS One
Claire Willmann, Xavier Mata, Kristian Hanghoej, Laure Tonasso, Lenka Tisseyre, Céline Jeziorski, Elodie Cabot, Pierre Chevet, Eric Crubézy, Ludovic Orlando, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Thèves
Recent developments in High-Throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) technologies and ancient DNA (aDNA) research have opened access to the characterization of the microbial communities within past populations. Most studies have, however, relied on the analysis of dental calculus as one particular material type particularly prone to the molecular preservation of ancient microbial biofilms and potential of entire teeth for microbial characterization, both of healthy communities and pathogens in ancient individuals, remains overlooked...
2018: PloS One
A Giuliano, P Watson, L Owen, B Skelly, L Davison, J Dobson, F Costantino-Casas
Pyogranulomatous inflammation has been extensively described in cats, in particular in cases of feline infectious peritonitis and also associated with Mycobacteria, Actinomyces, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and fungal infections. Idiopathic sterile pyogranulomatous dermatitis has also been described. In this case series we describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and outcome of three cases of feline idiopathic sterile steroid-responsive pyogranuloma with different presentation and different locations of the lesion, but with the common feature of having a mass with no superficial skin involvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Niveditha Ravindra, Nishanth Sadashiva, Anita Mahadevan, Dhananjay I Bhat, Jitender Saini
INTRODUCTION: Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infection that rarely affects the central nervous system(CNS). It is caused by filamentous Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that is a normal commensal but causes suppurative and granulomatous inflammation following disruption of anatomical barriers. We report the largest series of 17histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis and review clinical, imaging and histopathological features. METHODS: All histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis diagnosed between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrieved from the neuropathology records...
May 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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