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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037595/cellular-characterization-of-optical-coherence-tomography-and-outer-retinal-bands-using-specific-immunohistochemistry-markers-and-clinical-implications
#1
Nicolás Cuenca, Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel Pinilla
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography has been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many ocular diseases, especially retinal and neuro-ophthalmologic pathologic conditions. Until now, several controversies have arisen over the specific cell types that the bands observed in the OCT represent, especially over the 4 outer retinal bands. DESIGN: To correlate the 4 outer hyperreflective bands observed in the OCT with the histologic structures using human retinal sections and immunocytochemistry at the fovea level...
October 13, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018015/chronic-red-eye-a-masquerade-of-advanced-neoplastic-disease
#2
Joana Providência, Filipa Ponces, Guilherme Castela, Joaquim Murta
A 42-year-old woman presented with chronic history of left red eye for more than 12 months, treated with difference topical medication but without response. Ocular external examination demonstrated a firm palpable mass in the medial portion of the lower eyelid and slit-lamp evaluation of the lesion showed an ulcerated conjunctival nodule, keratin secretor. CT of the orbits revealed left-sided orbital mass located anteriorly, inferiorly and medially in the orbit, adjacent to the globe and orbit walls. Incisional biopsy of the lesion was consistent with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956287/use-of-the-controlled-adverse-environment-cae-in-clinical-research-a-review
#3
REVIEW
George W Ousler, David Rimmer, Lisa M Smith, Mark B Abelson
The many internal and external factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED) create a difficult milieu for its study and complicate its clinical diagnosis and treatment. The controlled adverse environment (CAE(®)) model has been developed to minimize the variability that arises from exogenous factors and to exacerbate the signs and symptoms of DED by stressing the ocular surface in a safe, standardized, controlled, and reproducible manner. By integrating sensitive, specific, and clinically relevant endpoints, the CAE has proven to be a unique and adaptable model for both identifying study-specific patient populations with modifiable signs and symptoms, and for tailoring the evaluation of interventions in clinical research studies...
September 27, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889729/role-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mrna-stability-on-the-expression-of-cytokine-coding-genes-in-renal-inflammation
#4
Eva Feigerlová, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu
Mechanisms that control mammalian gene expression, notably mRNA stability and translation, have major functions in the modulation of the cellular response to internal and external stimuli. Altered posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression has been associated with many diseases. Such types of deregulation have also recently been noted on the inflammatory cytokines pertinent to kidney inflammation. In this article, we summarize briefly the recent knowledge obtained from both human and experimental systems on the details of posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression related to the control of mRNA stability and discuss their relevance in regulating cytokine expression linked to the inflammatory processes in kidney...
September 8, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888529/eyelid-inflammation-an-uncommon-cause-in-occidental-countries
#5
Hélène Devambez, Morgane Richeux, Maximilien Guericolas, Christophe Choquet, Enrique Casalino, Aiham Daniel Ghazali
BACKGROUND: Myiasis designates the infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous (two-winged) larvae (maggots) and is the fourth most common travel-associated skin disease. Furuncle is the most common aspect of cutaneous myiasis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old Caucasian female had been back from Cap-Vert. She described pruritus, slight pain, and the sensation of a foreign body moving in the eyelid. Physical examination showed a single furuncle-like nodule with surrounding erythema and a central pore of the upper eyelid through which a serosanguinous fluid was exuding...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874911/a-ligation-of-the-lacrimal-excretory-duct-in-mouse-induces-lacrimal-gland-inflammation-with-proliferative-cells
#6
Ying Liu, Masatoshi Hirayama, Tetsuya Kawakita, Kazuo Tsubota
The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids to ocular surface, which plays an indispensable role in maintaining the health of the ocular epithelia and protecting the ocular surface from the external environment. The dysfunction of the lacrimal glands causes dry eye disease due to a reduction in tear volume. The dry eye disease is becoming a popular public disease, for the number of patients is increasing, who have subjective symptom and loss of vision, which affect the quality of life. Inflammatory change in the damaged lacrimal gland has been reported; however, a major challenge is to establish a simple animal model to observe the changes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866667/a-modified-technique-for-the-transconjunctival-and-sutureless-external-drainage-of-subretinal-fluid-in-bullous-exudative-retinal-detachment-using-a-24-g-i-v-catheter
#7
Jie Peng, Qi Zhang, Haiying Jin, Ping Fei, Peiquan Zhao
PURPOSE: To present the use of a 24-G Optiva® i.v. catheter for external drainage of subretinal fluid (SRF) in bullous exudative retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: Thirteen eyes with bullous exudative RD were included in our study. SRF drainage was accomplished via a transconjunctival scleral incision with a 24-G catheter followed by laser treatment, vitrectomy, or anti-VEGF treatment, as needed. Data on age, indications, visual acuities, the number of drainage times, drainage duration, complications, and fundoscopy were collected...
2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861359/intraocular-lymphoma
#8
REVIEW
Li-Juan Tang, Chang-Lin Gu, Ping Zhang
Intraocular lymphoma (IOL) is a rare lymphocytic malignancy which contains two main distinct forms. Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is mainly a sub-type of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Alternatively, IOL can originate from outside the central nervous system (CNS) by metastasizing to the eye. These tumors are known as secondary intraocular lymphoma (SIOL). The IOL can arise in the retina, uvea, vitreous, Bruch's membrane and optic nerve. There are predominantly of B-cell origin; however there are also rare T-cell variants...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820791/teleophthalmic-approach-for-detection-of-corneal-diseases-accuracy-and-reliability
#9
Maria A Woodward, David C Musch, Christopher T Hood, Jonathan B Greene, Leslie M Niziol, V Swetha E Jeganathan, Paul P Lee
PURPOSE: Corneal and anterior segment diseases cause most of the urgent visits to eye care professionals. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting corneal diseases using external photographs from 2 portable cameras for telemedicine purposes. METHODS: This is a prospective study of adults with a clinical diagnosis of corneal pathology including corneal abrasions, ulcers, scars, and pterygia. A cornea specialist provided the gold standard diagnosis by slit-lamp examination...
October 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781219/a-randomized-controlled-study-of-art-observation-training-to-improve-medical-student-ophthalmology-skills
#10
Jaclyn Gurwin, Karen E Revere, Suzannah Niepold, Barbara Bassett, Rebecca Mitchell, Stephanie Davidson, Horace DeLisser, Gil Binenbaum
PURPOSE: Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. DESIGN: Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial...
August 3, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749895/mechanical-modeling-of-a-keratoconic-cornea
#11
Jean Marc Perone, Jean Baptiste Conart, Pierre-Jean Bertaux, Nicolas Sujet-Perone, Nadia Ouamara, Maxime Sot, Jean Jacques Henry
PURPOSE: We created a laboratory model of a cornea that was subjected to various pressures and thermal and mechanical factors to better understand the genesis of keratoconus deformation. METHODS: A steel base allowed for fixation of circular multilaminated patches of araldite (10 cm in diameter, 5 mm thick) in which the corneal anatomy was modeled. The model was plunged into a steam room (374°F/3 bars of pressure for 1 h) to ensure thermal homogeneity and was subjected to pressure using compressed air...
October 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739193/intraocular-metastasis-comparison-of-clinical-presentation-with-a-known-and-unknown-primary-tumour
#12
R Ramoa, M A Saornil, C García-Alvarez, P Diezhandino, P Alonso-Martínez, E García-Lagarto, M F Muñoz-Moreno, F Lopez-Lara
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to review the frequency of intraocular metastases as first presentation of systemic disease, and to identify clinical and tumour characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective study of consecutive cases diagnosed of intraocular metástasis at a referral intraocular tumours unit between 1993 and 2014. General, epidemiological and ophthalmological characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients, with a mean age 62...
July 21, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695744/genome-editing-the-breakthrough-technology-for-inherited-retinal-disease
#13
Andrew J Smith, Stephen P Carter, Breandán N Kennedy
Genetic alterations resulting in a dysfunctional retinal pigment epithelium and/or degenerating photoreceptors cause impaired vision. These juxtaposed cells in the retina of the posterior eye are crucial for the visual cycle or phototransduction. Deficits in these biochemical processes perturb neural processing of images capturing the external environment. Notably, there is a distinct lack of clinically approved pharmacological, cell- or gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disease. Gene editing technologies are rapidly advancing as a realistic therapeutic option...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623239/-ccug-n-rna-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2-dm2-activates-apoptosis
#14
Vildan Betul Yenigun, Mario Sirito, Alla Amcheslavky, Tomek Czernuszewicz, Jordi Colonques-Bellmunt, Irma García-Alcover, Marzena Wojciechowska, Clare Bolduc, Zhihong Chen, Arturo López Castel, Ralf Krahe, Andreas Bergmann
The myotonic dystrophies are prototypic toxic RNA gain-of-function diseases. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are caused by different unstable, noncoding microsatellite repeat expansions - (CTG)DM1 in DMPK and (CCTG)DM2 in CNBP Although transcription of mutant repeats into (CUG)DM1 or (CCUG)DM2 appears to be necessary and sufficient to cause disease, their pathomechanisms remain incompletely understood. To study the mechanisms of (CCUG)DM2 toxicity and develop a convenient model for drug screening, we generated a transgenic DM2 model in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with (CCUG)n repeats of variable length (n=16 and 106)...
August 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607957/analysis-of-patient-outcomes-following-proton-radiation-therapy-for-retinoblastoma
#15
Kent W Mouw, Beow Y Yeap, Paul Caruso, Aaron Fay, Madhusmita Misra, Roshan V Sethi, Shannon M MacDonald, Yen-Lin Chen, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock, Suzanne K Freitag, John E Munzenrider, Eric Grabowski, Michelle Katz, Karen Kuhlthau, Dawn DeCastro, Gena Heidary, Jessica Ciralsky, Shizuo Mukai, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: Proton radiotherapy (PRT) is used in the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB) and has the potential to minimize exposure of normal tissue to radiation and thus decrease risk of toxicity and second malignancies. However, comprehensive analyses of long-term patient outcomes are not available. METHODS: RB patients treated with PRT at our institution between 1986 and 2012 were invited to return for participation in a study designed to assess long-term outcomes...
January 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591814/abnormal-gray-matter-shape-thickness-and-volume-in-the-motor-cortico-subcortical-loop-in-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-association-with-clinical-and-motor-features
#16
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Christophe Bedetti, Simona Brambati, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Malo Gaubert, Jean-François Gagnon
Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588112/the-hoorn-diabetes-care-system-dcs-cohort-a-prospective-cohort-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-in-primary-care-in-the-netherlands
#17
Amber Awa van der Heijden, Simone P Rauh, Jacqueline M Dekker, Joline W Beulens, Petra Elders, Leen M 't Hart, Femke Rutters, Nienke van Leeuwen, Giel Nijpels
PURPOSE: People with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have a doubled morbidity and mortality risk compared with persons with normal glucose tolerance. Despite treatment, clinical targets for cardiovascular risk factors are not achieved. The Hoorn Diabetes Care System cohort (DCS) is a prospective cohort representing a comprehensive dataset on the natural course of T2D, with repeated clinical measures and outcomes. In this paper, we describe the design of the DCS cohort. PARTICIPANTS: The DCS consists of persons with T2D in primary care from the West-Friesland region of the Netherlands...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545735/retinoblastoma-vitreous-seed-clouds-class-3-a-comparison-of-treatment-with-ophthalmic-artery-chemosurgery-with-or-without-intravitreous-and-periocular-chemotherapy
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jasmine H Francis, Saipriya Iyer, Y Pierre Gobin, Scott E Brodie, David H Abramson
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of treating class 3 retinoblastoma vitreous seeds with ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) alone versus OAC with intravitreous chemotherapy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty eyes containing clouds (class 3 vitreous seeds) of 40 retinoblastoma patients (19 treated with OAC alone and 21 treated with OAC plus intravitreous and periocular chemotherapy). METHODS: Ocular survival, disease-free survival and time to regression of seeds were estimated with Kaplan-Meier estimates...
October 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521845/hiv-infected-individuals-on-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-are-at-higher-risk-for-ocular-disease
#19
E Schaftenaar, N S Khosa, G S Baarsma, C Meenken, J A McINTYRE, A D M E Osterhaus, G M G M Verjans, R P H Peters
Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of infectious ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the effects of long-term ART and chronic HIV infection on the eye are ill-defined. This study determined the occurrence and severity of ocular diseases among 342 participants in a rural South African setting: HIV-naïve (n = 105), HIV-infected ART-naïve (n = 16), HIV-infected on ART for 36 months (long-term ART; n = 165). More HIV-infected participants presented with an external eye condition, in particular blepharitis, than HIV-naïve individuals (18% vs...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480834/the-conjunctiva-associated-lymphoid-tissue-in-chronic-ocular-surface-diseases
#20
Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Luca Agnifili, Vincenzo Fasanella, Mario Nubile, Agbeanda A Gnama, Gennaro Falconio, Paolo Perri, Silvio Di Staso, Cesare Mariotti
Ocular surface diseases (OSDs) represent a widely investigated field of research given their growing incidence and the negative impact on quality of life. During OSDs, cytokines generated by damaged epithelia trigger and deregulate the lymphoid cells composing the eye-associated lymphoid tissues, inducing an immune-mediated chronic inflammation that amplifies and propagates the disease during time. The conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), given its particular position that permits immune cells covering the cornea, might play a crucial role in the development of OSDs...
May 8, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
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