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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215046/genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-a-bioremediation-system-for-degradation-of-thiocyanate-in-mine-water-containing-suspended-solid-tailings
#1
Sumayah F Rahman, Rose S Kantor, Robert Huddy, Brian C Thomas, Andries W van Zyl, Susan T L Harrison, Jillian F Banfield
Thiocyanate (SCN(-) ) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN(-) ), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN(-) -degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced microbial diversity relative to the laboratory-based reactors operated without suspended solids...
February 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215034/transcription-factor-afmac1-controls-copper-import-machinery-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
Yoko Kusuya, Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Takashi Yaguchi, Tohru Gonoi, Hiroki Takahashi
Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for all living organisms, although it is toxic in excess. Filamentous fungus must acquire copper from its environment for growth. Despite its essentiality for growth, the mechanisms that maintain copper homeostasis are not fully understood in filamentous fungus. To gain insights into copper homeostasis, we investigated the roles of a copper transcription factor Afmac1 in the life-threatening fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a homolog of the yeast MAC1. We observed that the Afmac1 deletion mutant exhibited not only significantly slower growth, but also incomplete conidiation including a short chain of conidia and defective melanin...
February 18, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215032/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-regulated-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-dapk-contributed-to-paraquat-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#3
Zhenning Liu, Xiaokai Wang, Yu Wang, Min Zhao
Paraquat can result in dysfunction of multiple organs after ingestion in human. However, the mechanisms of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in acute kidney injury have not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its regulation by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and death-associated protein kinase (DAPK). Male Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of paraquat at 20 mg/kg, and NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 was pretreated at 10 mg/kg 1 h before paraquat exposure...
February 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215024/pharmacogenomics-of-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focusing-on-dna-repair-systems
#4
REVIEW
Yi Xiong, Bi-Yun Huang, Ji-Ye Yin
Drug therapy for non-small cell lung cancer consists mainly of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. However, toxicity, drug resistance, and high risk of death have been seen in the clinic, which means there is a need for optimizing the use of medications. Platinum resistance could be mediated by a series of DNA repair pathways, and therefore, these pathways should be taken into account for optimizing drug using. The goal of pharmacogenomics is to elucidate genetic factors, such as DNA repair genes, which might underlie drug efficacy and effectiveness, and to improve therapeutic effects or guide personalized therapy as well...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214952/novel-potential-scaffold-for-periodontal-tissue-engineering
#5
Raquel Osorio, Camilo Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez, Estrella Osorio, Antonio L Medina-Castillo, Miguel Alaminos, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Manuel Toledano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is characterization of novel calcium and zinc-loaded electrospun matrices to be used for periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polymethylmetacrylate-based membrane was calcium or zinc loaded. Matrices were characterized morphologically by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy and mechanically probed by a nanoindenter. Biomimetic calcium phosphate precipitation on polymeric tissues was assessed. Cell viability tests were performed using oral mucosa fibroblasts...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214935/promotive-role-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-on-chromium-induced-morphological-photosynthetic-and-oxidative-changes-in-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-botrytis-l
#6
Rehan Ahmad, Shafaqat Ali, Fakhir Hannan, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Iqbal, Zaidul Hassan, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Saliha Maqbool, Farhat Abbas
Chromium (Cr) is among the most toxic pollutants in the environment that adversely affect the living organisms and physiological processes in different plants. The present study investigated the effect of 15 mg L(-1) of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100, and 200 μM) in the growth medium. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the growth, biomass, photosynthetic, and gas exchange parameters...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214934/the-effect-of-low-molecular-weight-organic-acids-on-copper-toxicity-in-e-fetida-in-an-acute-exposure-system
#7
Chuifan Zhou, Meiying Huang, Jiaoda Yu, Ying Li, Aiqin Liu
In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (OAs) on the toxicity of copper (Cu) to the earthworm Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) were investigated in a simulated soil solution. We exposed E. fetida to soil solution containing Cu and a variety of OAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and EDTA). We found that the addition of OAs reduced the toxicity of Cu to E. fetida, where the reduction was strongest in EDTA and weakest in acetic acid. These compounds decreased the mortality rate of E...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214890/a-new-perspective-for-osteosarcoma-therapy-proteasome-inhibition-by-mln9708-2238-successfully-induces-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest-and-attenuates-the-invasion-ability-of-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro
#8
Renhao Liu, Chunjiang Fu, Jiabing Sun, Xvming Wang, Shuo Geng, Xiaoyu Wang, Jilong Zou, Zhenggang Bi, Chenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: The proteasome exists in all eukaryotic cells and provides the main route of intracellular proteins degradation involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Proteasome inhibition could block protein degradation pathways and disturb regulatory networks, possibly leading to profound effects on cell growth, particularly in cancer cells. A proteasome inhibitor with an appropriate toxicity index for malignant cells rather than normal cells would be an attractive anticancer therapy. METHODS: The human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines MG-63 and Saos-2 and normal osteoblast cells were used to study the antitumour activity of the proteasome inhibitor MLN9708/2238...
January 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214859/farnesoid-x-receptor-in-mice-prevents-severe-liver-immunopathology-during-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#9
Nadine Honke, Namir Shaabani, Cornelia Hardt, Caroline Krings, Dieter Häussinger, Philipp A Lang, Karl S Lang, Verena Keitel
BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) are steroid molecules that are synthesized in the liver. In addition to their important role as a surfactant in solubilizing lipids and promoting the absorption of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract, they act as inflammagens. The role of BAs and their receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) during viral infection has not been studied in detail. METHODS: By using FXR-deficient mice, we investigated the role of bile acid receptor FXR during infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)...
January 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214842/inhibition-of-methylglyoxal-induced-ages-rage-expression-contributes-to-dermal-protection-by-n-acetyl-l-cysteine
#10
Chun-Tao Yang, Fu-Hui Meng, Li Chen, Xiang Li, Lai-Jian Cen, Yu-Hua Wen, Hui Zhang, Cai-Chen Li
BACKGROUND/AIM: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major cause of diabetes mellitus (DM) skin complications. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is a crucial intermediate of AGEs generation. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an active ingredient of some medicines, can induce endogenous GSH and hydrogen sulfide generation, and set off a condensation reaction with MGO. However, there is rare evidence to show NAC can alleviate DM-induced skin injury through inhibition of AGEs generation or toxicity...
February 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214841/drug-dosing-and-estimated-renal-function-any-step-forward-from-effersoe
#11
Mads Hornum, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen
Drug dosing in accordance with the renal function is a long-standing challenge to clinicians. For many years it has been evident that in many clinical situations there is no easy way to correctly dose any drug that is mainly cleared by the kidneys. Despite the development of many formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate, they all have serious shortcomings. Much effort has been put in to develop estimation formulas to evaluate the renal function as an alternative to direct methods with the aim of safely dosing drugs that are mainly cleared by the kidneys...
February 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214754/new-pt-nnso-core-anticancer-agents-structural-optimization-and-investigation-of-their-anticancer-activity
#12
Shu Xian Chong, Yinxue Jin, Steve Chik Fun Au-Yeung, Kenneth Kin Wah To
A series of new platinum Pt(II) compounds possessing a bidentate leaving ligand modified from oxaliplatin has been synthesized, with one of the oxygen ligating atom substituted for a sulphur atom (resulting in a Pt-NNSO coordination core structure). The general structures are R,R-diaminocyclohexane (DACH)-Pt-(methylthio)acetic acid (K4) and DACH-Pt-(thiophenylacetic acid) (K4 derivatives). Substitution of an electron donating or withdrawing group at the ortho or para position on the phenyl ring of K4 derivatives was found to affect the complexes' stability, reactivity with the biological molecules (5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) and L-methionine (L-Met)) and anticancer activity...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214747/immunorecognition-magnetic-supports-for-the-development-of-an-electrochemical-immunoassay-for-azaspiracid-detection-in-mussels
#13
Sandra Leonardo, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Ingunn A Samdal, Christopher O Miles, Jane Kilcoyne, Jorge Diogène, Ciara K O'Sullivan, Mònica Campàs
As azaspiracids (AZAs) are being reported from the coastal waters of an increasing number of countries on a global scale, the need for rapid, simple and cost-effective methods to detect these marine toxins and protect seafood consumers' health is becoming evident. A magnetic bead (MB)-based direct immunoassay for the detection of AZAs, using protein G-coated MBs as supports for antibody immobilisation and peroxidase-labelled AZA as a tracer is detailed. A colorimetric approach was first developed to optimise the experimental parameters and establish the cross-reactivity factors for AZA-1-10...
February 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#14
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214687/gastroprotective-effect-and-mechanism-of-action-of-croton-rhamnifolioides-essential-oil-in-mice
#16
Cinara Soares Vidal, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Andressa de Alencar Silva, Maria Rayane Correia de Oliveira, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Thaís Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Lucindo Jose Quintans, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes
BACKGROUND: Croton rhamnifolioides Pax is a plant species that have been used in the folk medicine to treat ulcers, inflammations and hypertension. However, despite the relevant data obtained from ethnopharmacological studies, the pharmacological properties endorsing the efficacy of this plant to treat ulcer remain to be elucidated. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The present study aimed to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the essential oil obtained from C...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214659/clinical-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-of-patients-with-advanced-mesothelioma-treated-in-a-phase-i-clinical-trials-unit
#17
Dionysis Papadatos-Pastos, Desam Roda, Maria Jose De Miguel Luken, Ann Petruckevitch, Awais Jalil, Marta Capelan, Vasiliki Michalarea, Joao Lima, Nikolaos Diamantis, Jaishree Bhosle, L Rhoda Molife, Udai Banerji, Johann S de Bono, Sanjay Popat, Mary E R O'Brien, Timothy A Yap
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a prognostic score for patients in phase I trials in the Drug Development Unit, treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital (RPS). The RPS is an objective tool used in patient selection for phase I trials based on albumin, number of disease sites and LDH. Patients with mesothelioma are often selected for phase I trials as the disease remains localised for long periods of time. We have now reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients with relapsed malignant mesothelioma (MM) and propose a specific mesothelioma prognostic score (m-RPS) that can help identify patients who are most likely to benefit from early referral...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214653/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-followed-by-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-versus-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-alone-in-locoregionally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-phase-iii-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Su-Mei Cao, Qi Yang, Ling Guo, Hai-Qiang Mai, Hao-Yuan Mo, Ka-Jia Cao, Chao-Nan Qian, Chong Zhao, Yan-Qun Xiang, Xiu-Ping Zhang, Zhi-Xiong Lin, Wei-Xiong Li, Qing Liu, Fang Qiu, Rui Sun, Qiu-Yan Chen, Pei-Yu Huang, Dong-Hua Luo, Yi-Jun Hua, Yi-Shan Wu, Xing Lv, Lin Wang, Wei-Xiong Xia, Lin-Quan Tang, Yan-Fang Ye, Ming-Yuan Chen, Xiang Guo, Ming-Huang Hong
BACKGROUND: The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) versus CCRT alone in locoregionally advanced NPC. METHODS: Patients with stage III-IVB (excluding T3N0-1) NPC were randomly assigned to receive NACT followed by CCRT (investigational arm) or CCRT alone (control arm). Both arms were treated with 80 mg/m(2) cisplatin every 3 weeks concurrently with radiotherapy...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214651/a-review-on-the-evolution-of-pd-1-pd-l1-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer-the-future-is-now
#19
REVIEW
Joaquin Bellmunt, Thomas Powles, Nicholas J Vogelzang
The treatment of bladder cancer has evolved over time to encompass not only the traditional modalities of chemotherapy and surgery, but has been particularly impacted by the use of immunotherapy. The first immunotherapy was the live, attenuated bacterial Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, which has been the standard of care non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer since 1990. Modern immunotherapy has focused on inhibitors of checkpoint proteins, which are molecules that impede immune function, thereby allowing tumor cells to grow and proliferate unregulated...
February 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214649/evaluation-of-dioxins-and-dioxin-like-compounds-from-a-cement-plant-using-carbide-slag-from-chlor-alkali-industry-as-the-major-raw-material
#20
Yuyang Zhao, Jiayu Zhan, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Rong Jin, Lili Yang, Liwei Hao, Xiaolin Wu, Xian Zhang, Pu Wang
Carbide slag produced from chlor-alkali industry contains high amounts of calcium compounds and can potentially be used as raw material for cement production; however, it contains large amounts of chlorine so it is essential to evaluate the emissions of chlorinated organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). A field study of the emission profiles of these pollutants in a cement plant using such slag was performed...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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