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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343358/expression-of-the-cyanobacterial-enzyme-cyanase-increases-cyanate-metabolism-and-cyanate-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#1
Rashad Kebeish, Omar Al-Zoubi
Cyanate and its derivatives are considered as environmental hazardous materials. Cyanate is released to the environment through many chemical industries and mining wastewater. Cyanase enzyme converts cyanate into CO2 and NH3 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. At low cyanate concentrations, the endogenous plant cyanases play a vital role in cyanate detoxification. However, such cyanate biodegradation system is probably insufficient due to the excess cyanate concentrations at contaminated sites. In this study, we have transferred the activity of the cyanobacterial cyanase into Arabidopsis thaliana plants in order to enhance plant resistance against cyanate toxicity...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343356/development-of-a-novel-strategy-to-target-cd39-antithrombotic-activity-to-the-endothelial-platelet-microenvironment-in-kidney-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Maithili Sashindranath, Karen M Dwyer, Shala Dezfouli, Carly Selan, Sandra Crikis, Bo Lu, Yuping Yuan, Michael J Hickey, Karlheinz Peter, Simon C Robson, Peter J Cowan, Harshal H Nandurkar
Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is common during transplantation. IRI is characterised by inflammation and thrombosis and associated with acute and chronic graft dysfunction. P-selectin and its ligand PSGL-1 are cell adhesion molecules that control leukocyte-endothelial and leukocyte-platelet interactions under inflammatory conditions. CD39 is the dominant vascular nucleotidase that facilitates adenosine generation via extracellular ATP/ADP-phosphohydrolysis. Adenosine signalling is protective in renal IRI, but CD39 catalytic activity is lost with exposure to oxidant stress...
March 25, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343352/the-role-of-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Linus C Benjamin, Alison C Tree, David P Dearnaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is now accepted that prostate cancer has a low alpha/beta ratio, establishing a strong basis for hypofractionation of prostate radiotherapy. This review focuses on the rationale for hypofractionation and presents the evidence base for establishing moderate hypofractionation for localised disease as the new standard of care. The emerging evidence for extreme hypofractionation in managing localized and oligometastatic prostate cancer is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The 5-year efficacy and toxicity outcomes from four phase III studies have been published within the last 12 months...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343290/muscle-injury-after-intramuscular-administration-of-diclofenac-a-case-report-supported-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Mareike Probst, Jens-Peter Kühn, Christiane Modeß, Eberhard Scheuch, Anne Seidlitz, Norbert Hosten, Werner Siegmund, Werner Weitschies
Intramuscular injection of diclofenac is still frequently practiced, although there is ample evidence that the risk of local tissue intolerability is highly underestimated. The aim of this study was to evaluate local toxicity in a patient using magnetic resonance imaging. A patient who gave written informed consent received a medically indicated intramuscular administration of diclofenac 75 mg/2 mL. Simultaneously with magnetic resonance imaging of the depot, a clinical-chemical evaluation and quantification of diclofenac in plasma was performed...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343275/potential-toxic-elements-in-stream-sediments-soils-and-waters-in-an-abandoned-radium-mine-central-portugal
#5
I M H R Antunes, A M R Neiva, M T D Albuquerque, P C S Carvalho, A C T Santos, Pedro P Cunha
The Alto da Várzea radium mine (AV) exploited ore and U-bearing minerals, such as autunite and torbernite. The mine was exploited underground from 1911 to 1922, closed in 1946 without restoration, and actually a commercial area is deployed. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected between 2008 and 2009. Stream sediments are mainly contaminated in As, Th, U and W, which is related to the AV radium mine. The PTEs, As, Co, Cr, Sr, Th, U, W, Zn, and electrical conductivity reached the highest values in soils collected inside the mine influence...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343274/predictive-score-of-haematological-toxicity-in-patients-treated-with-linezolid
#6
J González-Del Castillo, F J Candel, R Manzano-Lorenzo, L Arias, E J García-Lamberechts, F J Martín-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study were to determine the factors associated with developing haematological toxicity (HT) in patients taking linezolid (LZD), to develop a predictive model of HT in these patients, and to evaluate factors associated with 30-day mortality. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study of patients treated for at least 5 days with LDZ in 2015. Demographic, clinical and analytical data were collected. Development of HT was defined as a 25% platelet count decrease between the basal count and the 1-week lab test...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343257/leaf-ontogeny-of-schinus-molle-l-plants-under-cadmium-contamination-the-meristematic-origin-of-leaf-structural-changes
#7
Marcio Paulo Pereira, Felipe Fogaroli Corrêa, Evaristo Mauro de Castro, Jean Paulo Vitor de Oliveira, Fabricio José Pereira
Previous works show the development of thicker leaves on tolerant plants growing under cadmium (Cd(2+)) contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Cd(2+) effects on the leaf meristems of the tolerant species Schinus molle. Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 10, and 50 μM of Cd(2+). Anatomical analysis was performed on leaf primordia sampled at regular time intervals. Under the lowest Cd(2+) level (10 μM), increased ground meristem thickness, diameter of the cells, cell elongation rate, and leaf dry mass were found...
March 25, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343112/the-impact-of-australian-legislative-changes-on-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposures-reported-to-the-new-south-wales-poisons-information-centre
#8
Rose Cairns, Jared A Brown, Naren Gunja, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343064/a-barley-homolog-of-yeast-atg6-is-involved-in-multiple-abiotic-stress-responses-and-stress-resistance-regulation
#9
Xiaowei Zeng, Zhanghui Zeng, Cuicui Liu, Weiyi Yuan, Ning Hou, Hongwu Bian, Muyuan Zhu, Ning Han
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation pathway among eukaryote cells, which can recycle damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. As a key component of the Class III PI3K kinase complex, ATG6/Beclin-1 is essential for autophagosome formation. In this study, we isolated a putative HvATG6 gene in barley genome. The protein encoded by HvATG6 shares high sequence identity to ATG6 orthologs in rice and wheat, and has a typical autophagy-specific domain containing segments of repeated β-sheet-α-helix...
March 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343060/uv-chlorine-treatment-of-carbamazepine-transformation-products-and-their-formation-kinetics
#10
Yanheng Pan, ShuangShuang Cheng, Xin Yang, Jingyue Ren, Jingyun Fang, Chii Shang, Weihua Song, Lushi Lian, Xinran Zhang
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the pharmaceuticals most frequently detected in the aqueous environment. This study investigated the transformation products when CBZ is degraded by chlorine under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (the UV/chlorine process). Detailed pathways for the degradation of CBZ were elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). CBZ is readily degraded by hydroxyl radicals (HO) and chlorine radicals (Cl) in the UV/chlorine process, and 24 transformation products were identified...
March 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343041/characterization-of-regional-cold-hydrothermal-inflows-enriched-in-arsenic-and-associated-trace-elements-in-the-southern-part-of-the-duero-basin-spain-by-multivariate-statistical-analysis
#11
Elena Giménez-Forcada, Marisol Vega-Alegre, Susana Timón-Sánchez
Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater exceeding the limit for potability has been reported along the southern edge of the Cenozoic Duero Basin (CDB) near its contact with the Spanish Central System (SCS). In this area, spatial variability of arsenic is high, peaking at 241μg/L. Forty-seven percent of samples collected contained arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water (10μg/L). Correlations of As with other hydrochemical variables were investigated using multivariate statistical analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA and Principal Component Analysis, PCA)...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343039/study-of-trace-metal-imbalances-in-the-blood-scalp-hair-and-nails-of-oral-cancer-patients-from-pakistan
#12
Muhammad Abdul Qayyum, Munir H Shah
Oral cancer is an important cause of cancer morbidity and mortality globally and exposure to trace metals alongside tobacco, alcohol and HPV are the important etiological factors in its development. Selected essential and toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in the blood, scalp hair and nails of oral cancer patients and counterpart controls by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb were found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) and those of Cu, Fe and Zn were considerably lower in the blood, scalp hair and nails of the patients than the controls...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343033/quinocetone-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cells-through-ros-dependent-promotion-of-vdac1-oligomerization-and-suppression-of-wnt1-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#13
Xiayun Yang, Shusheng Tang, Chongshan Dai, Daowen Li, Shen Zhang, Sijun Deng, Yan Zhou, Xilong Xiao
Quinocetone (QCT) has been used as an animal feed additive in China since 2003. However, investigations indicate that QCT has potential toxicity due to the fact that it shows cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and immunotoxicity in vitro and animal models. Although QCT-induced mitochondrial apoptosis has been established, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the role of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) oligomerization and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in QCT-induced mitochondrial apoptosis...
March 23, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343031/assessing-the-genotoxic-effects-of-two-lipid-peroxidation-products-4-oxo-2-nonenal-and-4-hydroxy-hexenal-in-haemocytes-and-midgut-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#14
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated...
March 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343020/selenium-speciation-influences-bioaccumulation-in-limnodynastes-peronii-tadpoles
#15
C M Lanctôt, S D Melvin, T Cresswell
Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae...
March 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343016/evaluation-of-antitumor-activity-and-cardiac-toxicity-of-a-bone-targeted-ph-sensitive-liposomal-formulation-in-a-bone-metastasis-tumor-model-in-mice
#16
Diego Dos Santos Ferreira, Bruno Luís Jesus de Oliveira Pinto, Vidhya Kumar, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, Simone Odília Fernandes, Cristina Maria Souza, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, Anna Moore, David Sosnovik, Christian Farrar, Elaine Amaral Leite, Ricardo José Alves, Mônica Cristina de Oliveira, Alexander Ramos Guimarães, Peter Caravan
Chemotherapy for bone tumors is a major challenge because of the inability of therapeutics to penetrate dense bone mineral. We hypothesize that a nanostructured formulation with high affinity for bone could deliver drug to the tumor while minimizing off-target toxicity. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a novel bone-targeted, pH-sensitive liposomal formulation containing doxorubicin in an animal model of bone metastasis. Biodistribution studies with the liposome showed good uptake in tumor, but low accumulation of doxorubicin in the heart...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342858/aqueous-extract-from-leaf-of-artocarpus-altilis-provides-cardio-protection-from-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-damage-in-rats-negative-chronotropic-and-inotropic-effects
#17
Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, Javier Palacios, Mario J Simirgiotis, Jemesha Thomas, Magdalene Nwokocha, Lauriann Young, Rory Thompson, Fredi Cifuentes, Adrian Paredes, Rupika Delgoda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn, Fosberg) (Moraceae) are used in the management of hypertension; this study assessed the cardio-protective effects of the leaf extract on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial damage in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty (20) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-230g) were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (Control), 2 (AA) received 50mg/Kg Artocarpus altilis (AA) only; 3 (ISO) received 85mg/Kg ISO only; 4 (ISO+AA/50) and 5 (ISO+AA/100) received 50 and 100mg/Kg AA respectively for 6 days, after induced with ISO twice (85mg/Kg) at a 24-hour period...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342848/ultraviolet-a-induced-oxidation-in-cornea-characterization-of-the-early-oxidation-related-events
#18
Corinne Zinflou, Patrick J Rochette
Exposure to sunlight ultraviolet-A (UVA), the main component of solar UV reaching the eyes, is suspected to play an important part in the onset of ocular pathologies. UVA primary biological deleterious effects arise from the photo-induction of oxidative stress in cells. However, the molecular bases linking UVA-induced oxidation to UVA toxicity in eyes remain poorly understood, especially with regards to the cornea. To shed some light on this issue, we have investigated the susceptibility and response potential of the different corneal cellular layers (epithelium, stroma and endothelium) to UVA-induced oxidation...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342824/development-of-car-t-cells-designed-to-improve-antitumor-efficacy-and-safety
#19
REVIEW
Janneke E Jaspers, Renier J Brentjens
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising efficacy against hematologic malignancies. Antitumor activity of CAR T cells, however, needs to be improved to increase therapeutic efficacy in both hematologic and solid cancers. Limitations to overcome are 'on-target, off-tumor' toxicity, antigen escape, short CAR T cell persistence, little expansion, trafficking to the tumor and inhibition of T cell activity by an inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Here we will discuss how optimizing the design of CAR T cells through genetic engineering addresses these limitations and improves the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cell therapy in pre-clinical models...
March 22, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342779/suppression-of-calpain-expression-by-nsaids-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-cell-migration-in-rat-duodenum
#20
Kristopher Silver, A Littlejohn, Laurel Thomas, Bhupinder Bawa, James D Lillich
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology
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