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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749602/clinical-pattern-and-prevalence-of-upper-gastrointestinal-toxicity-in-ketamine-abusers
#1
Shirley Yuk Wah Liu, Stephen Ka Kei Ng, Yuk Him Tam, Samuel Chi Hang Yee, Franco Pui Tak Lai, Cindy Yuek Lam Hong, Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, Chi Fai Ng
AIM: While evidence about ketamine-related urological and hepatobiliary injuries was emerging, evaluation about upper gastrointestinal toxicity from ketamine abuse was uncommon. This study aims to investigate the clinical pattern and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in inhalational ketamine abusers. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 611 consecutive ketamine abusers who were seeking treatment for ketamine uropathy in a tertiary hospital setting between August 2008 and June 2016...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749522/palladium-catalyzed-decarboxylative-decarbonylative-and-dehydrogenative-c-sp-2-h-acylation-at-room-temperature
#2
Asik Hossian, Manash Kumar Manna, Kartic Manna, Ranjan Jana
Over the past few decades, an impressive array of C-H activation methodology has been developed for organic synthesis. However, due to the inherent inertness of the C-H bonds (e.g. ∼110 kcal mol(-1) for the cleavage of C(aryl)-H bonds) harsh reaction conditions have been realized to overcome high energetic transition states resulting in a limited substrate scope and functional group tolerance. Therefore, the development of mild C-H functionalization protocols is in high demand to exploit the full potential of the C-H activation strategy in the synthesis of a complex molecular framework...
July 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749489/optimization-of-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-uplc-with-fluorescence-detector-fld-method-for-the-quantitative-determination-of-selected-neurotransmitters-in-rat-brain
#3
Joanna Stragierowicz, Adam Daragó, Sławomir Brzeźnicki, Anna Kilanowicz
BACKGROUND: Glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main neurotransmitters in the central nervous system for excitatory and inhibitory processes, respectively. Monitoring these neurotransmitters is an essential tool in establishing pathological functions, among others in terms of occupational exposure to toxic substances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present modification of the HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to the UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography) method for the simultaneous determination of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in a single injection...
July 26, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749473/slc39a8-deficiency-biochemical-correction-and-major-clinical-improvement-by-manganese-therapy
#4
Julien H Park, Max Hogrebe, Manfred Fobker, Renate Brackmann, Barbara Fiedler, Janine Reunert, Stephan Rust, Konstantinos Tsiakas, René Santer, Marianne Grüneberg, Thorsten Marquardt
PurposeSLC39A8 deficiency is a severe inborn error of metabolism that is caused by impaired function of manganese metabolism in humans. Mutations in SLC39A8 lead to impaired function of the manganese transporter ZIP8 and thus manganese deficiency. Due to the important role of Mn(2+) as a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, the resulting phenotype is complex and severe. The manganese-dependence of β-1,4-galactosyltransferases leads to secondary hypoglycosylation, making SLC39A8 deficiency both a disorder of trace element metabolism and a congenital disorder of glycosylation...
July 27, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749469/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-harness-autophagy-to-induce-cell-death-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#5
Jun Zhang, Xia Qin, Bin Wang, Ge Xu, Zhexue Qin, Jian Wang, Lanxiang Wu, Xiangwu Ju, Diptiman D Bose, Feng Qiu, Honghao Zhou, Zhen Zou
Although zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are widely used, they have raised concerns of toxicity in humans. Previous studies have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy are involved in the cytotoxicity of ZnONPs, but the regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and ROS remain to be elucidated. Herein, we comprehensively investigated the regulatory mechanism of autophagy and the link between autophagy and ROS in ZnONPs-treated lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that ZnONPs could induce autophagy, and this process could enhance the dissolution of ZnONPs in lysosomes to release zinc ions...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749432/screening-hepatotoxic-components-in-euodia-rutaecarpa-by-uhplc-qtof-ms-based-on-the-spectrum-toxicity-relationship
#6
Jian Liang, Yang Chen, Gang Ren, Wei Dong, Min Shi, Li Xiong, Jiankang Li, Jiahao Dong, Fei Li, Jinbin Yuan
Euodia rutaecarpa is a common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinical practice, having the ability to suppress pain and cease coughing; however, with the increasing reports showing that it is toxic, particularly hepatotoxic, the concerns raised by what cause its toxicity is growing. In the current study, an analysis method based on the spectrum effect has been employed to screen the major hepatotoxic components in Euodia rutaecarpa so that the toxic material's basis would be elucidated. A fingerprinting method of the Euodia rutaecarpa extracts (which were petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) has been developed...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749305/the-pharmacokinetics-of-topical-itraconazole-in-panamanian-golden-frogs-atelopus-zeteki
#7
Amy Rifkin, Marike Visser, Kevin Barrett, Dawn Boothe, Ellen Bronson
Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and is one of the primary causes of the global decline in amphibian populations and specifically of the Panamanian golden frog ( Atelopus zeteki ). Itraconazole has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chytridiomycosis by inhibiting cytochrome P450, a major enzyme important for the structure of B. dendrobatidis zoospores' plasma membranes. However, anecdotal reports of toxicity in this and other amphibian species have been reported at the 0...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749304/investigation-of-enrofloxacin-associated-retinal-toxicity-in-nondomestic-felids
#8
Kim M Newkirk, L Kathryn Beard, Xiaocun Sun, Edward C Ramsay
Enrofloxacin is known to cause retinal toxicity in domestic cats. The hallmark lesion of enrofloxacin-associated retinal toxicity in domestic cats is thinning of the outer nuclear layer of the retina. Enrofloxacin is commonly used to treat bacterial infections in nondomestic felids because of its action against a wide spectrum of bacteria and the ability for it to be given orally. No previous studies have investigated the potential retinal toxicity of enrofloxacin in nondomestic felids. This retrospective study evaluated 81 eyes from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ) and 33 tigers ( Panthera tigris ) that had been enucleated or collected postmortem...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749255/pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administered-voriconazole-in-african-penguins-spheniscus-demersus-after-single-and-multiple-doses
#9
Michael W Hyatt, Nathan P Wiederhold, William W Hope, Katharine E Stott
Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. Empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. The objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (PK) in African penguins (n = 18). Single and once daily multiple oral doses of 5 mg/kg voriconazole were evaluated with a 4-mo washout period between trials...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749203/cb002-a-novel-p53-tumor-suppressor-pathway-restoring-small-molecule-induces-tumor-cell-death-through-the-pro-apoptotic-protein-noxa
#10
Liz J Hernandez-Borrero, Shengliang Zhang, Amriti Lulla, David T Dicker, Wafik S El-Deiry
P53 tumor suppressor gene mutations occur in the majority of human cancers and contribute to tumor development, progression and therapy resistance. Direct functional restoration of p53 as a transcription factor has been difficult to achieve in the clinic. We performed a functional screen using a bioluminescence-based transcriptional read-out to identify small molecules that restore the p53 pathway in mutant p53-bearing cancer cells. We identified CB002, as a candidate that restores p53 function in mutant p53-expressing colorectal cancer cells and without toxicity to normal human fibroblasts...
July 27, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749186/correlation-between-cat-polymorphism-and-susceptibility-to-dmac-induced-abnormal-liver-function-a-case-control-study-of-chinese-population
#11
Xianping Song, Wei Gong, Huanxi Shen, Xiuting Li, Lu Ding, Lei Han, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu, Xin Liu
CONTEXT: Acute or chronic exposure of N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is responsible for abnormal liver function. It appears that DMAc is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the liver and thereby produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). The elimination of ROS and the repairing of ROS-induced DNA damage are relevant to the ultimate toxicity of DMAc. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the polymorphisms in the CAT (rs564250, rs769214 and rs7943316), hOGG1 (rs2072668 and rs159153) and XRCC1 (rs25487 and rs1799782) genes are associated with susceptibility to DMAc-induced abnormal liver function in Chinese population...
July 27, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748895/a-case-of-severe-carbamazepine-overdose-treated-successfully-with-combined-hemoperfusion-and-hemodialysis-technique
#12
Natalia Vallianou, Myrto Giannopoulou, Kyriakos Trigkidis, Elefteria Bei, Evangelia Margellou, Theofanis Apostolou
Carbamazepine intoxication manifests as altered mental status ranging from drowsiness to a coma and/or cardiac abnormalities such as sinus tachycardia, prolongation of the QRS interval, ventricular tachycardia, and hypotension. The patient may be agitated, but central nervous system (CNS) depression and presentation with coma is more common and could be lethal. Serious CNS toxicity often requires hemoperfusion and/or hemodialysis (HD). Herein, we present a case of a comatose patient, who was treated with a combination of hemoperfusion and HD in series...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748871/toxicity-of-star-fruit-averrhoa-carambola-in-renal-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Camilo Aranguren, Camila Vergara, Diego Rosselli
Several reports have discussed the neurotoxic effects of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is also some evidence highlighting the potentially harmful effects on patients with apparently normal renal function, who after consuming this fruit, developed acute renal injury. We performed a systematic review of the literature in the two main global databases (PubMed and Embase) as well as in Lilacs, for Latin American publications. We also included case reports, case series, or review articles which presented individual patient data...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748849/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-peripheral-myelin-protein-22-causes-charcot-marie-tooth-disease
#14
Li-Xi Li, Hai-Lin Dong, Bao-Guo Xiao, Zhi-Ying Wu
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. A great number of causative genes have been described in CMT, and among them, the heterozygous duplication of peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) is the major cause. Although the missense mutation in PMP22 is rarely reported, it has been demonstrated to be associated with CMT. This study described a novel missense mutation of PMP22 in a Chinese family with CMT phenotype. METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the causative genes in a family featured with an autosomal dominant demyelinating form of CMT...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748763/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technology-a-paradigm-shift-in-medical-science-for-drug-screening-and-disease-modeling
#15
Meera Nair, Sardul Singh Sandhu, Anil Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (IPSC) Technology is the most advanced research as it offers an attractive alternative for establishing patient-specific IPSCs to recapitulate phenotypes of not only monogenic diseases (viz. Thalassaemia, Sickle cell anemia, Haemophilia, Tay-Sachs disease), but also late-onset polygenic diseases (viz. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia). Over the hindsight, numerous studies of the past and current scientists have led to the production, maturation and understanding of induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its use in basic and clinical research...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748734/biochemical-alterations-induced-by-nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-in-female-wistar-albino-rats-after-acute-oral-exposure
#16
Naresh Dumala, Bhanuramya Mangalampalli, Kalyan Kamal Srinivasa Sarika, Paramjit Grover
CONTEXT: Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used for their potential new applications in biomedical industry. Increased usage of these NPs, enhances the chance of exposure of personnel involved in the work place. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the ability of NiO NPs to cause biochemical alterations post-acute oral exposure in female Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were administered with 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg doses of NiO NPs for haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies...
July 27, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748673/neurological-complications-during-treatment-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome
#17
Jee Eun Kim, Jae Hyeok Heo, Hye Ok Kim, Sook Hee Song, Sang Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Jin Young Ahn, Min Ky Kim, Jae Phil Choi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has a high mortality rate and pandemic potential. However, the neurological manifestations of MERS have rarely been reported since it first emerged in 2012. METHODS: We evaluated four patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS coronavirus (CoV) infections who showed neurological complications during MERS treatment. These 4 patients were from a cohort of 23 patients who were treated at a single designated hospital during the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748653/oral-bexarotene-for-post-transplant-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#18
Daniel J Lewis, Simo Huang, Madeleine Duvic
Organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression have an increased risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLDs). Traditionally, PTLDs refer to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell lymphoma. However, post-transplant T-cell lymphoma may also occur and tends to have a poorer response to reduced immunosuppressive therapy. As such, additional therapy is often needed for post-transplant T-cell lymphoma, including post-transplant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PT-CTCL). We present only the third case of PT-CTCL occurring after liver transplantation...
July 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748603/graphene-quantum-dots-downregulate-multiple-multidrug-resistant-genes-via-interacting-with-their-c-rich-promoters
#19
Chao Luo, Yanfang Li, Lijuan Guo, Fangwei Zhang, Hui Liu, Jiali Zhang, Jing Zheng, Jingyan Zhang, Shouwu Guo
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major factor in the failure of many forms of chemotherapy, mostly due to the increased efflux of anticancer drugs that mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Therefore, inhibiting ABC transporters is one of effective methods of overcoming MDR. However, high enrichment of ABC transporters in cells and their broad substrate spectra made to circumvent MDR are almost insurmountable by a single specific ABC transporter inhibitor. Here, this study demonstrates that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) could downregulate the expressions of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein MRP1, and breast cancer resistance protein genes via interacting with C-rich regions of their promoters...
July 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748573/a-novel-humanized-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-r2-monoclonal-antibody-induces-apoptotic-and-autophagic-cell-death
#20
Longfei Chen, Yuhe Qiu, Zhenliang Hao, Jiong Cai, Shuyong Zhang, Yanxin Liu, Dexian Zheng
It is well known that the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/TNFSF10) is specifically expressed in various tumor cells, but less or no expression in most normal tissues and cells. While TRAIL engages with its native death receptors, TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) or 2 (TRAIL-R2), usually elicits the tumor cell death by apoptosis. In this study, we report that a novel humanized monoclonal antibody against TRAIL-R2 (named as zaptuzumab) well remain the biological activity of the parental mouse antibody AD5-10 inducing cell death in various cancer cells, but little effect on normal cells...
July 27, 2017: IUBMB Life
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