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animal science

Christopher W Mangieri, Jason C McCartt, Matthew A Strode, John E Lowry, Prasad M Balakrishna
BACKGROUND: As hepatic surgery has become safer and more commonly performed, the extent of hepatic resections has increased. When there is not enough expected hepatic reserve to facilitate primary resection of hepatic tumors, a clinical adjunct to facilitating primary resection is portal vein embolization (PVE). PVE allows the hepatic remnant to increase to an appropriate size prior to resection via hepatocyte regeneration; however, PVE is not always successful in facilitating adequate regeneration...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Nicholas W Gilpin, Jeff L Weiner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly co-morbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of co-morbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on co-morbid PTSD and AUD: we summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this co-morbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD, and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Madathipat Unnikrishnan, Sidharth Viswanathan, K Balasubramaniam, C V Muraleedharan, Arthur Vijayan Lal, P V Mohanan, Meera Mohanty, Tirur Raman Kapilamoorthy
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. METHODS: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) graft at its research wing...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Sedigheh Asgary, Mahtab Keshvari, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit with diverse medicinal properties. Several lines of experimental and clinical evidence have shown that pomegranate intake helps lowering blood pressure (BP) through different mechanisms. AIMS: This study aimed to present a narrative review on the anti-hypertensive properties of different parts of pomegranate such as pomegranate juice (PJ), pomegranate peels (PP), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and the mechanisms and phytochemicals responsible for these effects...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Lili Wang, Rufeng Ma, Chenyue Liu, Haixia Liu, Ruyuan Zhu, Shuzhen Guo, Minke Tang, Yu Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Sihua Gao, Dongwei Zhang
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize the literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sundar Kumar Veluswamy, Abraham Samuel Babu, Lakshmi Manickavasagam Sundar
: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Herbal medicine and exercise interventions have individually been shown to be effective in the prevention and management of CVD. However, the complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise interventions for CVD prevention and management have not been adequately reported. OBJECTIVE: 1. Identify studies analysing complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise intervention in CVD prevention and management, 2...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Antonio Carlos Abramo, Thiago Paoliello Alves Do Amaral, Bruno Pierotti Lessio, Germano Andrighetto De Lima
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between the skin lines on the upper third of the face in cadavers, which represent the muscle activity in life and the skin lines achieved by voluntary contraction of the forehead, glabellar, and orbital muscles in patients. METHODS: Anatomical dissection of fresh cadavers was performed in 20 fresh cadavers, 11 females and 9 males, with ages ranging from 53 to 77 years. Subcutaneous dissection identified the muscle shape and the continuity of the fibers of the eyebrow elevator and depress muscles...
October 14, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Jefferson Soares de Oliveira, Moara E Silva Conceição Pinto, Lucas de Araújo de Bastos Santana, Antonione Santos Bezerra Pinto, David di Lenardo, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos
Objective. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the advances in the study of medicinal plants and their biologic effects on periodontitis in animal models. Study Design. A systematic search was conducted by three independent researchers, who screened articles published up to March/2016, to identify the studies that contained sufficient and clear information on the association of the medicinal plants and periodontitis in murine models. The searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases...
2016: International Journal of Dentistry
S Vinothraj, A Subramaniyan, R Venkataramanan, Cecilia Joseph, S N Sivaselvam
AIM: The present investigation was undertaken to study the reproduction performance and effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction performance of Jersey crossbred cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 355 Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Post-graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, distributed over 30 years (1985 to 2014). The effect of various non-genetic factors including the period of birth, season of birth, period of calving, season of calving and parity were analyzed through least-squares analyses using univariate general linear model...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Sara Hintze, Samantha Smith, Antonia Patt, Iris Bachmann, Hanno Würbel
Finding valid indicators of emotional states is one of the biggest challenges in animal welfare science. Here, we investigated in horses whether variation in the expression of eye wrinkles caused by contraction of the inner eyebrow raiser reflects emotional valence. By confronting horses with positive and negative conditions, we aimed to induce positive and negative emotional states, hypothesising that positive emotions would reduce whereas negative emotions would increase eye wrinkle expression. Sixteen horses were individually exposed in a balanced order to two positive (grooming, food anticipation) and two negative conditions (food competition, waving a plastic bag)...
2016: PloS One
Matthew E Wolak, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying and predicting microevolutionary responses to environmental change requires unbiased estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations. 'Animal models', which utilise pedigree data to separate genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes, provide powerful means to estimate key parameters and have revolutionised quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations. 2.However, pedigrees collected in wild populations commonly contain many individuals with unknown parents. When unknown parents are non-randomly associated with genetic values for focal traits, animal model parameter estimates can be severely biased...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Olivier Fernandez, Maria Urrutia, Stéphane Bernillon, Catherine Giauffret, François Tardieu, Jacques Le Gouis, Nicolas Langlade, Alain Charcosset, Annick Moing, Yves Gibon
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, metabolomics has emerged as a powerful diagnostic and predictive tool in many branches of science. Researchers in microbes, animal, food, medical and plant science have generated a large number of targeted or non-targeted metabolic profiles by using a vast array of analytical methods (GC-MS, LC-MS, (1)H-NMR….). Comprehensive analysis of such profiles using adapted statistical methods and modeling has opened up the possibility of using single or combinations of metabolites as markers...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Lewis O J Killin, John M Starr, Ivy J Shiue, Tom C Russ
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data...
October 12, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ann Williams, Ian M Orme
This article provides an overview of the animal models currently used in tuberculosis research, both for understanding the basic science of the disease process and also for practical issues such as testing new vaccine candidates and evaluating the activity of potential new drugs. Animals range in size, from zebrafish to cattle, and in degrees of similarity to the human disease from both an immunological and pathologic perspective. These models have provided a great wealth of information (impossible to obtain simply from observing infected humans), but we emphasize here that one must use care in interpreting or applying this information, and indeed the true art of animal modeling is in deciding what is pertinent information and what might not be...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Aditi Roy, Katarzyna Kordas
Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in occupationally exposed adults indicate that higher lead exposure results in higher biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, this evidence cannot be extended to the general population who typically experience lower levels of lead exposure. This systematic review evaluates the epidemiological evidence on the association between lead and oxidative stress in non-occupationally exposed general population, with a particular focus on the pediatric population...
October 10, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Yuta Komoike, Masato Matsuoka
Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Marie J Ducrotoy, Kevin L Bardosh
Brucellosis is a major neglected zoonotic disease, whose burden both in animals and humans is severely under-reported. Diagnosis in humans identifies cases in order to treat the disease at the individual level. In animals diagnosis is implemented at the population level in the context of appropriate control or eradication strategies. Molecular and bacteriological diagnosis are rarely undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa, at least outside research projects, due to cost, skills and laboratory infrastructure issues...
October 7, 2016: Acta Tropica
Marianne Haage, Tiit Maran, Ulrika Alm Bergvall, Bodil Elmhagen, Anders Angerbjörn
Personality exists in non-human animals and can impact fitness. There is, however, a shortage of empirical studies in certain areas within the field, and fundamental evolutionary theory on personality remains largely untested. For example, little is known on how variation in personality is maintained over evolutionary time. Theory suggests that fluctuating selection pressures due to spatiotemporal variation in conditions, e.g. food availability, is a possible mechanism and a few studies have shown that the success of different personality types varies with spatiotemporal conditions...
October 8, 2016: Oecologia
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