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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#1
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333553/microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-tempo-labeled-hydrogels-traceable-with-mri
#2
Emanuele Mauri, Edoardo Micotti, Arianna Rossetti, Lucio Melone, Simonetta Papa, Giulia Azzolini, Stefano Rimondo, Pietro Veglianese, Carlo Punta, Filippo Rossi, Alessandro Sacchetti
Polymer functionalization strategies have recently attracted considerable attention for several applications in biomaterials science. In particular, technological advancements in medical imaging have focused on the design of polymeric matrices to improve non-invasive approaches and diagnostic accuracy. In this scenario, the use of microwave irradiation of aqueous solutions containing appropriate combinations of polymers is gaining increasing interest in the synthesis of sterile hydrogels without using monomers, eliminating the need to remove unreacted species...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#3
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#4
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328139/holographic-display-methods-for-volume-data-polygon-based-and-mip-based-methods
#5
Zixiang Lu, Yuji Sakamoto
Volume data are widely used in many areas, especially in biomedical science and geology. However, current visualization technologies of volume data cannot satisfy the visual requirements of humans. In this study, we propose two holographic display methods for volume data. The first method is polygon-based, and the other is maximum intensity projection (MIP)-based. Both methods are able to generate computer generated holograms of volume data. The polygon-based method can obtain various and colorful holograms, while the MIP-based method can be quickly calculated...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#6
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324848/platelet-rich-plasma-to-treat-experimentally-induced-skin-wounds-in-animals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Adolfo Maria Tambella, Anna Rita Attili, Gilles Dupré, Andrea Cantalamessa, Stefano Martin, Vincenzo Cuteri, Sabrina Marcazzan, Massimo Del Fabbro
The objective of the study was to review current literature to determine whether the topical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes healing in experimentally-induced full-thickness skin wounds in animals. The hypothesis was that the adjunct of PRP has a positive effect on wound healing. An electronic search was carried out on the following databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Research Gate, Cochrane Wounds Group, Veterinary Information Network. No publication date nor language restrictions were applied...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324568/effects-of-pressure-support-ventilation-on-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-mild-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-depend-on-level-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure
#8
Paulo A F Magalhães, Gisele de A Padilha, Lillian Moraes, Cíntia L Santos, Ligia de A Maia, Cassia L Braga, Maria do Carmo M B Duarte, Lívia B Andrade, Alberto Schanaider, Vera L Capellozzi, Robert Huhle, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco, Pedro L Silva
BACKGROUND: Harmful effects of spontaneous breathing have been shown in experimental severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, in the clinical setting, spontaneous respiration has been indicated only in mild ARDS. To date, no study has compared the effects of spontaneous assisted breathing with those of fully controlled mechanical ventilation at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on lung injury in ARDS. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of assisted pressure support ventilation (PSV) with pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) on lung function, histology and biological markers at two different PEEP levels in mild ARDS in rats...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319738/the-use-of-nanoparticles-in-wound-treatment-a-systematic-review
#9
Maria Michelle Pereira Silva, Maria Isis Freire de Aguiar, Andrea Bezerra Rodrigues, Maira Di Ciero Miranda, Michell Ângelo Marques Araújo, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira Rolim, Angela Maria Alves E Souza
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of nanoparticle-based dressings on the wound healing process in in vitro animals and human cells based on scientific evidence. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature in LILACS, PubMed and Science Direct databases. The articles were selected and evaluated for the level of evidence by the application of STROBE. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 12 articles. The application of the products occurred in surgical wounds, burns, infected wounds and gingival ulcers in laboratory animals, as well as in vitro tests, demonstrating that among other advantages, the nanoparticle-based dressings increased the healing speed, had good antibacterial capacity and were non cytotoxic agents...
January 8, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316306/information-retrieval-for-systematic-reviews-in-food-and-feed-topics-a-narrative-review
#10
Hannah Wood, Annette O'Connor, Jan Sargeant, Julie Glanville
INTRODUCTION: Systematic review methods are now being used for reviews of food production, food safety and security, plant health, and animal health and welfare. Information retrieval methods in this context have been informed by human healthcare approaches and ideally should be based on relevant research and experience. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review seeks to identify and summarise current research-based evidence and experience on information retrieval for systematic reviews in food and feed topics...
January 9, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305762/the-dance-of-attention-toward-an-aesthetic-dimension-of-attention-deficit
#11
Kasper Levin
What role does the aesthetics of bodily movement play in the understanding of attention among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This article animates a phenomenological approach to attention and embodiment with a special focus on the relation between aesthetic or expressive bodily movement and behavioral awareness in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, beyond this it is argued that the aesthetic aspect of movement calls for an expansion of the phenomenological perspective...
January 5, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305425/a-systematic-review-of-current-osteoporotic-metaphyseal-fracture-animal-models
#12
R M Y Wong, M H V Choy, M C M Li, K-S Leung, S K-H Chow, W-H Cheung, J C Y Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is a major challenge, and the enhancement of healing is critical as a major goal in modern fracture management. Most osteoporotic fractures occur at the metaphyseal bone region but few models exist and the healing is still poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyse the appropriateness of current osteoporotic metaphyseal fracture animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed on the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, and relevant articles were selected...
January 2018: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302044/the-pertinence-of-sutton-s-law-to-exposure-science-lessons-from-unconventional-shale-gas-drilling
#13
REVIEW
Bernard D Goldstein
Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299349/perspectives-on-the-role-of-professional-laboratory-animal-science-associations
#14
Ann Tourigny Turner, Ekaterina Botovchenco Rivera, Cynthia Pekow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297757/learning-nonwords-the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-model-of-word-learning
#15
Dennis Norris, Michael P A Page, Jane Hall
Page and Norris [(2008). Is there a common mechanism underlying word-form learning and the Hebb repetition effect? Experimental data and a modelling framework. In A. Thorn & M. P. A. Page (Eds.), Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain; (2009). A model linking immediate serial recall, the Hebb repetition effect and the learning of phonological word forms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1536), 3737-3753. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0173] have suggested that the Hebb [(1961)...
January 3, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296016/systematic-heterogenization-for-better-reproducibility-in-animal-experimentation
#16
S Helene Richter
The scientific literature is full of articles discussing poor reproducibility of findings from animal experiments as well as failures to translate results from preclinical animal studies to clinical trials in humans. Critics even go so far as to talk about a "reproducibility crisis" in the life sciences, a novel headword that increasingly finds its way into numerous high-impact journals. Viewed from a cynical perspective, Fett's law of the lab "Never replicate a successful experiment" has thus taken on a completely new meaning...
August 31, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295609/celebrating-the-30th-anniversary-of-the-asian-australasian-journal-of-animal-sciences
#17
Jong K Ha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290084/a-systematic-review-evaluating-the-effect-of-vitamin-b6-on-semen-quality
#18
Saleem Ali Banihani
PURPOSE: This review systematically discusses and summarizes the effect of vitamin B6 on semen quality. MATERIAL AND METHOD: To achieve this contribution, we searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for English language papers from 1984 through 2017 using the key words "sperm" versus "Vitamin B6", "pyridoxine", and "pyridoxal". Also, the references from selected published papers were included, only if relevant. RESULT: To date, as revealed by rodent studies, high doses of vitamin B6 impair semen quality and sperm parameters...
December 30, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288248/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-on-blood-inflammatory-markers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, B Fatemeh Nobakht M Gh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with attractive biological activities. Numerous studies have been conducted on the inflammation-lowering effects of CLA in in vitro and animal models. However, the effects of CLA treatment on the inflammatory markers in humans are controversial. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials (RCT) assessing the effects of CLA supplementation on the circulating inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286505/peculiarities-of-ultrastructural-organization-and-metabolism-of-reactive-forms-of-oxygen-and-nitrogen-in-a-cardiovascular-system-for-permanent-effects-of-ionizing-radiation-in-low-doses
#20
I V Horot, M M Tkachenko
OBJECTIVE: Determination of the peculiarities of ultrastructural changes and metabolism of reactive forms of oxy gen and nitrogen in the tissues of the myocardium, aorta and portal vein of the radiosensitive BALB/c mice due long term exposure to the complex of radionuclides of Chоrnobyl fallout (ejection) and low intensity low dose γ irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental studies were performed on 60 mice female radiosensitive lines BALB/c with a body weight of 20-22 g, which were divided into 3 groups: I group (control) animals age 6-9 months which were born and lived their lives in Kyiv vivarium under conditions natural radioactive background; ІІ - animals age 6 months, which were born and lived in the Chornobyl exclusion zone throughout their lives; ІІІ - animals, which from 3 months of age for 6 months were constantly located in cages with flat ionizing radiation sources and exposed to external γ irradiation in a total dose of 0...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
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