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Polydendrocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744291/refilins-are-short-lived-actin-bundling-proteins-that-regulate-lamellipodium-protrusion-dynamics
#1
Olivia Gay, Benoît Gilquin, Nicole Assard, Pascal Stuelsatz, Christian Delphin, Joël Lachuer, Xavier Gidrol, Jacques Baudier
Refilins (RefilinA and RefilinB) are members of a novel family of Filamin binding proteins that function as molecular switches to conformationally alter the Actin filament network into bundles. We show here that Refilins are extremely labile proteins. An N-terminal PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif mediates ubiquitin-independent rapid degradation. A second degradation signal is localized within the C-terminus. Only RefilinB is protected from rapid degradation by an auto-inhibitory domain that masks the PEST/DSG(X)2-4S motif...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448245/heterogeneity-of-astrocyte-and-ng2-cell-insertion-at-the-node-of-ranvier
#2
David R Serwanski, Peter Jukkola, Akiko Nishiyama
The node of Ranvier is a functionally important site on the myelinated axon where sodium channels are clustered and regeneration of action potentials occurs, allowing fast saltatory conduction of action potentials. Early ultrastructural studies have revealed the presence of "glia" or "astrocytes" at the nodes. NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes, which are a resident glial cell population in the mature mammalian central nervous system that is distinct from astrocytes, have also been shown to extend processes that contact the nodes...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26804026/stat3-and-socs3-regulate-ng2-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Amber R Hackett, Do-Hun Lee, Abdul Dawood, Mario Rodriguez, Lucy Funk, Pantelis Tsoulfas, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitors or polydendrocytes, are a major component of the glial scar that forms after spinal cord injury. NG2 cells react to injury by proliferating around the lesion site and differentiating into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we tested the role of the transcription factor STAT3, and its suppressor SOCS3, in NG2 cell proliferation and differentiation after spinal cord injury. Using knockout mice in which STAT3 or SOCS3 are genetically deleted specifically in NG2 cells, we found that deletion of STAT3 led to a reduction in oligodendrogenesis, while deletion of SOCS3 led to enhanced proliferation of NG2 cells within the glial scar after spinal cord injury...
May 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651999/ng2-glia-are-required-for-vessel-network-formation-during-embryonic-development
#4
Shilpi Minocha, Delphine Valloton, Isabelle Brunet, Anne Eichmann, Jean-Pierre Hornung, Cecile Lebrand
The NG2(+) glia, also known as polydendrocytes or oligodendrocyte precursor cells, represent a new entity among glial cell populations in the central nervous system. However, the complete repertoire of their roles is not yet identified. The embryonic NG2(+) glia originate from the Nkx2.1(+) progenitors of the ventral telencephalon. Our analysis unravels that, beginning from E12.5 until E16.5, the NG2(+) glia populate the entire dorsal telencephalon. Interestingly, their appearance temporally coincides with the establishment of blood vessel network in the embryonic brain...
December 10, 2015: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25904499/nkx2-1-derived-astrocytes-and-neurons-together-with-slit2-are-indispensable-for-anterior-commissure-formation
#5
Shilpi Minocha, Delphine Valloton, Athena R Ypsilanti, Hubert Fiumelli, Elizabeth A Allen, Yuchio Yanagawa, Oscar Marin, Alain Chédotal, Jean-Pierre Hornung, Cécile Lebrand
Guidepost cells present at and surrounding the midline provide guidance cues that orient the growing axons through commissures. Here we show that the transcription factor Nkx2.1 known to control the specification of GABAergic interneurons also regulates the differentiation of astroglia and polydendrocytes within the mouse anterior commissure (AC). Nkx2.1-positive glia were found to originate from three germinal regions of the ventral telencephalon. Nkx2.1-derived glia were observed in and around the AC region by E14...
2015: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25878571/synapsing-with-ng2-cells-polydendrocytes-unappreciated-barrier-to-axon-regeneration
#6
Young-Jin Son
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25177825/organotypic-slice-cultures-to-study-oligodendrocyte-dynamics-and-myelination
#7
Robert A Hill, Jelena Medved, Kiran D Patel, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 expressing cells (polydendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells) are the fourth major glial cell population in the central nervous system. During embryonic and postnatal development they actively proliferate and generate myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells have commonly been studied in primary dissociated cultures, neuron cocultures, and in fixed tissue. Using newly available transgenic mouse lines slice culture systems can be used to investigate proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in both gray and white matter regions of the forebrain and cerebellum...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25018689/ng2-cells-polydendrocytes-in-brain-physiology-and-repair
#8
Akiko Nishiyama, Ryusuke Suzuki, Xiaoqin Zhu
NG2 cells, also referred to as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) or polydendrocytes, represent a major resident glial cell population that is distinct from mature astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and neural stem cells and exist throughout the gray and white matter of the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). While their most established fate is the oligodendrocyte, they retain lineage plasticity in an age- and region-specific manner. During development, they contribute to 36% of protoplasmic astrocytes in the ventral forebrain...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24753030/ng2-cells-polydendrocytes-listeners-to-the-neural-network-with-diverse-properties
#9
REVIEW
Robert A Hill, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2 cells (polydendrocytes) are the fourth major non-neuronal cell type in the central nervous system parenchyma. They exhibit diverse properties, ranging from their well-established role as oligodendrocyte precursors to their ability to respond to neurotransmitters released by synaptic and non-synaptic mechanisms. The functional diversity of NG2 cells has prompted the question of whether they represent a single cellular entity or multiple distinct cell populations. This review first summarizes recent findings on the nature and mechanism underlying the diversity of NG2 cells with regard to their proliferative and differentiation behavior...
August 2014: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24179462/nmda-receptors-in-glial-cells-pending-questions
#10
David Dzamba, Pavel Honsa, Miroslava Anderova
Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are involved in many cognitive processes, including behavior, learning and synaptic plasticity. For a long time NMDA receptors were thought to be the privileged domain of neurons; however, discoveries of the last 25 years have demonstrated their active role in glial cells as well. Despite the large number of studies in the field, there are many unresolved questions connected with NMDA receptors in glia that are still a matter of debate. The main objective of this review is to shed light on these controversies by summarizing results from all relevant works concerning astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 glial cells) in experimental animals, further extended by studies performed on human glia...
May 2013: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24021420/prospects-for-cannabinoid-therapies-in-viral-encephalitis
#11
Marylou V Solbrig, Yijun Fan, Paul Hazelton
Cannabinoids are promising therapies to support neurogenesis and decelerate disease progression in neuroinflammatory and degenerative disorders. Whether neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids are sustainable during persistent viral infection of the CNS is not known. Using a rodent model of chronic viral encephalitis based on Borna Disease (BD) virus, in which 1 week treatment with the general cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 has been shown to be neuroprotective (Solbrig et al., 2010), we examine longer term (2 week treatment) effects of a general (CB1 and CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg ip twice per day) or a specific (CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-308 (5mg/kg ip once daily) on histopathology, measures of frontostriatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and viral load...
November 6, 2013: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24005306/ng2-cells-in-white-matter-but-not-gray-matter-proliferate-in-response-to-pdgf
#12
Robert A Hill, Kiran D Patel, Jelena Medved, Alex M Reiss, Akiko Nishiyama
Glial cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan and the α receptor for PDGF (NG2 cells, polydendrocytes) make up the fifth major cell population that serves as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the postnatal CNS. Although recent studies have suggested differences in their proliferation and oligodendrocyte differentiation in gray and white matter, the mechanism underlying the observed differences has been unclear. Using organotypic slice cultures from the forebrain and cerebellum of early postnatal NG2creBAC:ZEG mice, we have compared basal and growth factor-induced proliferation of NG2 cells in gray and white matter...
September 4, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23940528/heterogeneity-of-astrocytes-from-development-to-injury-single-cell-gene-expression
#13
Vendula Rusnakova, Pavel Honsa, David Dzamba, Anders Ståhlberg, Mikael Kubista, Miroslava Anderova
Astrocytes perform control and regulatory functions in the central nervous system; heterogeneity among them is still a matter of debate due to limited knowledge of their gene expression profiles and functional diversity. To unravel astrocyte heterogeneity during postnatal development and after focal cerebral ischemia, we employed single-cell gene expression profiling in acutely isolated cortical GFAP/EGFP-positive cells. Using a microfluidic qPCR platform, we profiled 47 genes encoding glial markers and ion channels/transporters/receptors participating in maintaining K(+) and glutamate homeostasis per cell...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23667595/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-multipolar-map5-expressing-cells-a-subset-of-newly-generated-stage-specific-parenchymal-cells-in-the-mammalian-central-nervous-system
#14
Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Daniele Conte, Marta Fumagalli, Luca Bonfanti
Although extremely interesting in adult neuro-glio-genesis and promising as an endogenous source for repair, parenchymal progenitors remain largely obscure in their identity and physiology, due to a scarce availability of stage-specific markers. What appears difficult is the distinction between real cell populations and various differentiation stages of the same population. Here we focused on a subset of multipolar, polydendrocyte-like cells (mMap5 cells) expressing the microtubule associated protein 5 (Map5), which is known to be present in most neurons...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23516142/polydendrocytes-in-development-and-myelin-repair
#15
REVIEW
Hao Zuo, Akiko Nishiyama
Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells) are a distinct type of glia that populate the developing and adult central nervous systems (CNS). In the adult CNS, they retain mitotic activity and represent the largest proliferating cell population. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the fate of polydendrocytes, which give rise to both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. In addition, polydendrocytes actively differentiate into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in response to demyelination. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding polydendrocyte development, which provides an important basis for understanding the mechanisms that lead to the remyelination of demyelinated lesions...
April 2013: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22699909/il-17-induced-act1-mediated-signaling-is-critical-for-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#16
Zizhen Kang, Liping Liu, Roo Spangler, Charles Spear, Chenhui Wang, Muhammet Fatih Gulen, Mike Veenstra, Wenjun Ouyang, Richard M Ransohoff, Xiaoxia Li
Cuprizone inhibits mitochondrial function and induces demyelination in the corpus callosum, which resembles pattern III lesions in multiple sclerosis patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism by which cuprizone induces demyelination remains unclear. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) secreted by T helper 17 cells and γδT cells are essential in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In this study, we examined the importance of IL-17 signaling in cuprizone-induced demyelination. We found that mice deficient in IL-17A, IL-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), and adaptor protein Act1 (of IL-17R) all had reduced demyelination accompanied by lessened microglial and polydendrocyte cellular reactivity compared with that in wild-type mice in response to cuprizone feeding, demonstrating the essential role of IL-17-induced Act1-mediated signaling in cuprizone-induced demyelination...
June 13, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22627280/olig2-dependent-developmental-fate-switch-of-ng2-cells
#17
Xiaoqin Zhu, Hao Zuo, Brady J Maher, David R Serwanski, Joseph J LoTurco, Q Richard Lu, Akiko Nishiyama
NG2-expressing cells (NG2 cells or polydendrocytes) generate oligodendrocytes throughout the CNS and a subpopulation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the gray matter of the ventral forebrain. The mechanisms that regulate their oligodendrocyte or astrocyte fate and the degree to which they exhibit lineage plasticity in vivo have remained unclear. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2 is required for oligodendrocyte specification and differentiation. We have found that Olig2 expression is spontaneously downregulated in NG2 cells in the normal embryonic ventral forebrain as they differentiate into astrocytes...
July 2012: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22590616/polydendrocytes-display-large-lineage-plasticity-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Pavel Honsa, Helena Pivonkova, David Dzamba, Marcela Filipova, Miroslava Anderova
Polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 glial cells) constitute a fourth major glial cell type in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that is distinct from other cell types. Although much evidence suggests that these cells are multipotent in vitro, their differentiation potential in vivo under physiological or pathophysiological conditions is still controversial.To follow the fate of polydendrocytes after CNS pathology, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), a commonly used model of focal cerebral ischemia, was carried out on adult NG2creBAC:ZEG double transgenic mice, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed in polydendrocytes and their progeny...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22528683/purinergic-trophic-signalling-in-glial-cells-functional-effects-and-modulation-of-cell-proliferation-differentiation-and-death
#19
REVIEW
Davide Lecca, Stefania Ceruti, Marta Fumagalli, Maria P Abbracchio
In the last decades, the discovery that glial cells do not only fill in the empty space among neurons or furnish them with trophic support but are rather essential participants to the various activities of the central and peripheral nervous system has fostered the search for the signalling pathways controlling their functions. Since the early 1990s, purines were foreseen as some of the most promising candidate molecules. Originally just a hypothesis, this has become a certainty as experimental evidence accumulated over years, as demonstrated by the exponentially growing number of articles related to the role of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides in controlling glial cell functions...
September 2012: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21592101/fate-of-neuron-glia-synapses-during-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-ng2-cells
#20
REVIEW
Nicole Fröhlich, Bálint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Maria Kukley
Progenitor cells expressing proteoglycan NG2 (also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells or polydendrocytes) are widespread in the grey and white matter of the CNS; they comprise 8-9% of the total cell population in adult white matter, and 2-3% of total cells in adult grey matter. NG2 cells have a complex stellate morphology, with highly branched processes that may extend more than 100 μm around the cell body. NG2 cells express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate and/or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors, and receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic synaptic input from neurons...
July 2011: Journal of Anatomy
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