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Junpei Yamashita, Takuya Sato, Katsutoshi Watanabe
For parasites with complex life cycles, the ecological traits determining host competence and seasonal changes in infection in natural habitats are often unclear, which makes it difficult to predict infection dynamics, including disease outbreaks. Hairworms (Phylum: Nematomorpha) require both aquatic and terrestrial hosts to complete their life cycle. Although hairworm host competencies have been tested in laboratory experiments, knowledge of the paratenic hosts (aquatic insect larvae) in their natural habitats is limited...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Thomas T Schulze, Jonathan M Ali, Maggie L Bartlett, Madalyn M McFarland, Emalie J Clement, Harim I Won, Austin G Sanford, Elyssa B Monzingo, Matthew C Martens, Ryan M Hemsley, Sidharta Kumar, Nicolas Gouin, Alan S Kolok, Paul H Davis
Trichomycterus areolatus is an endemic species of pencil catfish that inhabits the riffles and rapids of many freshwater ecosystems of Chile. Despite its unique adaptation to Chile's high gradient watersheds and therefore potential application in the investigation of ecosystem integrity and environmental contamination, relatively little is known regarding the molecular biology of this environmental sentinel. Here, we detail the assembly of the Trichomycterus areolatus transcriptome, a molecular resource for the study of this organism and its molecular response to the environment...
2016: Journal of Genomics
Alyssa M Master, Philise N Williams, Nikorn Pothayee, Nipon Pothayee, Rui Zhang, Hemant M Vishwasrao, Yuri I Golovin, Judy S Riffle, Marina Sokolsky, Alexander V Kabanov
Motion of micron and sub-micron size magnetic particles in alternating magnetic fields can activate mechanosensitive cellular functions or physically destruct cancer cells. However, such effects are usually observed with relatively large magnetic particles (>250 nm) that would be difficult if at all possible to deliver to remote sites in the body to treat disease. Here we show a completely new mechanism of selective toxicity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) of 7 to 8 nm in diameter to cancer cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Mauad, A Siri, M Donato
Chironomid larvae assemblages were investigated at seven sampling stations in relation to stream habitat type in the Challhuaco-Ñireco river system located in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, in the North-Western part of Rio Negro Province, Argentina. A total of 2229 individuals were sampled and 43 Chironomidae taxa were recorded with Orthocladiinae (29) being the best represented subfamily, followed by Diamesinae (5), Tanypodinae (3), Podonominae (3) and Chironominae (3). Stictocladius spF, Cricotopus (Paratrichocladius) sp6, Cricotopus sp2, Cricotopus sp3 and Parapsectrocladius sp2 were the most abundant taxa...
August 19, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Michael Riffle, Daniel Jaschob, Alex Zelter, Trisha N Davis
ProXL is a Web application and accompanying database designed for sharing, visualizing, and analyzing bottom-up protein cross-linking mass spectrometry data with an emphasis on structural analysis and quality control. ProXL is designed to be independent of any particular software pipeline. The import process is simplified by the use of the ProXL XML data format, which shields developers of data importers from the relative complexity of the relational database schema. The database and Web interfaces function equally well for any software pipeline and allow data from disparate pipelines to be merged and contrasted...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Meng Chen, Huaibin M Ko, Mary E Riffle, Doerthe A Andreae, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mirna Chehade, Paul J Maglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Brandye T Freeland-Riggert, Stefan H Cairns, Barry C Poulton, Christopher M Riggert
Introductions of alien species into aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, including invasions of crayfish species; however, little is known about the effects of these introductions on macroinvertebrate communities. The woodland crayfish (Orconectes hylas (Faxon)) has been introduced into the St. Francis River watershed in southeast Missouri and has displaced populations of native crayfish. The effects of O. hylas on macroinvertebrate community composition were investigated in a fourth-order Ozark stream at two locations, one with the presence of O...
2016: PloS One
Rocko A Brown, Gregory B Pasternack, Tin Lin
Scientists and engineers design river topography for a wide variety of uses, such as experimentation, site remediation, dam mitigation, flood management, and river restoration. A recent advancement has been the notion of topographical design to yield specific fluvial mechanisms in conjunction with natural or environmental flow releases. For example, the flow convergence routing mechanism, whereby shear stress and spatially convergent flow migrate or jump from the topographic high (riffle) to the low point (pool) from low to high discharge, is thought to be a key process able to maintain undular relief in gravel bedded rivers...
April 2016: Environmental Management
Manish B Singla, Mirna Chehade, Diana Brizuela, Corinne L Maydonovitch, Yen-Ju Chen, Mary Ellen Riffle, Sami R Achem, Fouad J Moawad
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes esophageal remodeling and stricture formation. We compared the clinical course of symptoms, endoscopic findings, histology, and changes in phenotype over time in EoE patients with inflammatory and fibrostenotic phenotypes. METHODS: Data were obtained from EoE patients from three medical centers and followed prospectively. Endoscopic features and histology from index and follow-up endoscopies were recorded...
2015: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Richard A Hoppmann, Victor V Rao, Floyd Bell, Mary Beth Poston, Duncan B Howe, Shaun Riffle, Stephen Harris, Ruth Riley, Carol McMahon, L Britt Wilson, Erika Blanck, Nancy A Richeson, Lynn K Thomas, Celia Hartman, Francis H Neuffer, Brian D Keisler, Kerry M Sims, Matthew D Garber, C Osborne Shuler, Michael Blaivas, Shawn A Chillag, Michael Wagner, Keith Barron, Danielle Davis, James R Wells, Donald J Kenney, Jeffrey W Hall, Paul H Bornemann, David Schrift, Patrick S Hunt, William B Owens, R Stephen Smith, Allison G Jackson, Kelsey Hagon, Steven P Wilson, Stanley D Fowler, James F Catroppo, Ali A Rizvi, Caroline K Powell, Thomas Cook, Eric Brown, Fernando A Navarro, Joshua Thornhill, Judith Burgis, William R Jennings, James B McCallum, James M Nottingham, James Kreiner, Robert Haddad, James R Augustine, Norman W Pedigo, Paul V Catalana
Interest in ultrasound education in medical schools has increased dramatically in recent years as reflected in a marked increase in publications on the topic and growing attendance at international meetings on ultrasound education. In 2006, the University of South Carolina School of Medicine introduced an integrated ultrasound curriculum (iUSC) across all years of medical school. That curriculum has evolved significantly over the 9 years. A review of the curriculum is presented, including curricular content, methods of delivery of the content, student assessment, and program assessment...
December 2015: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Alex Zelter, Massimiliano Bonomi, Jae ook Kim, Neil T Umbreit, Michael R Hoopmann, Richard Johnson, Michael Riffle, Daniel Jaschob, Michael J MacCoss, Robert L Moritz, Trisha N Davis
Accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is essential. The Dam1 complex binds kinetochores to microtubules and its oligomerization is required to form strong attachments. It is a key target of Aurora B kinase, which destabilizes erroneous attachments allowing subsequent correction. Understanding the roles and regulation of the Dam1 complex requires structural information. Here we apply cross-linking/mass spectrometry and structural modelling to determine the molecular architecture of the Dam1 complex...
2015: Nature Communications
Octavian Pacioglu, Oana Teodora Moldovan
Whereas the response of lotic benthic macroinvertebrates to different environmental stressors is a widespread practice nowadays in assessing the water and habitat quality, the use of hyporheic zone invertebrates is still in its infancy. In this study, classification and regression trees analysis were employed in order to assess the ecological requirements and the potential as bioindicators for the hyporheic zone invertebrates inhabiting four lowland chalk rivers (south England) with contrasting eutrophication levels (based on surface nitrate concentrations) and magnitude of land use (based on percentage of fine sediments load and median interstitial space)...
March 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marcos Vinícius Dias da Silva, Beatriz F J V Rosa, Roberto G Alves
Riparian vegetation is one of the most important abiotic components determining the water flow pattern in lotic ecosystems, influencing the composition, richness, and diversity of invertebrates. We have identified whether differences in the structure of the assemblages of invertebrates between riffles and pools may influence the responses of fauna to the effects of land use. In addition, we investigated which fauna metrics are responsible for the differentiation between riffles and pools in streams subject to different land uses...
November 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Samantha L Bock, Morgan M Malley, Sean C Lema
The speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (order Cypriniformes), also known as the carpita pinta, is a small cyprinid minnow native to western North America. Here, we report the sequencing of the full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. osculus from a male fish collected from the Amargosa River Canyon in eastern California, USA. The assembled mitogenome is 16 658 base pair (bp) nucleotides, and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, and includes both a 12S and a 16S rRNA, 22 tRNAs, and a 985 bp D-loop control region...
October 21, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
Elaine M Jagoda, Sibaprasad Bhattacharyya, Joseph Kalen, Lisa Riffle, Avrum Leeder, Stephanie Histed, Mark Williams, Karen J Wong, Biying Xu, Lawrence P Szajek, Osama Elbuluk, Fabiola Cecchi, Kristen Raffensperger, Meghana Golla, Donald P Bottaro, Peter Choyke
Developing an imaging agent targeting the hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein (Met) status of cancerous lesions would aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of Met-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A peptide targeting Met labeled with [(99m)Tc] had high affinity in vitro (Kd = 3.3 nM) and detected relative changes in Met in human cancer cell lines. In vivo [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide (AH-113018) was retained in Met-expressing tumors, and high-expressing Met tumors (MKN-45) were easily visualized and quantitated using single-photon emission computed tomography or optical imaging...
2015: Molecular Imaging
Leslie Wilson, Manu Lopus, Herbert P Miller, Olga Azarenko, Stephen Riffle, Jennifer A Smith, Mary Ann Jordan
Eribulin mesylate (Halaven) is a microtubule-targeted anticancer drug used to treat patients with metastatic breast cancer who have previously received a taxane and an anthracycline. It binds at the plus ends of microtubules and has been shown to suppress plus end growth selectively. Because the class III β tubulin isotype is associated with resistance to microtubule targeting drugs, we sought to determine how βIII tubulin might mechanistically influence the effects of eribulin on microtubules. We found that while [(3)H]eribulin bound to bovine brain soluble tubulin depleted of βIII tubulin in a manner similar to that of unfractionated tubulin, it bound to plus ends of microtubules that were depleted of βIII-depleted tubulin with a maximal stoichiometry (20 ± 3 molecules per microtubule) higher than that of unfractionated microtubules (9 ± 2 molecules per microtubule)...
October 27, 2015: Biochemistry
Emily M Kudalkar, Emily A Scarborough, Neil T Umbreit, Alex Zelter, Daniel R Gestaut, Michael Riffle, Richard S Johnson, Michael J MacCoss, Charles L Asbury, Trisha N Davis
Multiple protein subcomplexes of the kinetochore cooperate as a cohesive molecular unit that forms load-bearing microtubule attachments that drive mitotic chromosome movements. There is intriguing evidence suggesting that central kinetochore components influence kinetochore-microtubule attachment, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we find that the conserved Mis12/MIND (Mtw1, Nsl1, Nnf1, Dsn1) and Ndc80 (Ndc80, Nuf2, Spc24, Spc25) complexes are connected by an extensive network of contacts, each essential for viability in cells, and collectively able to withstand substantial tensile load...
October 13, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anbalagan Sankarappan, Balachandran Chellapandian, Arun Prasanna Vimalanathan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Krishnan Muthukalingan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vector ecology and taxonomy of snails is a prerequisite for controlling schistosomiasis in the tropics. The ecology of the freshwater limpet genus Ferrissia was investigated for detection of cercariae larvae in them, and taxonomic description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia. METHODS: This study was conducted in 15 perennial streams from five different hills of south India. To study the seasonal patterns, a stream from each hill was selected and sampled in three seasons...
September 2015: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Ryan S King, Richard A Brain, Jeffrey A Back, Christopher Becker, Moncie V Wright, Valerie Toteu Djomte, W Casan Scott, Steven R Virgil, Bryan W Brooks, Alan J Hosmer, C Kevin Chambliss
The authors performed a multiple-pulsed atrazine experiment to measure responses of autotrophic endpoints in outdoor stream mesocosms. The experiment was designed to synthetically simulate worst-case atrazine chemographs from streams in agricultural catchments to achieve 60-d mean concentrations of 0 μg/L (control), 10 μg/L, 20 μg/L, and 30 μg/L. The authors dosed triplicate streams with pulses of 0 μg/L, 50 μg/L, 100 μg/L, and 150 μg/L atrazine for 4 d, followed by 7 d without dosing...
March 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiaoling Wang, Ying Chen, Lian Xue, Nipon Pothayee, Rui Zhang, Judy S Riffle, Theresa M Reineke, Louis A Madsen
Nanoparticle-based therapeutic agents can in some cases provide selective delivery to tumors, yet this field would greatly benefit from more detailed understanding of particle transport into and within tumor tissue. To provide fundamental information for optimizing interstitial transport of polymeric nanoparticles, we have developed a quantitative approach employing real-time analysis of nanoparticle diffusion into bulk biological hydrogels using microMRI. We use two distinct imaging approaches to probe the migration of two novel "theranostic" polymeric agents (combining drug delivery and contrast agent functions) into bulk hydrogels...
November 6, 2014: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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